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  • 1.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Bollner, Tomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Matematikens didaktik.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Altered non-reproductive behavior and feminization caused by developmental exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol persist to adulthood in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2019Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 207, s. 142-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and commonly detected in sewage effluents, interferes with the endocrine system in multiple ways. Exposure during sensitive windows of development causes persistent effects on fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. In the present study, three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were exposed to nominal 0 and 20 ng/L EE2 from fertilization to 7 weeks post-hatch. After 8 months of remediation in clean water three non-reproductive behaviors, not previously analyzed in developmentally EE2-exposed progeny of wild-caught fish, were evaluated. Chemical analysis revealed that the nominal 0 and 20 ng/L exposure contained 5 and 30 ng/L EE2, respectively. Therefore, the use of control fish from previous experiments was necessary for comparisons. Fish exposed during development showed significant concentration-dependent reduction in anxiety-like behavior in the scototaxis (light/dark preference) test by means of shorter latency to first entrance to the white compartment, more visits in white, and longer total time in white compared to unexposed fish. In the novel tank test, developmental exposure significantly increased the number of transitions to the upper half of the aquaria. Exposure to EE2 during development did not alter shoal cohesion in the shoaling test compared with unexposed fish but fish exposed to 30 ng/L EE2 had significantly longer latency to leave the shoal and fewer transitions away from the shoal compared to fish exposed to 5 ng/L EE2. Skewed sex ratio with more females, sex reversal in genetic males as well as intersex in males was observed after exposure to 30, but not 5 ng/L EE2. In conclusion, EE2 exposure during development in three-spined stickleback resulted in persistent effects on anxiety-like behaviors. These long-term effects from developmental exposure are likely to be of higher relevance for natural populations than are short-term effects from adult exposure.

  • 2.
    Kellner, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Borg, Bertil
    Stockholm university.
    Roufidou, Chrysoula
    Stockholm university.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Developmental exposure to the SSRI citalopram causes long-lasting behavioural effects in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2018Ingår i: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 12-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat depression in both adolescents and pregnant or breast-feeding mothers as well as in the general population. Recent research on rodents points to persistent behavioural effects of pre- and perinatal exposure to SSRI which last into adulthood. To study effects of developmental exposure in fish, three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 1.5 µg/l of the SSRI citalopram in the ambient water for 30 days, starting two days post-fertilisation. After 100 days of remediation in clean water the fish were put through an extensive test battery. Feeding behaviour was tested as the number of bites against a piece of food and found to be increased in the exposed fish. Aggression levels were measured as the number of bites against a mirror image during 10 minutes and was also found to be significantly increased in the exposed fish. Novel tank behaviour and locomotor activity was tested in an aquarium that had a horizontal line drawn half-way between the bottom and the surface. Neither the latency to the first transition to the upper half, nor the number of transitions or the total time spent in the upper half was affected by treatment. Locomotor activity was significantly reduced in the exposed fish. The light/dark preference was tested in an aquarium where the bottom and walls were black on one side and white on the other. The number of transitions to the white side was significantly reduced in the exposed fish but there was no effect on the latency to the first transition or the total time spent in the white half. The results in the current study indicate that developmental SSRI exposure causes persistent behavioural effects in fish and contribute to the existing knowledge about SSRIs as environmental pollutants.

