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  • 1. Alanko, Anna
    et al.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Who Needs Mental Health Services?: Mental Health Care Planning and the Image of the Service User in Finland2013In: All Well in the Welfare State?: Welfare, Well-being and the Politics of Happiness / [ed] Marklund, Carl, Helsinki: Nordic Centre of Excellence NordWel , 2013, p. 82-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Illegally Blonde: ‘Swedish Sin’ and Pornography in American and Swedish Imaginations, 1950–19712016In: Swedish Cinema and the Sexual Revolution: Critical Essays / [ed] Mariah Larsson, Elisabet Björklund, Jefferson: McFarland, 2016, p. 185-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3. Glover, Nikolas
    et al.
    Marklund, Carl
    Arabian Nights in the Midnight Sun: Exploring the Temporal Structure of Sexual Geographies2009In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, no 3, p. 487-510Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Götz, Norbert
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Introduction2014In: The Paradox of Openness: Transparency and Participation in Nordic Cultures of Consensus / [ed] Götz, Norbert; Marklund, Carl, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2014, p. 1-9Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Götz, Norbert
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Marklund, CarlSödertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    The Paradox of Openness: Transparency and Participation in Nordic Cultures of Consensus2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ‘open society’ has become a watchword of liberal democracy and the market system in the modern globalized world. Openness stands for individual opportunity and collective reason, as well as bottom-up empowerment and top-down transparency. It has become a cherished value, despite its vagueness and the connotation of vulnerability that surrounds it. Scandinavia has long considered itself a model of openness, citing traditions of freedom of information and inclusive policy making. This collection of essays traces the conceptual origins, development, and diverse challenges of openness in the Nordic countries and Austria. It examines some of the many paradoxes that openness encounters and the tensions it arouses when it addresses such divergent ends as democratic deliberation and market transactions, freedom of speech and sensitive information, compliant decision making and political and administrative transparency, and consensual procedures and the toleration of dissent.

  • 6. Joerges, Christian
    Vad återstår av det europeiska integrationsprojektet?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Europeiska unionens medlemsstater är inte längre självstyrande. De är, på flera sätt, beroende av varandra och därför också beroende av samarbete. Någon gemensam syn på hur samarbetet ska fortskrida finns dock knappast. En federal utveckling förefaller inte sannolik, i varje fall inte inom överskådlig tid. Det är exempelvis svårt att tänka sig ett paneuropeiskt välfärdssystem. Det är heller inte troligt att länderna kan uppnå politisk enighet om hur man ska hantera utmaningarna på ekonomi- och miljöområdet. I det läget erbjuder det konflikttoleranta perspektivet (Conflicts Law Perspective) en tredje väg. I ett europeiskt integrationsperspektiv utgör det en medelväg, när såväl försvaret av nationalstaten som federala ambitioner är orealistiska. I praktiken handlar det om att förverkliga mottot ”förenade i mångfald”, det som har kommit att känneteckna EU-projektet på senare tid. Med det som utgångspunkt diskuterar författaren – själv upphovsman till det konflikttoleranta perspektivet – aktuella utmaningar för EU som exempelvis skuldkrisen och kärnkraftssäkerhet. Jämförelser görs också med teorier om europeisk integration som härstammar från Karl Polanyi, Jürgen Habermas och Carl Schmitt.

