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  • 1.
    Birksjö, David
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Löfgren, Helena
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Westberg, Karl
    Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth.
    The Swedish Innovation Paradox Revisited: A Discussion about Measurement Problems2012In: Entrepreneurship and innovation networks: revised papers presented at the 15th Uddevalla Symposium, 14-16 June, 2012, Faro, Portugal / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2012, p. 95-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature in the field of innovation lacks clear definitions of how to classify different types of innovations and how they are operationalized and measured. This can create problems when innovation policies are developed.

    Recent responses to the Swedish paradox (Granberg and Jacobsson, 2006; McKelvey et al. 2007) – where investments in knowledge and R&D not in a corresponding manner contributes to innovations and economic growth – states that measurement problems may be the answer to the existence of this paradox. Innovations are often measured by number of patents, patent citations and R&D expenditures.

    In this paper we primarily focus on the number of patent applications as proxy for innovation to provide better information for decision making and research.

    The study consists of two empirical parts. One focusing on data covering the Swedish security industry and data on patents applications. The other part is a qualitative study where managers are interviewed about innovativeness within their company. This allows us to find innovations that are not showing in the patent data.

    Our study showed that major innovations were often introduced from other industries – implemented by large dominating companies – and they were seldom patented. Our quantitative data indicates a lower level of innovation that arguably could be assumed to be the case judging from our qualitative data which includes a number of unpatented innovations. Notwithstanding considerable measurement problems, it seems that the Swedish security industry is characterised by high growth in terms of number of firms but a relatively modest amount of patented innovations. Major innovations have rather come from other industries, or have not been patented and therefore they are not captured in statistics when using patent as a proxy for innovation. This study provides empirics from the Swedish security industry that indicates these claims.

    With this paper we want to provide a basis for discussion about the use of patent statistics as an indicator of innovation. We also suggest that the usage of patents as a proxy for innovations need to be further discussed and elaborated.

  • 2.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Collective brand strategy, entrepreneurship, and regional growth: The role of a protected designation of origin (PDO)2013In: Journal of World Economic Research, ISSN 2328-7748, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 26-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to interconnect entrepreneurship theories with brand theories. The study analyzes how this can be accomplished in the context of smaller agricultural firms, considering how intellectual property rights can be used strategically in entrepreneurial activities, ultimately creating regional growth. A firm has several options to protect its brands. Producers of similar products within a limited geographical area can protect the shared designated origin. Use of a collective brand, such as Champagne and Roquefort in France or Parmeggiano Reggiano in Italy, has been studied as a strategy to protect products from a given region. In the case analyzed here, a particular Austrian collective brand – Gailtaler Almkäse – was safeguarded within a protected designation of origin (PDO), providing producers a safe haven from which to enhance their collective brand in competitive markets. The PDO registration of the brand represents a central entrepreneurial strategy for manufacturers. To the region where the brands originate, the PDO has become a specific aspect of entrepreneurship that leads regional development.

  • 3.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Interpreting Brand Development as Entrepreneurship: The Role of Brand Strategies2013In: Journal on GSTF Business Review, ISSN 2010-4804, Vol. 2, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our research has been driven by the apparent lack of rigorous theory within the branding literature. Theoretical concepts have seldom been linked to business theory. This article presents an approach to branding which links branding to different approaches to entrepreneurship and uncovers the essential role of brand strategies when connecting branding to the management literature. Strategy and branding overlap and strategy links contemporary branding and entrepreneurship literature. There are various approaches to entrepreneurship which is relevant to the analysis of brand strategies. For the sake of simplicity we have divided them into two strands, the business school approach and the Schumpeter school. Essential to our understanding of brands is the ability of brands to decrease the transaction cost and reduce the information asymmetries between consumers and producers in the market. By relying on brands the actors in the market can reduce their search and information cost and the total cost of performing a market transaction.

