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  • 1.
    Elväng, Annelie M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Westerberg, Karolina
    Stockholms universitet.
    Jernberg, Cecilia
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Jansson, Janet K
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Use of green fluorescent protein and luciferase biomarkers to monitor survival and activity of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 cells during degradation of 4-chlorophenol in soil2001Ingår i: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 32-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The recently isolated novel species Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 is capable of growth on and degradation of high concentrations of 4-chlorophenol (up to 350 mug ml(-1)) as the sole carbon and energy source, This strain shows promise for bioremediation of environmental sites contaminated with high levels of chlorophenols. In this study, green fluorescent protein (gfp) or luciferase (luc) genes were used as biomarkers for monitoring cell number and activity, respectively, during degradation of 4-chlorophenol by A. chlorophenolicus cells. The individual marked strains, Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6L (luc-tagged) and Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6G (gfp-tagged), were monitored during degradation of 250 mug ml(-1) 4-chlorophenol in pure culture and 175 mug g(-1) 4-chlorophenol in soil microcosms. Both gene-tagged strains were capable of cleaning up the contaminated soil during 9 d incubation. During the bioremediation experiments, the luc-tagged cells were monitored using luminometry and the gfp tagged cells using flow cytometry, in addition to selective plate counting for both strains. The cells remained at high population levels in the soil (evidenced by GFP-fluorescent cell counts) and the A. chlorophenolicus A6L population was metabolically active (evidenced by luciferase activity measurements). These results demonstrate that the Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 inoculum is effective for cleaning-up soil containing high concentrations of 4-chlorophenol.

  • 2.
    Nordin, Karolina
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Stockholm University.
    Unell, M
    Jansson, Janet K
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. SLU.
    Novel 4-chlorophenol degradation gene cluster and degradation route via hydroxyquinol in Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A62005Ingår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 71, nr 11, s. 6538-6544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6, a previously described 4-chlorophenol-degrading strain, was found to degrade 4-chlorophenol via hydroxyquinol, which is a novel route for aerobic microbial degradation of this compound. In addition, 10 open reading frames exhibiting sequence similarity to genes encoding enzymes involved in chlorophenol degradation were cloned and designated part of a chlorophenol degradation gene cluster (cph genes). Several of the open reading frames appeared to encode enzymes with similar functions; these open reading frames included two genes, cphA-I and cphA-H, which were shown to encode functional hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenases. Disruption of the cphA-I gene yielded a mutant that exhibited negligible growth on 4-chlorophenol, thereby linking the cph gene cluster to functional catabolism of 4-chlorophenol in A. chlorophenolicus A6. The presence of a resolvase pseudogene in the cph gene cluster together with analyses of the G+C content and codon bias of flanking genes suggested that horizontal gene transfer was involved in assembly of the gene cluster during evolution of the ability of the strain to grow on 4-chlorophenol.

  • 3. Unell, Maria
    et al.
    Nordin, Karolina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Stockholm Universtiy.
    Jernberg, Cecilia
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institute.
    Stenström, John
    Jansson, Janet K.
    Degradation of mixtures of phenolic compounds by Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A62008Ingår i: Biodegradation, ISSN 0923-9820, E-ISSN 1572-9729, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 495-505Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the chlorophenol-degrading actinobacterium, Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6, was tested for its ability to grow on mixtures of phenolic compounds. During the experiments depletion of the compounds was monitored, as were cell growth and activity. Activity assays were based on bioluminescence output from a luciferase-tagged strain. When the cells were grown on a mixture of 4-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol and phenol, 4-chlorophenol degradation apparently was delayed until 4-nitrophenol was almost completely depleted. Phenol was degraded more slowly than the other compounds and not until 4-nitrophenol and 4-chlorophenol were depleted, despite this being the least toxic compound of the three. A similar order of degradation was observed in non-sterile soil slurries inoculated with A. chlorophenolicus. The kinetics of degradation of the substituted phenols suggest that the preferential order of their depletion could be due to their respective pKa values and that the dissociated phenolate ions are the substrates. A mutant strain (T99), with a disrupted hydroxyquinol dioxygenase gene in the previously described 4-chlorophenol degradation gene cluster, was also studied for its ability to grow on the different phenols. The mutant strain was able to grow on phenol, but not on either of the substituted phenols, suggesting a different catabolic pathway for the degradation of phenol by this microorganism.

  • 4.
    Westerberg, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Elväng, Annelie M
    Stockholm Unversity.
    Stackebrandt, E
    DSMZ–Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH, Germany.
    Jansson, Janet K
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus sp nov., a new species capable of degrading high concentrations of 4-chlorophenol2000Ingår i: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, ISSN 1466-5026, E-ISSN 1466-5034, Vol. 50, s. 2083-2092Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A micro-organism was isolated from soil which could grow on high concentrations [up to 350 p.p.m. (2.7 mM)] of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The isolate, designated strain A6(T), was obtained from a soil suspension that had been selectively enriched with gradually increasing concentrations of 4-CP. Strain A6T could also grow on several other para-substituted phenols. Characterization of strain A6T with respect to chemical, biochemical and morphological properties, 16S rDNA sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the isolate is a novel species within the genus Arthrobacter for which the name Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DSM 12829(T).

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