  • 7. Kuldkepp, Mart
    et al.
    Marklund, CarlSödertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Baltic-Nordic Regionalism2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Kuldkepp, Mart
    et al.
    University College of London.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Norden beyond Norden – region-work in the margins2015In: Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal, ISSN 1406-3859, Vol. 153, no 3, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    A Swedish Drang nach Osten?: Baltic-Nordic pendulum swings and Swedish conservative geopolitics2015In: Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal, ISSN 1406-3859, Vol. 153, no 3, p. 223-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes Swedish political scientist and conservative politician Rudolf Kjellén’s advocacy in favour of a Swedish "Baltic program" directed at the Baltic Sea region and Russia in the decades preceding the First World War. These Baltic ambitions as well as their legacy in the interwar period are studied as a series of exercises in "para-diplomacy" on three different levels: 1) as a geopolitical reconstruction of a Baltic-Nordic "space of expectation;" 2) as a kind of Baltic-Nordic regionalism based upon early notions of "soft power;" and 3) as an inspiration to the geopolitical outlook of the Swedish military elite, business circles and trade policy-makers in the time period from the First World War up to the Second World War. This "region-work in the margins" contributed to modernizing Swedish conservative elites’ geopolitical outlook into an ostensibly less aggressive vision of Swedish international influence through cultural, economic, and technological prowess.

  • 10.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    A Swedish Norden or a Nordic Sweden?: Image Politics in the West during the Cold War2013In: Communicating the North: Media Structures and Images in the Making of the Nordic Region / [ed] Jonas Harvard & Peter Stadius, Farnham: Ashgate, 2013, p. 263-287Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11. Marklund, Carl
    Adjusting Facts and Values—Reconciling Politics with Science: Some Notes on the Rhetoric of Social Engineering in Depression-Era Sweden and the USA2007In: Ideas in History, ISSN 1890-1832, E-ISSN 2245-5167, Vol. II, no 2, p. 9-42Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    All Well in the Welfare State? : Welfare, Well-being and the Politics of Happiness2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    American Mirrors and Swedish Self-Portraits: US Images of Sweden and Swedish Public Diplomacy in the USA in the 1970s and 1980s2015In: Histories of Public Diplomacy and Nation Branding in the Nordic and Baltic Countries: Representing the Periphery / [ed] Louis Clerc, Nikolas Glover, Paul Jordan, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2015, p. 172-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Att utreda makten är också ett slags maktutövning2014In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 27 oktober, p. 6-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15. Marklund, Carl
    Begreppet social ingenjörskonst i amerikansk och svensk genomlysning. Några nedslag i debatten kring politik, samhälle och vetenskap i Sverige och USA vid 1930-talets mitt2005In: Nyhedsbrev: Netværk for Nordisk Velfærdsstatshistorie, no 26, p. 26-31Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16. Marklund, Carl
    Begriffsgeschichte and Übergriffsgeschichte in the History of Social Engineering2009In: Die Ordnung der Moderne: Social Engineering im 20. Jahrhundert / [ed] Etzemüller Thomas, Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag, 2009, p. 199-221Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Marklund, Carl
    European University Institute.
    Bridging politics and science: the concept of social engineering in Sweden and the USA, Circa 1890-19502008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation aims to problematize the historical concept of “social engineering”.

  • 18. Marklund, Carl
    Communication as Control: Infra-Politics, Social Diplomacy, and Social Engineering2010In: In Experts We Trust: Knowledge, Politics andBureaucracy in Nordic Welfare States / [ed] Lundqvist Åsa, Petersen Klaus, Odense: University Press of Southern Denmark Press , 2010, p. 61-89Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19. Marklund, Carl
    Den svenska legenden i Guyana2016In: Släkthistoriskt Forum, ISSN 0280-3984, no 3, p. 26-30Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20. Marklund, Carl
    Discussions on Social Engineering among American Sociologists during the Great Depression and the New Deal2006In: Sociology: History,Theory, and Practices: Materials of the 8th Sociological Symposium of RSS (Moscow, May 27,2006) and the XVI World Sociological Congress (Durban, July 23-29, 2006) / [ed] Kultygin Vladimir, Moscow: Russian Academy of Sciences, 2006Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Double Loyalties?: Small-State Solidarity and the Debates on New International Economic Order in Sweden During the Long 1970s2019In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As North-South conflict appeared to overshadow Cold War tensions in the early 1970s, minor powers as well as non-aligned states across the world faced new challenges. The oil crisis, the rise of environmentalism, and the calls for a New International Economic Order (NIEO) propelled a wide-ranging debate within the Nordic countries regarding their complex position vis-a-vis international development and global environment. In Sweden, these debates reflect the emergence of (inter)national knowledge production about economic inequalities, ecological imbalances, and sustainable development. While these debates can be followed in both media and public debate, they also resulted in a specific body of governmental reports, research projects, and future long-term planning for the 1980s. By analysing a series of such studies from Sweden, this article problematizes the fusing of ecology and economy, the grand strategy of small states, and the local intellectual history of global solidarity during a key moment in the global Cold War. It is argued that the NIEO agenda/ideology played a significant but understudied role in shaping the debate on the balance between development and environment as well as the idea of Sweden's 'double loyalties' as a solidaristic small state and as a competitive advanced economy.