  • 4.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Theories of Brands and Entrepreneurship: Conceptualizing brand strategies2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract— Research into entrepreneurship has previously paid little attention to the role of brands. This article synthesizes theories of entrepreneurship, branding, transaction cost, and strategy. By developing a strong brand, managers distinguish their companies, products, or services from those of competitors. Brand theories can be linked to various entrepreneurship research perspectives. Brands can be regarded as innovations that reduce transaction costs for the buyer who can better make purchase decisions. The management literature defines brands in two main ways, using business-oriented and consumer-oriented definitions. The strategy literature encompasses both these approaches, linking the entrepreneurial function and brand development. It is through the use of strategy that entrepreneurs can develop their brands, making them integral to a modern definition of entrepreneurship.

  • 5.
    Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ljungbo, Kjell
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Innovation and Specialization Strategies in Medical Tourism: Evidences from Europe2014In: 4th Annual International Conference on Business Strategy and Organizational Behaviour (BizStrategy 2014), Singapore: GSTF , 2014, p. 47-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health service industry is becoming increasingly internationalized. People are travelling increasingly longer distances for medical treatment. A new rapidly expanding medical tourism industry has emerged. For health service providers to compete they have to specialize and become more innovative. These innovative strategies are not limited to technical innovation, but also organizational- and service-related innovations. Treatment costs which influence the price paid for treatment are becoming a major factor influencing competition. We have looked at recent changes made within the European health care sector, to find evidence of a new innovative climate for the provision of medical treatment to patients. The emergence of Centers of Excellence is an example of responses to a new competitive climate in a global industry.

  • 6.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Konkurs och konjunktur i Sverige 1830-20102016In: Insolvensrättslig Tidskrift, ISSN 2002-6315, no 1, p. 20-36Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomer betraktar vanligtvis konkursutvecklingen som en konjunkturindikator och därmed beroende av förändringar på ekonomins efterfrågesida: konkurserna förväntas öka i tider av ekonomisk nedgång och minska under högkonjunkturer. Flertalet analyser är emellertid kortsiktiga. I denna uppsats presenterar vi ny och unik empiri där vi ana­lyserar det långsiktiga sambandet mellan konjunkturväxlingar och konkurser i Sverige mellan år 1830 och år 2010. I uppsatsen diskuteras också problem som kan uppstå i tolk­ningen av konkursstatistiken, både historiskt och i vår samtid. Den statistiska analysen visar att det delvis går att fastställa ett samband mellan makroekonomiska svängningar och förändringar i konkursmängden.

  • 7.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–20002014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship has gained increasing support from governments in recent decades. Entrepreneurship is considered to generate new jobs, innovations, and economic growth. In current research, a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth is maintained, where variations in entrepreneurship precede variations in economic output. Various models identify a positive effect entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades – a time when several Western countries transformed from ‘managed’ to ‘entrepreneurial’ economies.

    Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship in both policy and research. The present study analyzes the relationship between growth in self-employment and economic growth in Sweden between 1850 and 2000. For the entire period (1851–2000), variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. Using Granger causality tests, the results in this study show that variations in self-employment did not granger-cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948, which gives two different periods: 1851–1948 and 1949–2000.

    Between 1851 and 1948, Granger causality between self-employment and GDP in either (Granger) direction could not be established. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth granger-caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. Granger causality tests in the frequency domain show that for the period 1949–2000, but for no other periods, variations in self-employment lagged with GDP growth. Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth.

    Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator for entrepreneurship, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream entrepreneurship research.

  • 8.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    New-Firm Survival in Sweden: New Methods and Results2017In: International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, no 4, article id 1567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse firm survival and focus on several levels of analysis (both firm level and macro-level). We employ a unique longitudinal data set, recorded at the firm-level and covering nine complete entry cohorts of Swedish companies. The companies were founded between 1899 and 1992, and each firm is followed over nearly a decade. We adopt the semi-parametric complementary log-log (cloglog) model. The main novelty of our approach is that, unlike extant studies so far, we are able to distinguish between the impact on the hazard rate of founding conditions and contemporaneous, post-entry conditions. Using our new approach we test several hypotheses derived from the Industrial Organization and Organizational Ecology literatures.