  • 3.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro universitet.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro universitet.
    Elabbas, Lubna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala university.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro universitet.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Testis transcriptome alterations in zebrafish (Danio rerio) with reduced fertility due to developmental exposure to 17α-ethinyl estradiol2018Ingår i: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 262, s. 44-58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) is a ubiquitous aquatic contaminant shown to decrease fish fertility at low concentrations, especially in fish exposed during development. The mechanisms of the decreased fertility are not fully understood. In this study, we perform transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing of testes from zebrafish with previously reported lowered fertility due to exposure to low concentrations of EE2during development. Fish were exposed to 1.2 and 1.6 ng/L (measured concentration; nominal concentrations 3 and 10 ng/L) of EE2 from fertilization to 80 days of age, followed by 82 days of remediation in clean water. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 249 and 16 genes to be differentially expressed after exposure to 1.2 and 1.6 ng/L, respectively; a larger inter-sample variation was noted in the latter. Expression of 11 genes were altered by both exposures and in the same direction. The coding sequences most affected could be categorized to the putative functions cell signalling, proteolysis, protein metabolic transport and lipid metabolic process. Several homeobox transcription factors involved in development and differentiation showed increased expression in response to EE2 and differential expression of genes related to cell death, differentiation and proliferation was observed. In addition, several genes related to steroid synthesis, testis development and function were differentially expressed. A number of genes associated with spermatogenesis in zebrafish and/or mouse were also found to be differentially expressed. Further, differences in non-coding sequences were observed, among them several differentially expressed miRNA that might contribute to testis gene regulation at post-transcriptional level. This study has generated insights of changes in gene expression that accompany fertility alterations in zebrafish males that persist after developmental exposure to environmental relevant concentrations of EE2 that persist followed by clean water to adulthood. Hopefully, this will generate hypotheses to test in search for mechanistic explanations.

  • 4.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Reyhanian, Nasim
    Örebro University.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Örebro University.
    Elabbas, Lubna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Ullah, Shahid
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik. Karolinska University Hospital Laboratory.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Combinatory effects of low concentrations of 17α-etinylestradiol and citalopram on non-reproductive behavior in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)2017Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 193, s. 9-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plant effluents contain a complex mixture of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals, thus exposing aquatic organisms. Still, the consequences of exposure to combinations of different classes of drugs is largely unknown. In this study, we expose adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males and females to low, environmentally relevant concentrations of the endocrine disrupting chemical 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, alone and in combination, and analyse three non-reproductive behaviours of importance for population fitness.

    Two weeks exposure to 0.1 and 0.5 ng/LEE2 resulted in increased anxiety in males in the scototaxis (light/dark preference) test. Significantly longer latency periods before entering the white zone and fewer visits in the white zone were observed in males exposed to both 0.1 and 0.5 ng/LEE2 compared to unexposed males. No significant effects of citalopram alone (0.1 and 0.5 µg/L) were observed in the scototaxis test. The combined exposures (0.1 ng/L EE2 + 0.1 µg/L citalopram and 0.5 ng/L EE2 + 0.5 µg/L citalopram) resulted in abolishment of the anxiogenic effects of EE2, with significantly shorter latency period (low dose) and more transitions to white (high and low dose) than in fish exposed to EE2 alone. No significant effects of either EE2, citalopramor the combination of the two were observed in females. In the novel tank test, significantly more transitions to the upper half of the tank were observed in males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram alone compared to unexposed males while males exposed to 0.1 ng/lEE2 had significantly shorter latency period to enter the upper half. Exposure to the combination of the two low concentrations did, however, result in a significantly longer latency and fewer transitions to upper half compared to both control, EE2- and citalopram-exposed males. These males also spent significantly less time in the upper half than the fish exposed to 0.1 ng/l EE2 or 0.1 µg/l citalopram alone. No significant effects on novel tank behaviour were observed in females or males exposed to the higher concentrations. In the shoaling test, males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram and females exposed to 0.5 ng/l EE2 made significantly fewer transitions away from peers while males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram + 0.1 ng/l EE2 performed significantly more transitions than the fish exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram alone.

    In conclusion, this study shows that very low concentrations ofEE2, at or slightly above the predicted noeffect concentration (NOEC), affects anxiety in zebrafish males. Furthermore, citalopram, in spite of marginal effect of its own at such low levels, counteracts the response to EE2. This study represents an initial effort to understand the effects on water-living organisms of the cocktails of anthropogenic substances contaminating aquatic environments.

