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  • 1.
    Backman, Agneta
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Jansson, Janet K
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap. SLU.
    Degradation of 4-chlorophenol at low temperature and during extreme temperature fluctuations by Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A62004Ingår i: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 246-253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Low average temperatures and temperature fluctuations in temperate soils challenge the efficacy of microbial strains used for clean up of pollutants. In this study, we investigated the cold tolerance of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6, a microorganism previously shown to degrade high concentrations of 4-chlorophenol at 28degreesC. Luciferase activity from a luc-tagged derivative of the strain (A6L) was used to monitor the metabolic status of the population during 4-chlorophenol degradation. The A6L strain could degrade 200-300 mug mL(-1) 4-chlorophenol in pure cultures incubated at 5degreesC, although rates of degradation, growth and the metabolic status of the cells were lower at 5degreesC compared to 28degreesC. When subjected to temperature fluctuations between 5 and 28degreesC, A6L continued to degrade 4-chlorophenol and remained active. In soil microcosm experiments, the degradation rates were significantly faster the first week at 28degreesC, compared to 5degreesC. However, this difference was no longer seen after 7 days, and equally low 4-chlorophenol concentrations were reached after 17 days at both temperatures. During 4-chlorophenol degradation in soil, CFU and luciferase activity values remained constant at both 5 and 28degreesC. However, once most of the 4-chlorophenol was degraded, both values decreased by 1-1.5 logarithmic values at 28degreesC, whereas they remained constant at 5degreesC, indicating a high survival of the cells at low temperatures. Because of the ability of A. chlorophenolicus A6 to degrade high concentrations of 4-chlorophenol at 5degreesC, together with its tolerance to temperature fluctuations and stress conditions found in soil, this strain is a promising candidate for bioaugmentation of chlorophenol-contaminated soil in temperate climates.

  • 2.
    Backman, Agneta
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Maraha, Ninwe
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Jansson, Janet K
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap. SLU.
    Impact of temperature on the physiological status of a potential bioremediation inoculant, Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A62004Ingår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 70, nr 5, s. 2952-2958Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 (A6) can degrade large amounts of 4-chlorophenol in soil at 5 and 28degreesC. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature on the physiological status of this bacterium in pure culture and in soil. A derivative of A6 tagged with the gfp gene (encoding green fluorescent protein [GFP]) was used to specifically quantify A6 cells in soil. In addition, cyano-ditolyl-tetrazoliumchloride was used to stain GFP-fluorescent cells with an active electron transfer system ("viable cellis") whereas propidium iodide (PI) was used to stain cells with damaged membranes ("dead cells"). Another derivative of the strain (tagged with the firefly luciferase gene [luc]) was used to monitor the metabolic activity of the cell population, since the bioluminescence phenotype is dependent on cellular energy reserves. When the cells were incubated in soil at 28degreesC, the majority were stained with PI, indicating that they had lost their cell integrity. In addition, there was a corresponding decline in metabolic activity and in the ability to be grown in cultures on agar plates after incubation in soil at 28degreesC, indicating that the cells were dying under those conditions. When the cells were incubated in soil at 5degreesC, by contrast, the majority of the cells remained intact and a large fraction of the population remained metabolically active. A similar trend towards better cell survival at lower temperatures was found in pure-culture experiments. These results make A. chlorophenolicus A6 a good candidate for the treatment of chlorophenol-contaminated soil in cold climates.

  • 3.
    Maraha, Ninwe
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Backman, Agneta
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Jansson, Janet K
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kemi, biologi, geografi och miljövetenskap. SLU.
    Monitoring physiological status of GFP-tagged Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 under different nutrient conditions and in soil by flow cytometry2004Ingår i: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 123-132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, a plant growth promoting bacterium. has been widely studied due to its potential as an inoculum for improving crop yields. Environmental inoculants are usually applied oil seeds or directly to soil and to effectively promote plant growth they need to be viable and active. However, it is difficult to study the physiological status of specific microorganisms in complex environments, such as soil. In this study, our aim was to use molecular tools to specifically monitor the physiological status of P. fluorescens SBW25 in soil and ill pure cultures incubated under different nutritional conditions. The cells were previously tagged with marker genes (encoding green fluorescent protein and bacterial luciferase) to specifically track the cells in environmental samples. The physiological status of the cells was determined using the viability stains 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride (CTC) and propidium iodide (PI), which stain active and dead cells, respectively. Luciferase activity was used to monitor the metabolic activity of the population. Most of the cells died after incubation for nine days in nutrient rich medium. By contrast when incubated under starvation conditions, most of the population was not stained with CTC or PI (i.e. intact but inactive cells), indicating that most of the cells were presumably dormant. In soil, a large fraction of the SBW25 cell population became inactive and died, as determined by a decline in luciferase activity and CTC-stained cells, an increase in PI-stained cells, and an inability of the cells to be cultured oil agar medium. However, approximately 60% of the population was unstained, presumably indicating that the cells entered a state of dormancy in soil similar to that observed under starvation conditions in pure cultures. These results demonstrate the applicability of this approach for monitoring the physiological status of specific cells under stress conditions, such as those experienced by environmental inoculants in soil.

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