  • 22.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Frameworks for University Cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    From ‘False’ Neutrality to ‘True’Socialism: Unofficial US ‘Sweden-bashing’ During the Later Palme Years, 1973–19862016In: Journal of Transnational American Studies, ISSN 1940-0764, E-ISSN 1940-0764, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    From Promise to Compromise: Nordic Openness in a World of Global Transparency2014In: The Paradox of Openness: Transparency and Participation in Nordic Cultures of Consensus / [ed] Norbert Götz & Carl Marklund, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2014, p. 237-261Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    From the Swedish Model to the Open Society: The Swedish Power Investigation and the Power to Investigate Power, 1985 – 19902015In: The Political Culture of Nordic Self-Understanding: Power Investigation / [ed] Ainur Elmgren, Norbert Götz, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 20-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    From the Swedish Model to the Open Society: The Swedish Power Investigation and the Power to Investigate Power, 1985-19902013In: Journal of Contemporary European Studies, ISSN 1478-2804, E-ISSN 1478-2790, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 357-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the background, activities and reception of the Swedish power investigation (1985–1990). It argues that the power investigation had to navigate between two distinct expectations: on the one hand, the investigation was to expose private power in the interest of equality and justice; on the other hand, it was to improve the exercise of public power in the interest of democracy and efficiency. Because of this two-fold objective, the power investigation was criticised for having neither disclosed private power openly enough, nor pointed out possible ways of adequately rejuvenating welfare state policies clearly. However, the article concludes that one may also assess the power investigation insofar as it served to reconceptualise the socio-political language of welfare state politics in general, as a result of the power inherent in the right to investigate power.

  • 27. Marklund, Carl
    Hot Love and Cold People: Sexual Liberalism as Political Escapism in Radical Sweden2009In: NORDEUROPAforum, ISSN 1863-639X, E-ISSN 1863-639X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 83-100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Marklund, Carl
    Indiens stormaktsambitioner i Centralasien2003In: Internationella Studier, ISSN 0020-952X, no 4, p. 45-52Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Introduction2013In: All Well in the Welfare State?: Welfare, Well-being and the Politics of Happiness / [ed] Marklund, Carl, Helsinki: Nordic Centre of Excellence NordWel , 2013, p. 12-25Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Neutrality and solidarity in Nordic humanitarian action2016Report (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Open Skies, Open Minds?: Shifting Concepts of Communication and Information in Swedish Public Debate2014In: The Paradox of Openness: Transparency and Participation in Nordic Cultures of Consensus / [ed] Norbert Götz & Carl Marklund, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2014, p. 143-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32. Marklund, Carl
    Revolution via ombud? Rysslandssynen i fyra Stockholmstidningar revolutionsvåren 19172006In: Presshistorisk Årsbok – Media History Yearbook, ISSN 0282-020X, Vol. 23, p. 45-61Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33. Marklund, Carl
    Sharing Values and Shaping Values: Sweden, Nordic Democracy and the American Crisis of Democracy2010In: Rhetorics of Nordic Democracy / [ed] Kurunmäki Jussi, Strang Johan, Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, 2010, p. 114-140Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Stor är stark, men liten är listig: Kjelléns baltiska program och geopolitikens lärdomar för en perifer ”mellanstat”2014In: Rudolf Kjellén: Geopolitiken och konservatismen / [ed] Bert Edström, Ragnar Björk & Thomas Lundén, Stockholm: Hjalmarson & Högberg , 2014, p. 262-284Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rudolf Kjellén ses idag vanligen som den hårdföra geopolitikens upphovsman. Men ett närmare studium av hans analys av förhållandet mellan natur och kultur och mellan materiella och immateriella maktresurser visar att han också ansåg att en aktiv ”biopolitik” kunde påverka geopolitikens lagar till små och medelstora staters fördel. När det kom till frågan om Sveriges ställning i världen upprätthöll Kjellén t.ex. inte den åtskillnad mellan ”mjuka” kulturella resurser och ”hårda” naturlagar som vanligen anses som typisk för geopolitiken. Snarare pendlade han mellan vad vi idag skulle se som konstruktivistiska respektive realistiska impulser i studiet av internationella relationer.