  • 5.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro universitet.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro univesitet.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Persistent Effects of Developmental Exposure to 17α-Ethinylestradiol on the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Brain Transcriptome and Behavior2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5153, E-ISSN 1662-5153, Vol. 11, artikel-id 69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine disrupting compound of concern due to its persistence and widespread presence in the aquatic environment. Effects of developmental exposure to low concentrations of EE2 in fish on reproduction and behavior not only persisted to adulthood, but have also been observed to be transmitted to several generations of unexposed progeny. To investigate the possible biological mechanisms of the persistent anxiogenic phenotype, we exposed zebrafish embryos for 80 days post fertilization to 0, 3 and 10 ng/L EE2 (measured concentrations 2.14 and 7.34 ng/L). After discontinued exposure, the animals were allowed to recover for 120 days in clean water. Adult males and females were later tested for changes in stress response and shoal cohesion, and whole-brain gene expression was analyzed with RNA sequencing. The results show increased anxiety in the novel tank and scototaxis tests, and increased shoal cohesion in fish exposed during development to EE2. RNA sequencing revealed 34 coding genes differentially expressed in male brains and 62 in female brains as a result of EE2 exposure. Several differences were observed between males and females in differential gene expression, with only one gene, sv2b, coding for a synaptic vesicle protein, that was affected by EE2 in both sexes. Functional analyses showed that in female brains, EE2 had significant effects on pathways connected to the circadian rhythm, cytoskeleton and motor proteins and synaptic proteins. A large number of non-coding sequences including 19 novel miRNAs were also differentially expressed in the female brain. The largest treatment effect in male brains was observed in pathways related to cholesterol biosynthesis and synaptic proteins. Circadian rhythm and cholesterol biosynthesis, previously implicated in anxiety behavior, might represent possible candidate pathways connecting the transcriptome changes to the alterations to behavior. Further the observed alteration in expression of genes involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic function may be important for the developmental modulations resulting in an anxiety phenotype. This study represents an initial survey of the fish brain transcriptome by RNA sequencing after long-term recovery from developmental exposure to an estrogenic compound.

  • 6.
    Kellner, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hallgren, S
    Uppsala University.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Hansen, S H
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Waterborne citalopram has anxiolytic effects and increases locomotor activity in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2016Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 173, s. 19-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Citalopram is an antidepressant drug, which acts by inhibiting the re-uptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft into the pre-synaptic nerve ending. It is one of the most common drugs used in treatment of depression, it is highly lipophilic and frequently found in sewage treatment plant effluents and surface waters around the world. Citalopram and other selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have, at concentrations that occur in nature, been shown to have behavioural as well as physiological effects on fish and other animals. This study is the result of several different experiments, intended to analyse different aspects of behavioural effects of chronic citalopram exposure in fish. Our model species the three-spine stickleback is common in the entire northern hemisphere and is considered to be a good environmental sentinel species. Female three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 0, 1.5 and 15μg/l nominal concentrations of citalopram for 21 days and subjected to the novel tank (NT) diving test. In the NT test, the fish exposed to 1.5μg/l, but not the 15μg/l fish made a significantly higher number of transitions to the upper half and stayed there for significantly longer time than the fish exposed to 0μg/l. The 15μg/l group, however, displayed a significantly lower number of freeze bouts and a shorter total freezing time. The test for locomotor activity included in the NT test showed that fish treated with 1.5 and 15μg/l displayed a significantly higher swimming activity than control fish both 5-7 and 15-17min after the start of the experiment. In the next experiment we compared fish exposed to 1.5μg/l and 0.15μg/l to pure water controls with regard to shoaling intensity and found no effect of treatment. In the final experiment the propensity of fish treated with 1.5μg/l to approach an unknown object and aggressive behaviour was investigated using the Novel Object test and a mirror test, respectively. The exposed fish ventured close to the unknown object significantly more often and stayed there for significantly longer time than unexposed fish. The aggression test yielded no statistically significant effects. It is concluded that citalopram changes the behaviour of the three-spine stickleback in a way that is likely to have ecological consequences and that it must not be considered an environmentally safe pharmaceutical.

