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  • 1.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    A Narratological Approach to Literary Journalism: How an Interplay between Voice and Point of View May Create Empathy with the Other2016In: Literary Journalism Studies, ISSN 1944-897X, E-ISSN 1944-8988, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 106-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to present a model for analyzing the in- terplay between voice and point of view in literary journalism/reportage. The model can be used to nuance previous researchers’ discussions about “subjective” and “objective” journalism. It also problematizes the reporter’s special role as an eyewitness by highlighting how narrative techniques can create empathy with the Other and move the reader’s gaze away from the reporter, away from the one who is witnessing. Using tools from classical narratology, I focus on the form of the texts. The tools help me investigate the narrator’s as well as the characters’ subjectivity and interpret the narra- tive’s construction as an expression of a journalistic mission. I systematize variables such as the narrator’s visibility, the relation between an experienc- ing reporter and a narrating reporter, the interplay between the experienc- ing reporter and other characters in the text, and in what way a level with a director (an implied author) can facilitate a comparison between vari- ous kinds of literary journalism. I also examine whether it might be time to abandon the theory that a first-person reportage is more subjective in general than a third-person reportage. I explore whether it is instead the narrator’s visibility that determines the position of the text on a scale be- tween “subjective” and “objective” forms. (Note: I have provided a glossary of terms at the end of the essay.)

  • 2.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism. Stockholms universitet.
    A Narratological Investigation Of Eyewitness Reporting: how a journalistic mission affects narrative structures of the text2018In: Brazilian Journalism Research, ISSN 1808-4079, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 676-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing upon the tenets of discourse narratology, this essay identifies and discusses the various narrative and rhetorical features typical of literary journalism/reportage that have evolved from the classical tradition of first-hand observation/eyewitness reporting. I give examples of narrative patterns that have influenced literary journalism throughout the 20th century and up until today, and argue that they differ from structures found in comparable ways of narrating in fiction as well as in autobiographies. I highlight four consequences of a rhetorical “position of witnessing”: a narrative perspective directed from the outside and inward, and an illusion of simultaneity of a reporter being present on the spot and seemingly witnessing and narrating at the same time. Furthermore, the essay explores how realism, in terms of mimetic (scenic) form and scrutinized details, works differently in literary journalism than in realistic fiction. In this article, I attempt to demonstrate how narratology can open new doors to our understanding how literary journalism works in its single structures and how these structures in turn affect the reader’s experience.

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  • 3.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    A Poetry of Grayness: Stig Dagerman's German Autumn as Postwar Reportage from Germany2022In: The Routledge Companion to World Literary Journalism / [ed] John S. Bak; Bill Reynolds, London: Routledge, 2022, p. 107-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tysk höst (German Autumn) is perhaps the most famous Swedish reportage book from the twentieth century. It was written as a series of reportages by the young author Stig Dagerman and depicts the life of ordinary people in Germany in 1946. Themes such as suffering, guilt, and feelings of dejection are discussed, framed by an atmosphere of grayness. The reader is invited to empathize, not with certain individuals but rather with anyone who is cold, hungry, and bereaved of their beliefs. This chapter explores how these themes are made universally human by an advanced literary technique. Dagerman links the abstract to the concrete, the argumentation to what he has observed on the spot. This is achieved through figurative language, where key words are repeated, gradually transforming them in meaning and blurring the line between illustrated scenes and metaphors. The result becomes a paradoxical kind of gray expressiveness, where the power of the language seems to contradict the gloomy content.

  • 4.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Att se genom andras ögon: narrativa stretegier för att skapa inlevelse i reportage2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 5.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Barbro Alvings folkhemsblick exotiserar Norrland2023In: Mediehistorisk tidsskrift, E-ISSN 2464-4277, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 299-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    När den legendariska svenska reportern Barbro Alving, signaturen Bang, 1951 åker på reportageresa till det svenska Norrland gör hon sig till talesperson för myndigheternas framväxande välfärdsprojekt. Detta innebär att norrlänningar ska uppfostras till bättre hygien, bättre matvanor och bättre läsvanor. Den här artikeln gör generaliserande värderingar synliga när narratologisk och medieretorisk analys samt stilanalys belyser ett samspel mellan berättarperspektiv och berättarröst i Bangs åtta reportage från Norrland. Analysen visar hur valet av källor återspeglar ett klassamhälle där högre samhällsföreträdare, tillsammans med den berättande reportern, får stå för artikelseriens problemformuleringar samtidigt som framför allt fattiga kvinnors livssituation skildras med medkänsla men sällan någon djupare inlevelse. Med en närmast filantropisk blick görs norrlänningar till föremål för ”folkhemmets” välfärdsförbättrande insatser, samtidigt som de själva inte inkluderas i det ”vi” där reportern och hennes Stockholmsläsare ingår.

