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  • 1.
    Gardeström, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, History of ideas. Stockholms universitet.
    Att fostra journalister : Journalistutbildningens formering i Sverige 1944 -19702011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis analyses the interaction between various interests in Swedish society when the existing apprenticeship system for the journalism profession was to be replaced by a formal journalism education programme. The press organisations had a difficult time agreeing on a programme, and the issue was discussed for over 50 years. The profession was seen as a talent, an aptitude that some people had, and there was opposition to formal education. The first part analyses discussions about journalism education in a post-war context, both in Sweden and internationally. Part two considers extensive investigatory processes in Sweden, in which the structure of journalism programmes was arrived at through negotiations. The third part studies the development of and discussions about the newly founded national journalism schools. The thesis demonstrates that journalism education was often presented as a solution to other perceived problems than the press needing more professionally trained labour. Journalism education was proposed as a solution to problems associated with commercialisation, sensational journalism, politicised journalism and war propaganda. The question of influencing the shaping of opinion both in Sweden and internationally was linked to journalism education to the extent that education was seen as a method of affecting the way the "free" press worked. For the same reason, the education of journalists was sometimes considered dangerous, that journalism students were streamlined in a separate education programme based on homogeneous values, which could be a threat to the freedom of expression.Using Bourdieu, the difficult relationship between the journalistic field and the academic field on education is interpreted as a struggle between two forms of capital over which kind of knowledge is to be valued. On a higher level, the struggle between academe and the press was formulated as a battle of symbolic royalty over what values were to be regarded as true in public discourse.

  • 2. Gardeström, Elin
    "Brantingslidelsefulla agitator"2004In: Presshistorisk Årsbok, ISSN 0282-020X, no 2004, p. 99-114Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gardeström, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, History of ideas.
    Den'rätta' kunskapen. Journalistutbildningens dilemma2012In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, no 1, p. 65-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Gardeström, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, History of ideas.
    Då journalisterna tog makten2011In: Sekelslut: Idéhistoriska perspektiv på 1980- och 1990-talen / [ed] Anders Burman & Lena Lennerhed, Stockholm: Atlas Akademi , 2011, p. 175-192Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Gardeström, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Educating Journalists: The Who, When, How, and Why of Early Journalism Programmes in the Nordic Countries2016In: Becoming a Journalist: Journalism Education in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Nygren, Hovden & Zilliacus-Tikkanen, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2016, p. 25-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article compares systems of journalism education in the Nordic countries, focusing on how education programmes for journalists first emerged. The theoretical perspectiveof the sociology of journalism education used by sociologist Margaret Archer, who viewsnational educational systems as always being shaped through a struggle between interest groups. The questions are when education programmes for journalists were founded, who initiated them and how the process of founding schools and programmes progressed. In addition to these questions, the article discusses the emergence of journalism educationin relation to the party press system and to the process of professionalisation. Theres pective developments of journalism education in the Nordic countries emerged in similar patterns. The apprentice system was, at first, combined with short courses arranged by press organisations, and then step-by-step replaced by journalism schools. In this process, the press organisations lost control over journalism education, even if theytried to maintain control through independent schools or through cooperation with universities. The mix of subjects in the journalist training curriculum has been discussedin all countries, centred on the balance between theoretical and vocational subjects.