  • 35.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Så kan bilden av svensk rasbiologi nyanseras2015In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 10 februari, p. 8-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36. Marklund, Carl
    The Guilt Trap: A Response to Olga Kurz' "Who's for War, Who's for Peace"2002In: Script : the journal of the LSE Students' union, Vol. 1, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    The Nordic Model on the Global Market of Ideas: The Welfare State as Scandinavia’s Best Brand2016In: Geopolitics, ISSN 1465-0045, E-ISSN 1557-3028, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 623-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the contemporary deployment of the Nordic welfare state model as a centrepiece of Nordic competitive identity and strategic communication on the global market of ideas. First, it looks at the interrelated phenomena of global competition, competitive identity and region branding. Second, it studies the interplay between Nordic transnational public diplomacy and national public diplomacy of individual Nordic countries, in particular Sweden, on the one hand and international media outlets’ reporting on the Nordic countries on the other. In analysing this cross-fertilizing genre, the paper identifies how the welfare state is being repackaged for export along with a set of “progressive values” which are coded as specifically “Nordic.” The paper discusses (1) the interaction between outer images and inner visions; (2) the place and significance of the Nordic model, progressive values and the welfare state in today’s Nordic branding; and (3) the possible function of outward competitive identity as a kind of “compensatory imagination” directed inward as well as outward.

  • 38.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    The Return of Geopolitcs in the ‘New North’2013In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. VI, no 1, p. 53-54Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    The Return of Geopolitics in the Era of Soft Power: Rereading Rudolf Kjellén on Geopolitical Imaginary and Competitive Identity2015In: Geopolitics, ISSN 1465-0045, E-ISSN 1557-3028, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 248-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at how Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellén (1864–1922) conceived of the relationship between nature and culture, between material and immaterial power as well as the role of soft power, geopolitical imaginary and competitive identity in off-setting potentially unfavourable geopolitical conditions for small and medium-sized states. It is argued that with regard to small states, Kjellén did not maintain a consistent separation between “soft” cultural resources of power and “hard” laws of nature. Rather, he placed the mutually constitutive tension between geography (nature) and politics (culture) at the centre of his politico-scientific analysis, arguing that active “biopolitics” could supplement geopolitics. In Kjellén’s conception, cultural and natural resources are instruments of an otherwise integrated notion of power which challenges the contemporary separation between hard and soft power.

  • 40.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    The Return of Happiness — The End of Utopia?: Rankings of Subjective Well-being and the Politics of Happiness2013In: All Well in the Welfare State?: Welfare, Well-being and the Politics of Happiness / [ed] Marklund Carl, Helsinki: Nordic Centre of Excellence NordWel , 2013, p. 206-231Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41. Marklund, Carl
    The Social Laboratory, the Middle Way, and the Swedish Model: Three Frames for the Image of Sweden2009In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 264-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While Sweden was first proposed as a 'social laboratory' due to its unique homogeneity in the 1920s, it only evolved into a positive example for others with its framing as a 'middle way' between totalitarianism and capitalism during the 1930s. While some questioned whether this Swedish balancing act could be exported, others saw the middle way less as precise 'plan' than as a pragmatic and provisional, yet principled, method of trial and error. The framing of the 'Swedish model', by contrast, emerged in the 1960s with reference to the internal organization of Swedish political economy. While the middle way had been characterized by a non-ideological and conciliatory pragmatism between extremes, the Swedish model represented a highly ideological vision of egalitarianism, which abstracted the Swedish experience and made it possible to export elsewhere. As it became more relevant to other societies, the Swedish model was also injected with a Utopian-Dystopian tension which the originally rather Eutopian image of the middle way had largely lacked.