  • 6.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Den engagerade reportern: Svenska sociala reportage 1910–20102023 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social reportages are written by reporters who fight for the weak and expose injustices. So it is said in the profession, in handbooks and among the genre’s supporters. But what is hidden behind the ideal? And what does the commitment look like when it is converted into text? This book highlights reportages by some of the 20th century’s most celebrated Swedish reporters and examines the ways in which their texts convey a commitment to the reader. The narratologically based analyses are performed against a background of changing ideas about a reporter’s role in society. It turns out that the commitment is often time-related and can be counteracted by generalizing values about the depicted people. Here, the difference between empathy and compassion becomes crucial.

    The selected reporters represent Swedish social reportage at central turning points within the tradition. Ester Blenda Nordström and Gustaf Hellström have been chosen for the 1910s, Ivar Lo-Johansson for the years around 1930, Barbro Alving for the 1950s, Jan Guillou for the 1970s and Maciej Zaremba and Karen Söderberg for the 1990s and 2000s.

  • 7.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Det tidlösa reportaget2011Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism. Stockholms universitet.
    Långsamhetens journalistik – reportaget vittnar om sin samtid2020In: Vad är journalistik?: En antologi av journalistiklärare på Södertörns högskola / [ed] Elin Gardeström & Hanna Sofia Rehnberg, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2020, p. 67-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Långsamhetens journalistik – reportaget vittnar om sin samtid
  • 9.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Narrativt engagemang och komplex berättarteknik i Gustaf Hellströms krigsreportage2021In: Samlaren: tidskrift för svensk litteraturvetenskaplig forskning, ISSN 0348-6133, E-ISSN 2002-3871, Vol. 142, p. 5-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1910s was a dynamic period in Swedish journalism when reporters became professionals and the largest newspapers engaged their own foreign correspondents. A prominent correspondent of the time was Gustaf Hellström, also a famous writer. His reports from France during the First World War, collected in the book 1 1/2 mil härifrån står världens största slag, are known for their dedicated attitude. An assumption in this essay is that such an attitude corresponds to a narrative commitment, which could be divided into narrative empathy and narrative compassion

    Using tools from discourse narratology and cognitive narratology, I investigate narrative techniques and strategies at work when a narrative commitment is constructed in the reportages from France. A conclusion is that parallel perspectives and a multitude of voices within the narrative construction connect the individual to the general and convey empathy with all victims of the war, civilians as well as soldiers on both sides. 

    In a final section, I place Hellström’s series of reportages from France within a broader context where I highlight similarites with Stig Dagerman’s series of reportages Tysk höst from 1946 and Svetlana Alexievich’s documentary books from the 1980s and onwards.

  • 10.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Narratologia a dziennikarstwo literackie: W jaki sposób wzajemne oddziaływanie głosu oraz punktu widzenia może służyć wytworzeniu zrozumienia dla Innego2016In: Tekstualia, ISSN 1734-6029, no 4, p. 5-28Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Sverige.
    Reportaget som berättelse: En narratologisk undersökning av reportagegenren2021Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study ­is the first dissertation where the genre of reportage (in the U.S. classified as literary journalism) is systematically mapped with the help of narratology. Using tools primarily from structural discourse narratology, the thesis examines, describes and maps written reportages as narratives. Rhetorical and cognitive narratology complement the approach. 

    The investigation rests on two assumptions. Firstly, a reporter’s professional purpose is to report about people and states of affairs outside the reporter herself. This results in a contextual commitment, which leaves traces in the narrative in the form of a textual commitment. The latter is in turn divided into narrative empathy and narrative compassion/sympathy. The thesis highlights the creation of narrative structures and stylistic features in reportages and the overall conclusion is that conceptions about a reporter’s professional purpose in fact do influence the narrativity of the text. 

    Secondly, in contrast to news journalism, reportage is a personal genre that can be considered a directed reality: the content is taken from reality but the form is personal and a consequence of the writing reporter’s choices. The thesis presents a narratological model where the text develops in the interplay between three instances: a director, a narrator (in a first-person reportage a narrating reporter) and experiencing characters (in a first-person reportage including an experiencing reporter). The director should be regarded as a structuring property of the text itself. 

    Part 1 provides a historical background to the reportage genre and the social side of the reporter role. In part 2, narrative characteristics of the genre are explored and defined together with the common roots of reportage and novels within realism and naturalism. Part 3 demonstrates how a contextual commitment can be transformed into a textual commitment. Throughout the dissertation, the director model is used to investigate differences and similarities between subcategories within the genre, sometimes between single texts, sometimes between reportage in general and fictional narrative. In part 4, a typology of reportage is presented. The genre is divided into five types of narration, based on the representational relation between how the physical reporter has collected information and in what ways an experiencing reporter is or is not apparent in the text. 

