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  • 1.
    Dublinowska, M.
    et al.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Zabrzańska, S.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Czerniawska, N.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Intersexuality in the Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis Complex (Mytilidae) from the Baltic Sea and the Danish Strait2016In: American Malacological Bulletin, ISSN 0740-2783, E-ISSN 2162-2698, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 28-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations of Mytilus edulis complex were studied from 13 stations located at three areas of the Baltic Sea (the Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland; Tvärminne area, Finland; Trosa Archipelago, Sweden) and the Skagerrak sound (Kristineberg, Sweden). The main purpose of the study was to document the occurrence of intersexuality along longitudinal salinity change using squash and histology for comparative reasons. Intersex was identified in all four geographical areas at an average frequency of 1.8%. Squash technique revealed the highest intersex frequency in the Gulf of Gdańsk (up to 6.25%) whereas histology examination did so in the Kristineberg area (up to 10%). In the Tvärminne area and in the Trosa Archipelago the average frequency of intersex did not exceed 2% regardless of the technique used; this suggests a natural induction of the phenomenon. Statistically significant spatial differences in intersex frequency were confirmed for mussels inhabiting polluted hotspots in the Gulf of Gdańsk and at the west coast of Sweden (Kristineberg). Therefore, for these localities artificial induction of intersexuality as a consequence of adverse environmental threats (pollution, parasite outbreaks) is further suggested. Furthermore, squash technique - being less sensitive in identifying intersex when compared to histology - is not recommended for mussels with severe reproductive impairments making a proper analysis of gonads impossible. Intersexual individuals were also characterized by less developed gonads and lower gonado-somatic index (GSI) than males and females. Significantly lower GSI revealed less energy allocation towards reproduction in populations from the Trosa Archipelago and Tvärminne area in comparison to those from the Gulf of Gdańsk and from Kristineberg.

  • 2.
    Henriksson, Oskar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Stockholms universitet.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Temporal genetic variability of landed Siganus sutor reveals a mixed stock fishery in coastal KenyaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Artisanal fisheries in Kenya have been in decline since the 1980’s and are currently managed by gear restriction and no take zones. The fishery is a mixed species fishery but the Shoemaker spinefoot (Siganus sutor) comprise a large portion of the total catches. The sustainable use of these resources is dependent on informed assessment and management of the harvested species. In Kenya there is a lack of critical information about landings, fish stock productivity and genetic stock structure, and there is no knowledge of populations size or genetic variation of S. sutor. In this study we used the molecular marker, AFLP to investigate the genetic variation within and between sites of S. sutor landed along the 200 km coast of Kenya. We compared the spatial genetic variation among sites with the within site temporal genetic variation from a single site, adjacent to a number of spawning aggregations. Our results show that the there is genetic variation among the sites (spatial variation) and that the temporal genetic variation with in a six week period was about 1/5 of the spatial genetic variation. We believe these findings to be an important aspect to considered for both future scientific research as well as management.

  • 3.
    Jahnke, Marlene
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg / University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University / University of Gothenburg.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Asplund, Maria E.
    Stockholm University / University of Gothenburg.
    Mgeleka, Said
    Stockholm University / Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute (TAFIRI), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Silas, Mathew Ogalo
    Stockholm University / Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute (TAFIRI), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Hoamby, Arielle
    Institut Halieutique et des Science Marine Toliara (IH.SM), Toliara, Madagascar.
    Mahafina, Jamal
    Institut Halieutique et des Science Marine Toliara (IH.SM), Toliara, Madagascar.
    Nordlund, Lina Mtwana
    Stockholm University / Uppsala University.
    Population genetic structure and connectivity of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in the Western Indian Ocean is influenced by predominant ocean currents2019In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is the first large-scale genetic population study of a widespread climax species of seagrass, Thalassia hemprichii, in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). The aim was to understand genetic population structure and connectivity of T. hemprichii in relation to hydrodynamic features. We genotyped 205 individual seagrass shoots from 11 sites across the WIO, spanning over a distance of similar to 2,700 km, with twelve microsatellite markers. Seagrass shoots were sampled in Kenya, Tanzania (mainland and Zanzibar), Mozambique, and Madagascar: 4-26 degrees S and 33-48 degrees E. We assessed clonality and visualized genetic diversity and genetic population differentiation. We used Bayesian clustering approaches (TESS) to trace spatial ancestry of populations and used directional migration rates (DivMigrate) to identify sources of gene flow. We identified four genetically differentiated groups: (a) samples from the Zanzibar channel; (b) Mozambique; (c) Madagascar; and (d) the east coast of Zanzibar and Kenya. Significant pairwise population genetic differentiation was found among many sites. Isolation by distance was detected for the estimated magnitude of divergence (D-EST), but the three predominant ocean current systems (i.e., East African Coastal Current, North East Madagascar Current, and the South Equatorial Current) also determine genetic connectivity and genetic structure. Directional migration rates indicate that Madagascar acts as an important source population. Overall, clonality was moderate to high with large differences among sampling sites, indicating relatively low, but spatially variable sexual reproduction rates. The strongest genetic break was identified for three sites in the Zanzibar channel. Although isolation by distance is present, this study suggests that the three regionally predominant ocean current systems (i.e., East African Coastal Current, North East Madagascar Current, and the South Equatorial Current) rather than distance determine genetic connectivity and structure of T. hemprichii in the WIO. If the goal is to maintain genetic connectivity of T. hemprichii within the WIO, conservation planning and implementation of marine protection should be considered at the regional scale-across national borders.