  • 7.
    Volkova, Kristina
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro University.
    Caspillo, Nasim Reyhanian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro University.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Developmental exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 17α-Ethinylestradiol affects non-reproductive behavior and fertility as adults, and increases anxiety in unexposed progeny2015Ingår i: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 73, s. 30-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDCs) during of development affects fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. These effects can also be transferred to coming generations. In fish, the effects of developmental EDC exposure on non-reproductive behavior is less well studied. Here, we analyze the effects of 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) on anxiety, shoaling behavior and fertility in zebrafish after developmental treatment and remediation in clean water until adulthood. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from day 1 to day 80 post fertilization to actual concentrations of 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2. After remediation for 82days non-reproductive behavior and fertilization success were analyzed in both sexes. Males and females from the 1.2ng/L group, as well as control males and females, were bred, and behavior of the untreated F1 offspring was tested as adults. Developmental treatment with 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2 significantly increased anxiety in the Novel Tank test and increased shoaling intensity in both sexes. Fertilization success was significantly reduced by EE2 in both sexes when mated with untreated fish of opposite sex. Progeny of fish treated with 1.2ng/L EE2 showed increased anxiety in the Novel tank test and increased light avoidance in the Scototaxis test compared to control offspring. In conclusion, developmental exposure of zebrafish to low doses of EE2 resulted in persistent changes in behavior and fertility. The behavior of unexposed progeny were affected by their parents' exposure, which might suggest transgenerational effects.

  • 8.
    Kellner, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Hansen, Steen
    Univ. of Copenhagen.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Environmentally relevant concentrations of citalopram partially inhibit feeding in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2015Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 158, s. 165-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRI) are mood-altering, psychotropic drugs commonly used in the treatment of depression and other psychological illnesses. Many of them are poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and enter the environment unaltered. In laboratory studies, they have been demonstrated to affect a wide range of behaviours in aquatic organisms. In this study we investigated the effect of a three-week exposure to 0.15 and 1.5 μg/l of the SSRI citalopram dissolved in the ambient water on the feeding behaviour in three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Feeding, measured as the number of attacks performed on a piece of frozen bloodworms during a 10-min period, was reduced by 30–40% in fish exposed to both 0.15 and 1.5 μg/l citalopram. The effects of the environmentally relevant concentration 0.15 μg/l on feeding, an important fitness characteristic, suggests that the ecological significance of environmental SSRI exposure may be pronounced.

  • 9.
    Volkova, Kristina
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro University.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro university.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik. Uppsala university.
    Dinnetz, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Olsén, Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Transgenerational effects of 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol on anxiety behavior in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata2015Ingår i: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 223, s. 66-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Olsén, K. Håkan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Ask, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Olsén, Hanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Effects of the SSRI citalopram on behaviours connected to stress and reproduction in Endler guppy, Poecilia wingei 2014Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 148, s. 113-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychoactive drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been identified in high levels in effluents from Swedish sewage treatment plants (STP) at concentrations high enough to give pharmacological effects in fish. In humans SSRIs are used in the treatment of depression and they have anxiolytic effects. In the present study we exposed Endler guppy (Poecilia wingei) of both sexes to citalopram that showed the highest concentrations of SSRIs in STP effluents and studied reproductive and non-reproductive behaviour. Male courting behaviours were not affected compared to control fish after 14-28 days exposure to 1μgL-1. In two experiments exposing both sexes to 0.2, 2.3 or 15μgL-1 for 21 days, fish exposed to the two highest doses showed anxiolytic effects when placed in a novel environment (novel tank diving test, NT). Males were only affected by exposure to 15μgL-1. They had significantly longer latency to explore the upper half of the aquarium, more visits and longer time spent in the upper half, and showed less bottom freezing behaviour, all markers of anxiolytic behaviour. In females exposure to 2.3 or 15μgL-1 significantly increased freezing behaviour, while no effects on other behaviour variables were observed. No effects on shoaling behaviour could be discerned. These results show that citalopram have anxiolytic effects on guppy fish and thus affect ecologically relevant behaviours of importance to survival of fish.

