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  • 1.
    Brockwell, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    The role of water quality for local environmental policy implementation2019In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to examine the role of surface water quality for the decisions by Swedish municipalities to adopt environmental targets and action plans, as well as allocating these decisions to a responsible authority. To this end, we assess how environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, as well as the availability of environmental expertise, affect these municipal decisions. Questionnaire data from the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, in combination with environmental monitoring data and official statistics, are used for the econometric analysis. Results show that: (i) municipalities with bad water quality, greater coastal length, and higher income are more inclined to adopt local policies; (ii) collaboration with interest groups increases the likelihood of adopting local policies; and (iii) municipalities with high Center Party representation tend to set responsibility for environmental policy with the municipal council board.

  • 2.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Climate change and regulation of nitrogen loads under moral hazard2014In: European Review of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0165-1587, E-ISSN 1464-3618, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 327-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the European Union, it is agreed that watershed-based management of water quality problems is more efficient than centralised arrangements. In this study, a mechanism for allocating international funds to watershed authorities for nitrogen abatement in the presence of moral hazard is investigated. The results show that when there is a risk of climate change, the cost of moral hazard to the international funding agency can be high if there is a moderate likelihood of climate change and the watershed authority is guaranteed a high minimum compensation.

  • 3.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Optimal strategies for inland and coastal water monitoring2017In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 77-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the recognition of the eutrophication problem, Baltic-wide environmental targets for nutrient pollution reductions have not been met. Possible factors include inefficiency of environmental policy, and a lack of coordination between environmental policy and policies in other fields like agriculture and energy. The former requires improvements in the design of environmental policy while the latter calls for better coordination of different policies. This chapter reviews studies evaluating nutrient policies in the region, with a focus on economic and cross-disciplinary studies that carry out ex post evaluations of policy instruments. It also investigates optimal monitoring and abatement strategies where both upstream and downstream water quality pose a potential problem, looking at how monitoring and abatement costs, and the regulators’ degree of risk aversion, affect the choice of monitoring strategy.

  • 4.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Shoot, fence or feed? Managing agricultural crop damages by twoecologically interdependent deer species2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wildlife such as large grazers are associated with positive hunting values, but also with negative effects in terms of browsing damage to agricultural and forest crops. Hunters’ and land owners’ decisions on wildlife management and land use therefore affects the total gains from the management of the resources. Several tools are available to these decision-makers, such as population control, crop choice, diversion feeding and fencing. The issue is further complicated by the presence of multiple deer species that differ with respect to hunting values and crop damages, while also being ecologically interdependent, i.e. through interspecific competition for food. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economically optimal management of land use and wildlife, in a situation with two ecologically interdependent deer species causing browsing damage to agricultural crops. Using a numerical optimization model, the Nash equilibrium for two separate agents is compared with the socially optimal outcome. Conditions are identified for diversion feeding and fencing being included in the solutions. Results suggest that fencing is included in the socially optimal solution for fencing investment costs being up to 3.5 times reference values obtained from business calculations. For diversion feeding to be included, the diversion effect needs to be 500 to 600 times the reference value, which was calculated based on species energy intake. The Nash equilibrium implies minor deviations from the socially optimal solution as long as fencing is reasonably cheap. If fencing is expensive, and therefore not applicable, the Nash equilibrium scenario implies an 8 percent reduction in the joint net present value, together with a 38 percent reduction in yield, and a doubling of fallow deer harvests and population.

  • 5.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Niklas
    Uppsala University.
    Matsdotter, Elina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Arntyr, Johan
    Uppsala University.
    The impact of climate information on milk demand: Evidence from a field experiment2016In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 58, p. 14-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that carbon labelling of food, on voluntary or non-voluntary basis, could reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, there is limited empirical evidence on the influence of such labels on consumer purchases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether voluntary carbon labelling affects the demand for milk. A randomized field experiment was conducted in 17 retail stores in Sweden, where a sign provided consumers with qualitative information about the carbon impact of climate-certified milk. The results suggest that the sign increased the demand for the climate-certified milk by approximately 6-8%, and the result is robust to alternative model specifications. The effect is entirely driven by large stores, such as supermarkets. We find no statistically significant impact on total milk sales, and the dataset is too small to verify the consequences for other milk brands. The effect on the demand for the labelled milk is short-lived. (C) 2015 The Authors.