  • 9.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Is There a Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth?: The Case of Sweden, 1850-20002015Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–20002016In: Contemporary Entrepreneurship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Innovation and Growth / [ed] Dieter Bögenhold, Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin, Domingo Garcia Pérez de Lema, Cham: Springer, 2016, 1, p. 31-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in entrepreneurship suggest a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth: entrepreneurship precedes economic growth. A positive effect from entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades is often maintained. Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship. The present study uses very long series of non-interrupted data on self-employment in Sweden (1850–2000). It analyzes the relationship between variations in self-employment and economic growth. For the entire period, variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. However, no causal relationship could be discovered: variations in self-employment did not (Granger) cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948. Up until 1948, (Granger) causality between self-employment and GDP could not be established for any direction. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth (Granger) caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. For the period 1949–2000, but not for the previous period, selfemployment lagged with respect to GDP growth.  Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth. Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream research.

  • 11.
    Christofersson, Lena
    et al.
    Grayling Sweden.
    Kraméus, Peter
    Grayling Sweden.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Nytänkande och innovationer inom vård och omsorg2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten belyser den omvandling som pågår i vård- och omsorgs-branschen samt visar exempel på nytänkande och innovationer som uppstått i de företag som levererar tjänster på vård och omsorgsområdet till följd av konkurrensutsättningen.

  • 12.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Agents of change: inventors, entrepreneurs, financiers, and small business owners in the beginning of the Swedish fast food industry2013In: Soziologie des Wirtschaftlichen: Alte und neue Fragen / [ed] Bögenhold, Dieter, Wiesbaden: Springer, 2013, p. 329-360Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study deals with an investigation of the introduction and evolution of the fast food industry in Sweden. After the turn of the 19th century, 121 small firms – all jointstock companies – originating from the same fast food business concept were founded. The companies studied, so-called “automated restaurants” (Automatrestauranger) were all established between 1899 and 1931. “Automat” was the Swedish name for a fast food restaurant in which the guests served themselves from purposely designed mechanical vending machines. Called “automatic” or “waiterless”, they first appeared in the 1890s and, though concentrated in Germany and Scandinavia, establishments of this sort spread some years later to the United States. Enormously popular at the beginning of the twentieth century, these restaurants featured bank upon bank of glass-fronted, coin-operated cells, each containing a single serving of dishes.