  • 11.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro University.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro University.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Short-term treatment of adult male zebrafish (Danio Rerio) with 17α-ethinyl estradiol affects the transcription of genes involved in development and male sex differentiation.2014Ingår i: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, ISSN 1532-0456, E-ISSN 1878-1659, Vol. 164, s. 35-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) disturbs reproduction and causes gonadal malformation in fish. Effects on the transcription of genes involved in gonad development and function that could serve as sensitive biomarkers of reproductive effects in the field is, however, not well known. We have studied mRNA expression in testes and liver of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males treated with 0, 5 or 25ng/L EE2for 14days. qPCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression of four genes linked to zebrafish male sex determination and differentiation, Anti-Mullerian Hormone, Double sex and mab-related protein, Sry-related HMG box-9a and Nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group number 1b were significantly decreased by 25ng/L, but not 5ng/L EE2 compared with the levels in untreated fish. The decreased transcription was correlated with a previously shown spawning failure in these males (Reyhanian et al., 2011. Aquat Toxicol 105, 41-48), suggesting that decreased mRNA expression of genes regulating male sexual function could be involved in the functional sterility. The mRNA level of Cytochrome P-45019a, involved in female reproductive development, was unaffected by hormone treatment. The transcription of the female-specific Vitellogenin was significantly induced in testes. While testicular Androgen Receptor and the Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA levels were unchanged, Estrogen receptor-beta was significantly decreased by 25ng/L EE2. Hepatic Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA was significantly increased by both exposure concentrations, while Estrogen Receptor-beta transcription was unaltered. The decreased transcription of male-predominant genes supports a demasculinization of testes by EE2 and might reflect reproductive disturbances in the environment.

  • 12.
    Volkova, Kristina
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Reyhanian, Nasim
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Kot-Wasik, Agata
    Gdańsk University of Technology.
    Olsén, Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Brain circuit imprints of developmental 17α-ethinylestradiol exposure in guppies (Poecilia reticulata): Persistent effects on anxiety but not on reproductive behaviour2012Ingår i: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 178, nr 2, s. 282-290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of endocrine disruptors may vary with the timing of exposure. The physiological implications of adult exposure are present during and shortly after exposure while embryonic exposure can imprint changes manifested in adulthood. In this study, guppy (Poecilia reticulata) embryos were exposed to 2 ng/L and 20 ng/L of 17α-ethinylestradiol during development via the mother and reared in clean water from gestation until 6 months of age. As adults, fish exposed to 20ng/L during development showed significantly altered behaviour in the Novel Tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to remain at the bottom upon introduction into an unfamiliar tank. 17α-ethinylestradiol treatment increased the latency time before swimming to the upper half of the tank and decreased the number of transitions to the upper half. In control females the basal stress behaviour responses were significantly higher than in males, as indicated by longer latency period and fewer and shorter visits to the upper half, supporting the importance of gonadal hormones for the behaviour. The anxiety increased, however, with treatment in both sexes, suggesting that the observed response is not entirely due to feminization of the males. Shoaling behaviour, analyzed as tendency to leave a shoal of littermates, was neither sex-differentiated nor changed by treatment. Also male reproductive behaviour, brain aromatase activity and testes histology, previously shown to respond to oestrogen exposure in adult guppy, were unaffected by the developmental treatment. This suggests that the stress system in the guppy is very sensitive to 17α-ethinylestradiol, which possibly causes an early organisational imprint on the brain circuit that regulates stress reactions.