    The thesis ends with a historicization of consonance and dissonance within the reportage genre. Consonance emphasizes the characters’ “here-and-now” and can be found within a broad, classical tradition of eyewitness reporting. Dissonance emphasizes the narrator’s retrospective perspective and can be found within the modernistic type of American New Journalism and in more experimentally written reportages from the most recent decades. The thesis demonstrates how both these ways of narrating may enable the reader’s narrative empathy with someone else than the experiencing reporter.

    The analyses and conclusions are mainly based on Swedish reportages from 1819 to 2014. This material is complemented with international reportages from 1903 to 2007,  from Norway, Poland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Bohemia, Croatia, Belarus and the U.S. Accordingly, the dissertation demonstrates that traditions of reportage are primarily international and that the observations about narrative patterns within the genre are also relevant outside of Sweden. 

  • 12.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Reportern som ett verktyg för att belysa de andra: Narratologiska konsekvenser av den journalistiska ögonvittnespositionen2015In: Tidskrift för litteraturvetenskap, ISSN 1104-0556, E-ISSN 2001-094X, no 1, p. 5-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reportage is the reporter's story about reality. Even though it details real events, it always presentsa personal interpretation of these events. In contrast to the news article, which primarilyinforms readers, a reportage involves a pronounced degree of personal narration. Normally it is based on the reporter's role as an eyewitness. This essay discusses how the position of the eyewitness establishes narratological structures inthe text, which seem to differ from the structures present in other kinds of non-fiction narrativestold in the first person. For instance, in reading an autobiography, a reader's empathy willbe drawn toward the main character. By contrast, a reportage will direct the reader's empathyaway from the reporter and towards the other. The narratological construction of a reportage may be studied as an interplay between threeinstances: the experiencing reporter, the narrating reporter and the director (the implied reporter).Thus, a three-part model may be utilised in order to help explain, for example, how ahomodiegetic narrator can be combined with external focalisation, and how a character otherthan the experiencing reporter can be internally focalised. It can also illuminate how the textmay employ a form of dissonance between the experiencing and the narrating reporter to serve ajournalistic purpose (displacing the perspective from person – the reporter – to subject-matter).

  • 13.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Skiftande berättarperspektiv och självkritisk reporter komplicerar bilden: Budskap och berättarteknik i tre svenska reportageböcker om gängkriminalitet2023In: Journalistica, ISSN 1901-6220, E-ISSN 1904-7967, Vol. 17, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hur ser berättelsen om svensk gängkriminalitet ut i tre aktuella reportageböcker och med vilken berättarteknik är den konstruerad? Med en blandning av narratologisk och medieretorisk analysmetod undersöker den här artikeln hur innehåll och form samspelar i Mammorna av Alexandra Pascalidou, Familjen av Johanna Bäck- ström Lerneby och Tills alla dör av Diamant Salihu. En slutsats är att skiftande berättarperspektiv kan motverka ensidighet, samtidigt som narrativ medkänsla utan parallell narrativ inlevelse kan hindra läsarens möjlighet att föreställa sig de skildrade människornas situation. Dramatiserade händelseförlopp kan öka närvarokänslan, medan en reporter som ifrågasätter sin egen auktoritet uppmuntrar läsaren till att undvika förenklande slutsatser. Till sist bidrar person- beskrivningar och urval av fakta i de tre böckerna till skilda budskap. Studien visar att reportagegenren tack vare sin narrativa form har potential att skildra samhällsproblem på komplexa sätt. Detta gäller särskilt när gestaltningen kombineras med gedigen faktaresearch. 

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  • 14.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    The Case of Literary Journalism: Rethinking Fictionality, Narrativity, and Imagination2023In: Style, ISSN 0039-4238, E-ISSN 2374-6629, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 440-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the genre of literary journalism/reportage against a background of earlier assumptions on fictionality. At a local level in nonfiction, fic- tionality can be expressed through invented stories and scenarios that create a con- trast to the global, nonfictive context. However, fictionality can also be expressed through stylistic devices that traditionally have been associated with narrative fic- tion. A local contrast may appear, but only if the genre in itself is not narrative. If the focus is on the nonfictional and narrative genre of literary journalism/reportage, there will be no contrast. Here, the rhetoric will work just like in narrative fiction and should be considered to be part of the features of narrativity. Furthermore, the concept imagination should be perceived in close relation to Monika Fludernik’s understanding of narrative as experience. The conclusion is a call to partly rethink existing connections between fictionality, narrativity, and imagination in order to better understand the narrative nature of reportage. 

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