  • 4.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Genetic Aspects of Environmental Disturbances in Marine Ecosystems: Studies of the Blue Mussel in the Baltic Sea2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic environmental changes can serve as drivers for evolutionary responses in wild populations. To predict the long-term impact of anthropogenic changes on populations, it is crucial to understand the genetic effects caused by these disturbances. The Baltic Sea is considered to be one of the world’s most contaminated seas, and the increase of anthropogenic chemical pollution is a major threat to its ecosystems. This thesis assesses the impact of harbors and sewage treatment plants on physiological traits and genetic structure of resident populations of blue mussels at replicated sites in the Baltic Sea. The initial evaluation of the overall genetic pattern in blue mussel populations in the Swedish West Coast, the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea found genetic differentiation between the three water basins and a low genetic differentiation within each basin, especially within the Baltic Proper. Despite the low genetic differentiation among blue mussels within the Baltic Proper, a parallel genetic differentiation associated with sewage treatment plant effluents was found in this basin. This included genomic regions with a high degree of differentiation between reference sites and sites affected by sewage plants effluent. This genetic differentiation is suggested to be due to post-dispersal selection acting in each generation. In contrast, no parallel genetic differentiation was associated with harbors. We identified five genomic regions in blue mussels, showing strong signs of selection, shared among three out of four replicated reference sites and sites affected by sewage effluents in the Baltic Proper i.e. Askö, Tvärminne and Karlskrona. An initial characterization of these genomic regions revealed functions related to immune and endocrine responses, oxidative stress and shell formation. Our results indicate that selection caused by sewage effluents involves multiple loci. The same genomic regions are found across different locations in the Baltic Proper but there are also unique genomic regions at each location. No genotoxic or histopathological effects were found among blue mussels from sewage effluent-affected areas but a higher frequency of histological abnormalities in the digestive gland were observed in mussels from harbors.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm University.
    A population genomic analysis of blue mussels identifies genomic regions associated with sewage treatment plant effluents in the Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Henriksson, Oskar
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Population Genetic Structure and Connectivity of the Abundant Sea Urchin, Diadema setosum around Unguja Island (Zanzibar)2010In: Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science, ISSN 0856-860X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 165-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Uncontrolled growth of sea urchin populations may have a negative effect on coral reefs, making them barren. To avoid this, different methods of sea urchin reduction have been developed but, without knowledge of their genetic structure and connectivity, these methods may be ineffective. The aim of this study was to examine the fine-scale genetic structure and connectivity in the sea urchin, Diadema setosum, population around Unguja, Zanzibar, using AFLP. We found evidence of different genetic clusters, high migration between the sites and high genetic diversity within the sites. These findings indicate that a manual reduction of sea urchins with similar genetic connectivity, implemented on the same geographic scale as our study, would be ineffective since sites are probably repopulated from many sources.

  • 7.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lind, E. E.
    SLU.
    Corell, H.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area2017In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity. © 2016.

  • 8.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Lind, Emma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Stockholms universitet.
    Hallgren, Stefan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    From AFLP to sequence specific markers: Identifying genomic regions under selection in the three-spined stickleback caused by pulp mill effluentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The processes underlying divergent selection and genetic adaptation have been on the evolutionary biologists agenda for a long time. In this study we used the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) study system, a perfect system to study the evolution of similar traits in different lineages exposed to similar environmental conditions. Lind and Grahn (2011) have found directional selection caused by pulp mill effluent on populations of three-spined stickleback along the Swedish coast. In their study, they identified 21 AFLP- outlier loci indicated to be under selection. Here we converted some of these anonymous AFLP loci into sequenced markers and aligned them to the stickleback genome. Four out of five loci, aligned within or close to coding regions, on chromosome I, chromosome VIII, chromosome XIX and chromosome XX. One of the locus, located on chromosome VIII, have been identified to be under selection for fresh water adaption in other studies, including Baltic Sea stickleback populations (Mäkinen et al. 2008a,b). We believe that this is feasibly method that can be used as a starting point for identification of genes and genomic regions possible involved in adaptation, both for model and non-model organisms. 