  • 13.
    Reyhanian, Nasim
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Bollner, Tomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    17α-Ethinyl estradiol affects anxiety and shoaling behavior in adult male zebra fish (Danio rerio)2011Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 105, s. 41-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Reyhanian, Nasim
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Biologi.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    Anxiogenic behaviour induced by 17α-ethynylestradiol in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)2011Ingår i: Fish Physiology & Biochemistry, ISSN 0920-1742, E-ISSN 1573-5168, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 911-918Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Behaviour studies are used in toxicology research as they are excellent tools to measure physiological end-points caused by exogenous chemicals. In mammals both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviours have been used for a long period of time, whereas in teleost fishes non-reproductive behaviours have received little attention compared to reproductive behaviours. Recent advances in measuring stress related behaviours in zebrafish have provided additional tools to understand behaviour toxicology in fish. One species with well documented reproductive behaviour disturbed by different toxicants is the guppy, which is better suited than zebrafish for reproductive behaviour studies and therefore might be a better model organism for comparative behaviour studies in fish toxicology. Here we report new applications for non-reproductive behaviours in guppy and test these behaviours on males treated with the endocrine disruptor 17α-ethynylestradiol at environmentally relevant concentrations. 17α-ethynylestradiol increased freezing and bottom-dwelling when fish were placed in a non-familiar aquarium, but did not significantly affect shoaling behaviour. These results are similar to the anxiogenic behaviours seen in rats treated perinatally with 17α-ethynylestradiol and add more concern to the impacts of endocrine disruptors on aquatic wildlife.

  • 15.
    Koroxenidou, Lena
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Ohlson, Lena C. E.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Long-term 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol treatment decreases cyclin E and cdk2 expression, reduces cdk2 kinase activity and inhibits S phase entry in regenerating rat liver2005Ingår i: Journal of Hepatology, ISSN 0168-8278, E-ISSN 1600-0641, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 478-484Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: The synthetic estrogen 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE), a potent tumor promoter in rat liver, stimulates growth during short-term treatment but inhibits hepatocyte proliferation upon prolonged treatment. To identify the molecular targets of the mitoinhibitory effect of EE, the expression of proteins regulating G(1)- and S-progression were analyzed during the first cell cycle in EE-treated female Wistar rats. Methods: Long-term (60 days) EE treatment. Immunohistochemical staining for proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to detect cells in S phase and quantification of mitosis. Western blot to monitor protein expression. Cdk2 kinase assay to examine histone H1 phosphorylation. Results: EE reduced the number of cells in S phase and mitosis by about 70%. Cyclin D-1 and D-3 were unaffected, while cdk4 was moderately decreased. Cyclin E and cdk2 were markedly decreased with concomitant marked reduction of cdk2 kinase activity. EE also decreased cyclin A and increased G(1) levels of p53 and p21. Conclusions: EE causes a cell cycle block before S-phase. The reduction of the cdk2 kinase activity, essential for G(1)/S-transition, might be involved in the cell cycle block. Also, EE treatment results in p53 activation and upregulation of the cdk inhibitor p21 that might contribute to the G(1) arrest.

  • 16.
    Ohlson, Lena C. E.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Koroxenidou, Lena
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap.
    Mitoinhibitory effects of the tumor promoter 2-acetylaminofluorene in rat liver: loss of E2F-1 and E2F-3 expression and cdk 2 kinase activity in late G12004Ingår i: Journal of Hepatology, ISSN 0168-8278, E-ISSN 1600-0641, Vol. 40, nr 6, s. 957-962Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 17. Liao, Dezhong Joshua
    et al.
    Blanck, Agneta
    Eneroth, Peter
    Gustafsson, Jan-Åke
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Diethylnitrosamine causes pituitary damage, disturbs hormone levels, and reduces sexual dimorphism of certain liver functions in the rat2001Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 109, nr 9, s. 943-947Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The acute toxicity of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) to the liver has been well documented in the literature, but whether DEN also affects the endocrine parameters has been addressed in only a few studies. We thus investigated the effects of DEN on pituitary, serum hormone levels, and certain sex-differentiated liver enzymes in this study. Adult male Wister rats were intraperitoneally injected with DEN at a single dose of 200 mg/kg and were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, and 35 days after injection; DEN-treated females were included as controls at days 7 and 35. Electron microscopic observation showed that during the first week after injection, all types of granular cells of the anterior pituitary in male animals exhibited cellular damage, including disrupted organelles and cellular structure, as well as pyknotic or lytic nuclei. Many undamaged secretory cells exhibited dilated endoplasmic reticula, hypertrophic Golgi complexes, and peripheral location of secretory granules, which usually are morphologic features of increased cellular activities. In male rats, the serum level of total testosterone decreased and the corticosterone increased I day after DEN treatment. The serum level of growth hormone (GH) decreased and the prolactin level increased on day 3. The hepatic expression of the male-specific cytochrome P450 2C11 (CYP2C11) decreased to 1-5% of the normal levels during the first week and was still 50% lower than the normal level on day 35, whereas the female-specific CYP2C12 expression increased only slightly. Activities of the male predominant 16 alpha, 16 beta, and 6 beta hydroxylation of androstenedione by microsome decreased in an in vitro assay, whereas the non-sex-differentiated 7 alpha hydroxylation and the female-predominant 5 alpha reduction of androstenedione were unaffected. In female rats, decreased serum GH level was observed on day 7. The CYP2C12 expression in females was decreased to about 1% and 80% of the normal levels on day 7 and day 35, respectively, but the CYP2C11 expression was unchanged. These data suggest that in male rats, DEN treatment may cause pituitary damage, disturb serum hormone levels, and induce long-lasting reduction of sexual dimorphism in certain liver functions.

