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  • 1.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Intragenerational mobility and mortality in Russia: Short and longer-term effects2012In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 75, no 12, p. 2326-2236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey to explore the relationship between mortality of men age 65 or younger and intragenerational mobility, measured objectively through household income and subjectively through social ranking. This relationship is considered in light of the social selection and social causation mechanisms developed in the literature as well as a proposed mechanism in which mobility itself is a consequential life event. The analysis spans the years 1994-2010, which covers the transitional period in Russia characterized by labor market restructuring and economic crisis as well as a later period of economic growth and recovery. Using Cox proportional hazard models, immediate and longer-term associations between mobility and mortality are estimated. Both subjective and objective downward mobility had an immediate positive association with mortality risk (increased by 44% and 24%, respectively). In contrast, upward mobility had a more pronounced effect over a longer-term horizon and lowered mortality risk by 17%. Controlling for destination status attenuated some associations, but findings were robust to the adjustment of selection-related factors such as alcohol consumption and health status in the year preceding mobility. Findings suggest that the negative relationship between upward mobility and mortality may be driven by social causation, whereas downward mobility may have an independent effect beyond selection or causation.

  • 2.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Stockholm University.
    Duntava, Aija
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Uppsala University.
    Putting the pieces together: 40 years of fertility trends across 19 post-socialist countries2017In: Post-Soviet Affairs, ISSN 1060-586X, E-ISSN 1938-2855, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 389-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic change has been a key consequence of transition, but few studies trace fertility trends across countries over time. We describe fertility trends immediately before and after the fall of state socialism across 19 Central and Eastern European and Central Asian countries. We found a few common patterns that may reflect economic and political developments. The countries that experienced the most successful transitions and integration into the EU experienced marked postponement of parenthood and a moderate decline in second and third births. Little economic change in the poorest transition countries was accompanied by less dramatic changes in childbearing behavior. In western post-Soviet contexts, and somewhat in Bulgaria and Romania, women became more likely to only have one child but parenthood was not substantially postponed. This unique demographic pattern seems to reflect an unwavering commitment to parenthood but economic conditions and opportunities that did not support having more than one child. In addition, we identify countries that would provide fruitful case studies because they do not fit general patterns.

  • 3.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Stockholm University.
    Matysiak, Anna
    Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland.
    Social mobility and family expansion in Poland and Russia during socialism and capitalism2018In: Advances in Life Course Research, E-ISSN 1040-2608, Vol. 36, p. 80-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore whether social mobility influences fertility behavior, using multiple comparative layers to better observe structural and individual-level mechanisms at work. We locate this study in Poland and Russia during periods of socialism and capitalism. Applying event-history analysis techniques to longitudinal micro-data, we find evidence of a relationship between mobility and second birth risks for women only. Status enhancement aims seem the most plausible link between mobility and childbearing. The relationship appears moderated by the economic context, which we interpret as being related to differential selection into upward and downward mobility based on labor market opportunities. In general, the suppressing effect of upward mobility on second birth risks was stronger in the poorer economic context of Russia, whereas the increased second birth risks related to downward mobility were heightened in Poland’s more prosperous context.

  • 4.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Social Investment Policies and Childbearing Across 20 Countries: Longitudinal and Micro-Level Analyses2022In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 951-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the influence of family policies on women's first and second births in 20 countries over the period 1995 to 2007. Welfare states have shifted towards social investment policies, yet family policy-fertility research has not explicitly considered this development. We distinguish between social investment-oriented and passive support that families may receive upon the birth of a child and consider changes in policies over time. These indicators are merged with fertility histories provided by harmonized individual-level data, and we use time-conditioned, fixed effects linear probability models. We find higher social investment-oriented support to be correlated with increased first birth probabilities, in contrast to passive family support. First birth probabilities particularly declined with higher passive family support for women over age 30, which points to a potential increase in childlessness. Social investment-oriented support is positively related to first and second births particularly for lower-educated women and has no relationship to childbirth for highly educated women, countering the Matthew-effect assumptions about social investment policies. Passive support is negatively related to second births for post-secondary educated women and those who are studying. Family policies that support women's employment and labour market attachment are positively linked to family expansion and these policies minimize educational differences in childbearing.

  • 5.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Stockholm University.
    Puur, A.
    Tallinn University, Estonia .
    Sakkeus, L.
    Tallinn University, Estonia .
    Jobs, careers, and becoming a parent under state socialist and market conditions: Evidence from Estonia 1971-20062014In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 1733-1768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Entering employment and achieving a stable position in the labour market are considered important preconditions for childbearing. Existing studies addressing the relationship between work experience and the timing of parenthood focus exclusively on Western Europe and North America. By adding an Eastern European context before and after societal transformation, this study contributes to a more comprehensive account of the role of work experience in first-birth timing in Europe. Objective: We investigate how work experience and career development are related to the timing of parenthood in two diverse contexts in Estonia, state socialism and the market economy, and how it varies by gender and nativity. Method: The data used come from the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006-2007. We estimate piecewise constant event history models to analyse the transition to first birth. Results: Our results suggest that in the market economy work experience became more important in the decision to enter parenthood. In the market economy the importance of work experience to entering parenthood became more similar for women and men. Non-native-origin men and women's timing of parenthood appears to have become detached from their career developments. The article discusses mechanisms that may underlie the observed patterns. Conclusions: Our study shows how work experience gained importance as a precondition for parenthood in the transition to a market economy. This lends support to the view that the increasing importance of work experience is among plausible drivers of the postponement transition that extended to Eastern Europe in the 1990s. © 2014 Sunnee Billingsley, Allan Puur & Luule Sakkeus.

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