  • 6.
    Gardeström, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, History of ideas. Uppsala universitet.
    Four Theories of the Press. Boken som vägrar bli presshistoria2009In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 37-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Gardeström, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, History of ideas.
    Journalistelevernas 19682011In: Praktiske grunde. Tidsskrift for kultur og samfunnsvitenskab, ISSN 1902-2271, E-ISSN 1902-2271, no 4, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Gardeström, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Journalistutbildningens historia2015In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Karlsson, Michael & Strömbäck, Jesper, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 81-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Gardeström, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, History of ideas.
    Journalistutbildningensdilemma: Praktik eller teori2010In: Utbildningens sociala och kulturella historia / [ed] Esbjörn Larsson & Johannes Westberg, Uppsala: Forskningsgruppen för utbildnings och kultursociologi , 2010, p. 103-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Gardeström, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, History of ideas.
    Lars Furhoff och den liberala pressideologin2006In: Presshistorisk årsbok, ISSN 0282-020X, p. 195-206Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Gardeström, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Losing Control: The emergence of journalism education as an interplay of forces2017In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 511-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Journalism education in Sweden emerged in the late 1950s after more than 50 years of discussions. This historical process is analyzed in this article as an interplay of forces, where different interest groups tried to shape how journalists were to be educated once the existing apprenticeship system was replaced by journalism schools. Using the work of sociologists Pierre Bourdieu and Margaret Archer, this study closely follows the struggle inside the journalistic field, and between the journalistic field and the academic field and other interest groups, about how journalists were to be trained and by whom. This study reveals how conflicts over journalism education tended to migrate; from who would run a journalism school in the postwar years to the governmental investigations of the 1960s and the prevailing internal conflict between theory and practice at the two national Journalist Institutes in the 1970s. This article discusses what is commonly understood to be the professionalization of journalism. However, from another perspective, it can also be viewed as a trade losing control over its education.

  • 12.
    Gardeström, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, History of ideas.
    När talangen skulle utbildas: Diskussionen om journalistutbildning i andravärldskrigets skugga2008In: Ny utbildningshistorisk forskning: tio bidrag från Nationella forskarskolan i utbildningshistoria / [ed] Esbjörn Larsson, Uppsala: Föreningen för svensk undervisningshistoria , 2008, p. 121-135Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Gardeström, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Propaganda as marketing: Conceptual meanings of propaganda and advertisementin Sweden in the 1930s2018In: Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, ISSN 1755-750X, E-ISSN 1755-7518, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 478-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze the use of two concepts, propaganda and advertisement, in two areas of Swedish society during the 1930s; first, their use by the advertisement business, and second, their use by the Swedish Cooperative Union and Wholesale Society.

    Design/methodology/approach: By adopting a perspective of conceptual history, inspired by Reinhart Koselleck, the author is trying to pinpoint the meanings that were ascribed to these concepts in a 1930s context, the interdependency between these concepts and other keywords that were used in connection with them.

    Findings: The study reveals how the ambiguous and synonymous use of these concepts served different purposes in the two fields of study. In the 1930s, propaganda was a key concept of communication and was used in manifold ways for selling goods and disseminating ideas. Propaganda was used to explain the newly introduced American marketing terminology. During the 1930s, the field of advertisement was trying to change what previously had been labeled as “idea propaganda” into “advertisement.” The ambiguous use of concepts made it possible for the Swedish Cooperative Union and Wholesale Society to combine advertisement for their produced goods with disseminating ideas of the cooperative ideology. The concepts of enlightenment (upplysning) and propaganda were crucial to hold together the ideological and commercial parts of the cooperative movement.

    Originality/value: The interaction of meanings between commercial and political concepts is rarely researched in conceptual history or marketing history, which this article advocates to be an important field of study.

  • 14.
    Gardeström, Elin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Reklam och propaganda under svenskt 1930-tal2018 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad var reklam?

    Under 1930-talet var reklam ett nytt modernt fenomen som det fästes visionära förhoppningar vid. Reklamen skulle tjäna samhället och bygga framtiden, menade företrädare för den framväxande näringsgren som reklam var. Reklamen skulle skapa välstånd, men också lära människor trafikvett och den användes även för att lösa samhällsproblem som trångboddhet – även politik kunde det göras reklam för.

    I denna bok undersöks reklamen som påverkansform och hur den relaterade till andra former av påverkan under 1930-talet; ett decennium under mellankrigstiden, klämt mellan depression och krigshot, men också en tid av utveckling av näringsliv och reklam. Studiens perspektiv är att nå historien om reklamens utveckling från två håll: För det första genom att empiriskt undersöka hur reklamen förstods och brukades. För det andra hur denna utveckling språkliggjordes. Här undersöks relationen mellan reklam och fyra andra kommunikativa begrepp; propaganda, upplysning, agitation och information. Undersökningen har fokuserat på tre olika aktörer; den framväxande reklambranschen, Kooperativa förbundet och det socialdemokratiska partiet.

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