  • 18.
    Van Gijssel, Hilde E.
    et al.
    Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Ohlson, Lena C. E.
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Torndal, Ulla-Britta
    Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institute.
    Mulder, Gerard J.
    Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Eriksson, Lennart C.
    Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institute.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Meerman, John H N
    Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institute.
    Loss of nuclear p53 protein in preneoplastic rat hepatocytes is accompanied by Mdm2 and Bcl-2 overexpression and by defective response to DNA damage in vivo2000Ingår i: Hepatology, ISSN 0270-9139, E-ISSN 1527-3350, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 701-710Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Ohlson, Lena C. E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Koroxenidou, Lena
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap, Biologi.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Inhibition of in vivo rat liver regeneration by 2-acetylaminofluorene affects the regulation of cell cycle-related proteins1998Ingår i: Hepatology, ISSN 0270-9139, E-ISSN 1527-3350, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 691-696Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of dietary 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) on cell cycle-related proteins was studied in regenerating livers from male Wistar rats, The levels of cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases (cdks), and related proteins were studied at different times during the first cell cycle after partial hepatectomy (PH). The frequency of proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive nuclei, a marker of S phase progression, was almost zero during the first 27 hours after PH in the mitoinhibited 2-AAF-treated rats, while about 50% of the nuclei were labeled 24 hours after PH in control animals. Accordingly, Western blot tests showed markedly elevated PCNA protein levels from 18 hours to the end of S phase in untreated animals but no upregulation in response to 2-AAF. Compared with control animals, animals treated with 2-AAF showed increased levels of cdk 4 and cyclin D-3 from 12 and 15 hours after PH, respectively, and altered cyclicity in cyclin Dg expression. No effects on cyclin E were observed, while the increase in cdk 2 levels in control animals during late G(1)/S (15-27 hours) was abolished by 2-AAF. p53 was induced by 2-AAF treatment during the same period, with a peak at 24 hours. The protein detected with p21 antibodies was highly expressed in unstimulated hepatocytes in control animals, and further increased by 2-AAF. The expression was sustained until 15 hours after PH in control rats while 2-AAF-treated animals lacked detectable protein during this period; however, a transient increase was observed at 21 hours, Thus, 2-AAF affects several parameters of cell cycle regulation of possible relevance for its inhibitory effects on hepatocyte proliferation in vivo.

  • 20.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Volkova, Kristina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro University.
    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi. Örebro university.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala university.
    Porsch-Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Biologi.
    Persistent effects of developmental exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain transcriptome and stress behaviorManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Ohlson, Lena C. E.
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Koroxenidou, Lena
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Tumor promotion in rat liver: low nuclear expression of p53 and p21 in preneoplastic foci compared with surrounding hepatocytesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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