  • 42.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Philosophy. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Vår fasas bygd, vårt hem på jorden2017In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 22 februari, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Marklund, Carl
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Why Do We Expect More from Politics at a time when it is supposedly able to do less?: Comparing interwar crisis economics and post-war welfare politics2013In: Kultura i Edukacja, ISSN 1230-266X, Vol. 99, no 6, p. 170-190Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Looming crisis, public discontent with privatization, and widening inequalities are factors which have historically set the electorate in favour of social democratic welfare policies. Today,however, these concerns rather appear to support new right-wing populist countermovements, even in the traditionally progressive Nordic countries. This article asks why thereis not more explicit support of progressive policies, despite the presence of socio-economicfactors which would normally favour such a policy shift, at least not just yet. In response to this query, the article first analyses the comparisons between the present crisis and the crisisof the 1930s with regard to alleged political inertia. It then reinterprets the contemporarypolitical consequences of crisis by revisiting three classical social theorists who took pains atanalysing the political responses to the economic crisis of the 1930s: Karl Popper, Gunnar Myrdal, and Karl Polanyi. On the basis of this revisitation of these three classics, the articleargues that the combined eff ects of distrust in politics and the persistence of admittedly rolled-back welfare systems mutes the progressive reform potential of the present crisis.

  • 44.
    Marklund, Carl
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Petersen, Klaus
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Return to sender: American Images of the Nordic Welfare States and Nordic Welfare State Branding2013In: European Journal of Scandinavian Studies, ISSN 2191-9399, E-ISSN 2191-9402, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 245-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study the relationship between the United States of America and Norden, first showing how images of the Nordic model were constructed and reproduced in the United States from the 1920s until the 1960s. We find both utopias and dystopias in these narratives. Second, the article argues that these American images, narratives, and stereotypes did not only fulfill a function in the American debate, but were also relayed back to Norden, and affected debate, nation-branding strategies, and self-understandings there. During the Cold War, furthermore, the Nordic welfare state image gained a new currency which reached well beyond national borders, far into transnational space.

  • 45.
    Marklund, Carl
    et al.
    University of Helsinki.
    Stadius, Peter
    University of Helsinki.
    Acceptance and Conformity: Merging Nationalism with Modernity in the Stockholm Exhibition in 19302010In: Culture Unbound. Journal of Current Cultural Research, ISSN 2000-1525, E-ISSN 2000-1525, Vol. 2, p. 609-634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes a closer look at how interwar supporters of modernism sought to overcome the opposition they had to face. It does so by looking at the usage of history and Swedishness at the Stockholm Exhibition in 1930 and contrasting this experience with a brief excursus on the image of progress and Americanism as presented at the A Century of Progress International Exposition, held in Chicago in 1933–1934. The backers of both these exhibitions – functionalist architects and progressive businessmen, respectively – consciously sought to find ways in which to savor the propagandistic value of this "the shock of the new" while retaining a reassuring continuity between well-known and widespread self-identifications with "the idyll of the past." They did so by forging "national" forms of modernity, attempting to bypass the political conflicts and ideological polarizations which characterized the interwar years. As such, it is argued, they also exemplify how the logic of the exhibition could be used for harnessing technology, science, and funkis (functionalism) as tools for re-identifying the nation with modernity and simultaneously de-politicizing modernism.

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