  • 13.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Bankrupcy and Crime in the 20th Century: a Comparative Perspective2008In: Enterprises in the face of 21st century challenges: development - management - entrepreneurship / [ed] Ryszard Borowiecki, Andrzej Jaki, Cracow: Department of Economics and Organization of Enterprises Cracow University of Economics , 2008, p. 73-93Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Business Failure and the New Economy2001In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2001: Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference / [ed] William D. Bygrave, Erkko Autio, Candida G. Brush, Per Davidsson, Patricia G. Green, Paul D. Reynolds, Harry J. Sapienza, Babson Park, Mass.: Babson College , 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Stockholms universitet.
    Business Life and Death in Stockholm 1899-1990: Towards a Demography of Enterprises1992In: The 7th Nordic Conference on Small Business: proceedings : Turku, Finland, June 4-6, 1992 / [ed] Antti Pasio, Turku: Turku School of Economics and Business Administration , 1992, p. 145-162Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Default and Imprisonment for Debt in Sweden: From the Lost Chances of a Ruined Life to the Lost Capital of a Bankrupt Company2008In: History of Insolvency and Bankruptcy: from an International Perspective / [ed] Karl Gratzer, Dieter Stiefel, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2008, p. 15-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Ericsson, L. M.2003In: The Oxford encyclopedia of economic history, ISSN 0-19-510507-9, Vol. 2, p. 233-234Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 18. Gratzer, Karl
    Forskning om småföretag1995In: Aspekter på näringslivets historia / [ed] Hans Sjögren, Stockholm: Handelshögskolan i Stockholm , 1995, , p. 16p. 51-77Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Stockholms universitet.
    Forskning om småföretag: översikt1996In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, no 3, p. 397-407Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Framväxt och utveckling av svensk entreprenörsforskning2013In: Entreprenörskap och varumärken / [ed] Mats Larsson, Mikael Lönnborg och Karin Winroth, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2013, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gailtaler Almkäse – Regional development through Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO)2013In: From Local Champions to Global Players: Essays on the history of the dairy sector / [ed] Paulina Rytkönen, Louis Arturo, Garcia Hernandez and Ulf Jonsson, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, 1, , p. 222p. 171-191Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Inledning2001In: Hoffman & Co tryckfärgsfabrik 1913-1978 / [ed] Nils R:son Hoffman, Stockholm: Fören. Stockholms företagsminnen , 2001, p. 7-14Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kleinunternehmertum: Möglichkeiten und Begrenzungen: Ein Beispiel aus der Auf- und Niedergansgsphase einer Dienstleistungsbransche1991In: Wandlungen im Arbeitsprozess im Verlauf der Mechanisierung: Teil 2 / [ed] Sonnemann, Rolf, Dresden: Technische Universität Dresden , 1991, Vol. 1, no 8, p. 21-38Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Konkurs: Från gäldstuga till affärsidé?1998In: Företagsminnen, ISSN 1101-7473, no 1, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Konkurs och kriminalitet i ett jämförande perspektiv under 1900-talet2001In: Ekonomisk brottslighet och nationalstatens kontrollmakt / [ed] Leif Appelgren, Hans Sjögren, Hedemora: Gidlund , 2001, p. 233-262Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Konkurs och kriminalitet i ett jämförande perspektiv under 1900-talet2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med denna explorativa ekonomisk historiska studie är att empiriskt kartlägga och analysera utvecklingen av konkurser och sammanhängande gäldenärsbrott i Sverige. Våra kunskaper om företagsnedläggningar är begränsade. Genom planerad användning av konkursinstitutet kan tillgångar omfördelas i icke önskvärd eller medvetet riktning och på så sätt snedvrida selektionsmekanismen. Konkursinstitutet kan användas som ett finansiellt instrument. Det finns inga tidigare studier som ger information om den totala tillgångs- och skuldsituationen i de företag som går i konkurs. Brist på kunskap, erfarenhet och kompetens hos företagsledningen uppfattas i svenska och utländska studier som de mest frekventa och betydelsefulla orsakerna till konkurs. Ett syfte är därför att skatta hur stora tillgångar som omfördelas genom konkursinstitutet. Denna studie utgår från tidigare ofta förbisedda institutionella utgångspunkter om orsaker till konkurs och konkursbrottslighet. Svensk konkursutveckling analyseras därför relativt utvecklingen i Tyskland och Österrike. Båda länder har jämförbara politiska och ekonomiska system. Även om lagverken kring obestånd och konkursbrottslighet i dessa länder liknar den svenska finns det skillnader. Det empiriska underlaget i denna studie utgörs främst av longitudinella databaser över företag på obestånd i Tyskland, Sverige och Österrike. Dessa data har kompletterats med uppgifter ur respektive lands brottsstatistik. Studiens resultat visar att beloppen som årligen omfördelas genom konkursinstitutet är betydande. Graden med vilken myndigheterna ingriper i konkursprocessen och vilka intressen man skyddar via lagen spelar roll för den totala konkursfrekvensen. Studien visar även att svenska företagare använder konkurssystemet i större utsträckning än sina kolleger i Tyskland och Österrike. Resultaten visar visserligen på ett positivt samband men antalet brottsliga konkurser ökar snabbare. Österrike som har den lägsta konkursfrekvensen uppvisar den högsta brottskvoten. Förklaringen till paradoxen finns i landets regelverk kring obestånd. Dessa resultat står i kontrast till den mikroekonomiska förklaringen att skillnader i individrelaterad kompetensbrist eller brottsbenägenhet utgör huvudförklaringen bakom olikheter i olika länders frekvens av konkurser och konkursbrott.