  • 9.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Lind, Emma E
    SLU.
    Świeżak, Justyna
    University of Gdansk, Gdynia , Poland.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    University of Gdansk, Gdynia , Poland.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, article id e2628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  • 10.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Świeżak, J.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Turower, M.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Czerniawska, N.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Multi biomarker analysis of pollution effect on resident populations of blue mussels from the Baltic Sea2018In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 198, p. 240-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic pollution including metals, petroleum, toxins, nutrients and many others is a growing problem in the marine environment. These are important factors altering the environment and by that the fate of many local populations of marine organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of selected point pollution sources on resident populations of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis trossulus) in the Baltic Sea using multiple biomarker approach. The study used a nested sampling scheme in which sites from reference (REF) habitats are geographically paired with selected sites from sewage treatment plants (STP) and harbors (HAR). The results showed that mussels from harbors had a higher frequency of histological abnormalities in the digestive gland compared to mussels from sewage effluent affected areas and reference sites. However these mussels together with mussels from STPs had higher lipid content, body mass index (BMI) and gonado-somatic index (GSI) compared to mussels from reference sites. A marked spatial variability was found with a stronger toxicity of ambient environment affecting resident mussel populations in the Gulf of Gdańsk area, while an opposite pattern was found in Tvärminne area. Yet the blue mussels sampled in the Gulf of Gdańsk were characterized by the highest GSI and BMI values compared to Askö and Tvärminne populations. No differences in analyzed biomarker response related to species identity, measured by a species-specific genetic marker, were found indicative of strong genetic introgression in the Baltic Proper.

  • 11.
    Lind, Emma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Stockholms universitet.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Tuomainen, Ulla
    University of Helsinki.
    Borg, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Candolin, Ulrika
    University of Helsinki.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Genetic response to eutrophication in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus): A study of multiple Baltic Sea populationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic activities are causing change in natural habitats at an accelerating rate and affecting populations by altered selection pressures. One example is human-induced eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, were behaviour alterations are well documented in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Here we have used 204 variable Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers to investigate genetic differences between a set of ten hierarchal sampled populations of sticklebacks, five populations inhabiting eutrophicated habitats and five from control populations, in total 292 individuals. We found significant genetic variation that could be attributed to habitat (4.3% AMOVA). A combination of FST outlier analysis and classification analysis revealed seven AFLP-loci likely to be affected by divergent selection by eutrophication. Four of these seven loci have earlier been identified as under selection in stickleback populations living in pulp-mill effluents suggesting some similar selective factors between eutrophication and pulp-mill effluent effected habitats. 

  • 12.
    Porseryd, Tove
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kellner, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Bollner, Tomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Mathematics Teaching.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsch Hällström, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Altered non-reproductive behavior and feminization caused by developmental exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol persist to adulthood in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2019In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 207, p. 142-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and commonly detected in sewage effluents, interferes with the endocrine system in multiple ways. Exposure during sensitive windows of development causes persistent effects on fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. In the present study, three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were exposed to nominal 0 and 20 ng/L EE2 from fertilization to 7 weeks post-hatch. After 8 months of remediation in clean water three non-reproductive behaviors, not previously analyzed in developmentally EE2-exposed progeny of wild-caught fish, were evaluated. Chemical analysis revealed that the nominal 0 and 20 ng/L exposure contained 5 and 30 ng/L EE2, respectively. Therefore, the use of control fish from previous experiments was necessary for comparisons. Fish exposed during development showed significant concentration-dependent reduction in anxiety-like behavior in the scototaxis (light/dark preference) test by means of shorter latency to first entrance to the white compartment, more visits in white, and longer total time in white compared to unexposed fish. In the novel tank test, developmental exposure significantly increased the number of transitions to the upper half of the aquaria. Exposure to EE2 during development did not alter shoal cohesion in the shoaling test compared with unexposed fish but fish exposed to 30 ng/L EE2 had significantly longer latency to leave the shoal and fewer transitions away from the shoal compared to fish exposed to 5 ng/L EE2. Skewed sex ratio with more females, sex reversal in genetic males as well as intersex in males was observed after exposure to 30, but not 5 ng/L EE2. In conclusion, EE2 exposure during development in three-spined stickleback resulted in persistent effects on anxiety-like behaviors. These long-term effects from developmental exposure are likely to be of higher relevance for natural populations than are short-term effects from adult exposure.

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