  • 27.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Konkursinstitutet som finansiell institution2002In: Den svenska tillväxtskolan: om den ekonomiska utvecklingens kreativa förstörelse / [ed] Dan Johansson, Nils Karlson, Stockholm: Ratio , 2002, p. 151-183Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Stockholms universitet.
    LDC-immigrants in Nordic Countries1983In: Scandinavian journal of Development Alternatives, ISSN 0280-2791, Vol. II, no 3, p. 86-87Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies. Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, ENTER (Center for Entrepreneurship).
    Regional utveckling genom SUB-certfiering - fallet Gailtaler Almkäse2011In: Ymer, ISSN 0044-0477, p. 235-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Stockholmsuniversitet.
    Småföretagandets villkor: automatrestauranger under 1900-talet1996Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Stockholms universitet.
    Snabbmat i automat: småföretagandets villkor1998Book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    The fear of failure: reflections on business failure and entrepreneurial activity2001In: Entrepreneurship in business and research: essays in honour of Håkan Lindgren / [ed] Magnus Henrekson, Mats Larsson, Hans Sjögren, Stockholm: Institutet för ekonomisk historisk forskning, Handelshögskolan i Stockholm , 2001, p. 165-199Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    The Making of a New Industry: The Introduction of Fast Food in Sweden1999In: Innovation and Economic Development: the role of entrepreneurship and small and medium enterprises / [ed] Guido Capaldo & Mario Raffa, Napoli: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane , 1999, p. 172-173Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    The Making of a New Industry: the Introduction of Fast Food in Sweden1999In: Images of Entrepreneurship and Small Business: emergent Swedish contributions to academic research / [ed] Bengt Johannisson, Hans Landström, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 1999, p. 82-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Verwegenes Unternehmertum: Die Einführung und Verbreitung von Gesundheitsresorts, Bäderkurorten und Medizintourismus im frühen modernen Schweden2017In: Medizintourismus: Erfahrungen mit einer weltweiten Wachstumsbransche / [ed] Frank-Michael Kirsch, Jens Juszczak, Paderborn: IFB Verlag Deutsche Sprache , 2017, p. 132-212Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36. Gratzer, Karl
    Vie et mort des entreprises à Stockholm de 1899 à 1990.: Vers unde démographie des entreprises1995In: Naissance et mort des entreprises en Europe XIXe - XXe siecles / [ed] Michael Moss & Philippe Jobert, Dijon: Éditions de l'Université de Dijon , 1995, p. 157-178Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Gratzer, Karl
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    A longitudinal analysis of selection and failure in Sweden during the 20th century2004In: Entrepreneurship, Employment and Beyond 2003: proceedings of the 3rd international conference organized by the Department of Entrepreneurship and Innovation of the Cracow University of Economics, the Northumbria University at Newcastle, the Södertörn University College, September 18-19, 2003, Cracow / [ed] Jan Targalski, Cracow: Cracow University of Economics Publishers , 2004, p. 289-308Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Gratzer, Karl
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Causes of selection amongst Swedish firms: a contribution to the development of a business demography2002In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 68-84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Gratzer, Karl
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Lyckliga dilettanter eller kompetenta affärsstrateger?: metodologiska och empiriska aspekter av företagsnedläggningar med hänsyn till strukturella och externa betingelser2000Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Gratzer, Karl
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies. Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, ENTER (Center for Entrepreneurship).
    Olsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Privata Sverige: Statligt företagsägande och privatisering från ett östeuropeiskt perspektiv2011In: Business History in Sweden: Näringslivshistoria i Sverige / [ed] Mikael Lönnborg & Paulina Rytkönen, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2011, 1, p. 326-352Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Gratzer, Karl
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    State Ownership and Privatization in Sweden2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Gratzer, Karl
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies. Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, ENTER (Center for Entrepreneurship).
    Olsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Statligt företagsägande och privatisering i Sverige2010In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, no 4, p. 94-112Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Gratzer, Karl
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, ENTER (Center for Entrepreneurship). Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Culinary arts and meal science.
    Wramner, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Landsbyggdsutveckling, entreprenörer och varumärkesstrategier - en pilotstudie om gårdsmejerier i Sverige2011In: Business History in Sweden: Näringslivshistoria i Sverige / [ed] Mikael Lönnborg and Paulina Rytkönen, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2011, p. 382-404Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Gratzer, Karl
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Stiefel, Dieter
    History of Insolvency and Bankruptcy: from an International Perspective2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-functioning economy requires a well-functioning bankruptcy system. However, our knowledge of insolvency and bankruptcy is remarkably limited. This anthology brings together new international research from a wide range of academic disciplines – law, business administration, economics, history and economic history – and there is a correspondingly broad range of themes in the volume.

    One theme running through the book involves institutional change in the systems that have been created to deal with insolvency. How have they affected creditors and debtors? How have they affected the economy? And how have older regulations been adapted to the demands of new economic systems and organizational innovations?

    Another theme involves how lawmakers and people in general have explained the causes of insolvency and how they have viewed insolvents. In classical antiquity, insolvency was regarded as equal to theft from the creditor. That remained the dominant view for many centuries, and insolvents were subjected to harsh treatment. Beginning in the 19th century, there has been a process of redefinition, and bankruptcies are no longer regarded as a consequence of moral shortcomings but simply as economic failures.

  • 45.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Culinary arts and meal science.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Geografiska ursprungsbeteckningar: En preliminär reflektion2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver och diskuterar vad EU:s ursprungs- och särartsskydd är, det vill säga Skyddad Ursprungsbeteckning (SUB), Skyddad Geografisk Beteckning (SGB) och Garanterad traditionell specialitet (GTS). Syftet med rapporten är att beskriva hur dessa certifieringar används för att skapa landsbygdsutveckling i andra Europeiska länder; att utifrån andra länders erfarenheter visa på vilka för- och nackdelar certifieringarna har, ge exempel på hur man kan bygga mervärde för bönder, producenter och regioner med utgångspunkt från certifieringarna. Rapporten omfattar också en avslutande reflektion om vilken roll certifieringarna skulle kunna spela för att förverkliga visionen om ”Sverige – det nya matlandet”, samt vilka resurser som finns eller saknas för att öka antalet SUB-, SGB- och GTS-certifieringar i Sverige.

    Rapporten är framtagen inom ramen för samproduktionsprojektet ”Wrångebäck Sweden – en fallstudie för att samla know-how och stärka konkurrenskraften för producenter av traditionell ost”. Projektgruppen består av forskare från Södertörns högskola, Hushållningssällskapens Förbund, samt Almnäs Bruk AB. Rapporten är i huvudsak skriven av Paulina Rytkönen och baseras på en sammanfattning av tidigare forskning samt på hennes forskningsresultat från erfarenheterna av SUB-certifiering i Kantabrien i Spanien. Rapporten omfattar också ett avsnitt som baseras på professor Karl Gratzers forskningsresultat där erfarenheterna av SUB- och SGB-certifiering i Hermagor i Österrike sammanfattas.

  • 46.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Culinary arts and meal science.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    When do trademarks create new markets?: Entrepreneurship, brands and growth –experiences from small scale cheese production in Austria, Spain and Sweden2010In: Building sustainable rural futures: the added value of systems approaches in times of change and uncertainty; 9th European IFSA Symposium; 4-7 July 2010 in Vienna, Austria; proceedings / [ed] Ika Darnhofer, Wien: BOKU , 2010, p. 1661-1770Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rationalization pressure of agro‐food globalization requires strong tools to help small scale producers to survive in a market. For that reason, the EU developed a quality certification system that offer tools for farmers and small scale food producers that enable them to create  strong local collective brands and promote rural entrepreneurship. The strongest tool is the PDO certification. Some European countries have been successful using these tools to create strong collective brands through PDOs, while others have adopted other strategies. An important difference is how the entrepreneurial function develops and how the local agri‐food system is articulated. This article highlights how collective brands, with and without PDOs are created to support small scale cheese producers in Austria, Spain and Sweden and how these promote entrepreneurship and rural development. An important contribution is the analysis of differences in the entrepreneurial function and the articulation of the local agri‐food system in these three cases. Two of the most important findings are that the PDO was superior than a non formalized form of regional branding in offering market protection and that the invisible hand of the market could generate entrepreneurial functions to strengthen the local agri‐food system and generate synergies for stakeholders, but the visible hand of the state was decisively more powerful to support, promote and articulate a strong local agri‐food system that generates strong synergies for all stakeholders.

1 - 46 of 46
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