  • 6.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gren, I. -M
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Regulating invasive species with different life history2015In: Journal of Bioeconomics, ISSN 1387-6996, E-ISSN 1573-6989, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 113-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive species often cause economic damage due to their impact on economically valuable resident species. We study optimal regulation in terms of simultaneous control and adaptation when the purpose is to manage an invasive species which competes for scarce resources with a resident species. The optimal policy includes both subsidies for control of an invasive species with zero commercial value, and harvesting taxes on the resident species which are adjusted in the presence of an invasion. A numerical age-structured optimization model is used to analyze the role of species’ life history, i.e. the degree of evolutionary specialization in survival or reproduction, for the choice of strategy and the associated economic instruments. Results show that, irrespective of life history, both policies are implemented in efficient solutions, but subsidies for controlling the invader are used to a larger extent when it is possible to target specific age classes of the invader. If a resident species is harvested non-selectively, the optimal subsidy for control of the invader is lower, and if the invader is specialized in survival the control subsidy mirrors the resident species harvest cycle. © 2014, The Author(s).

  • 7.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Cost-efficient climate policies for interdependent carbon pools2018In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 101, p. 86-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate cost-effective climate policy instruments for bioenergy and timber, adapted to the impacts on interdependent forest carbon pools, and applied in the EU climate policy to 2050. We develop a discrete time dynamic model including forest carbon pools in biomass, soil, and products, as well as fossil fuel consumption. The analytical results show that the optimal taxes on forest products depend on the growth in the respective carbon pool. The application to the EU 2050 climate policy for emission trading shows that total costs for target achievement can be reduced by 33 percent if all carbon pools are included, and the carbon tax on fossil fuel can be reduced by 50 percent. Optimal taxes on forest products differ among countries and over time depending on the potential for increased carbon sequestration over the planning period. (C) 2017 The Authors. 

  • 8.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Häggmark Svensson, Tobias
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences .
    The impact of lynx and wolf on roe deer huntingvalue in Sweden 2002-20122019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large carnivores provide ecosystem and cultural benefits but also impose costs on livestock owners, due to predation, and on hunters, due to the competition for game. The benefits as well as the costs that accrue to livestock owners have been studied, but this is not the case for the costs that accrue to hunters. The aim of this paper was to identify the impact of lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolf (Canis lupus) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) hunting value. We applied a production function approach, using a bioeconomic model where the number of roe deer harvested was assumed to be jointly determined by hunting effort, abundance of predators, availability of other game, and climatic conditions. The impact of the predators on the roe deer harvests was estimated econometrically, and carnivore impacts for a constant and adjusted, steady state hunting effort were derived. The results showed that the marginal cost in terms of hunting values foregone varied between the counties and ranged between 18,000 and 58,000 EUR for lynx and 79,000 and 336,000 EUR for wolf. Larger costs were found in counties where the hunting effort was high, mainly located in south Sweden. The regional variation in costs has implications for decisions on policies affecting the regional distribution of wolf and lynx.

  • 9.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Optimal management of two ecologically interacting deer speciesreality matters, beliefs don't2017In: Natural Resource Modeling, ISSN 0890-8575, E-ISSN 1939-7445, Vol. 30, no 4, article id e12137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the optimal management of two ecologically interdependent, competing species, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (Dama dama). To this end, we develop a numerical stage-structured model, accounting for species-specific life history characteristics, gender, and stage-specific hunting values. Two contrasting management regimes are considered: optimal joint management of the two species and management where the decision maker is ignorant about interspecific competition. Results from our case study show that the presence of interspecific competition reduces roe deer population size and harvest by 30% and 47%, respectively, and reduces the net present value by 9%. High interspecific competition could lead to the exclusion of the roe deer from the area. In contrast, ignorance about the level and consequences of interspecific competition has no impact on harvest decisions and revenues. The explanation is the higher hunting benefits for fallow deer. Summary for Managers Wildlife managers need bioeconomic models for decisions on ecologically interdependent species. This study investigates optimal joint management of roe and fallow deer when the fallow deer exerts a negative impact on roe deer due to interspecific competition. Results show that interspecific competition reduces the net present value of hunting at the study site by 9%. Regulations will not increase the net present value of hunting in a situation where the manager is ignorant of interspecific competition.

  • 10.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    von Brömssen, Claudia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    The revealed preferences of Baltic Sea governments: Goals, policy instruments, and implementation of nutrient abatement measures2017In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 118, no 1-2, p. 188-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen and phosphorus loads are considered a major reason for the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. Until now, most of the abatement has been made at point sources while the implementation of policies for nonpoint sources has not led to equally large reductions in emissions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of how nutrient abatement measures are implemented by countries in the agricultural sector of the Baltic Sea region. We investigate how goal setting, policy instrument choice, and the level of implementation is determined by characteristics of the abatement measure as well as socio-economic characteristics of the country where it is implemented. Econometric analysis of a cross-sectional data set suggests that income, institutional capacity, and economies of scope in abatement and enforcement are important determinants of policies developed and their implementation. (C) 2017 The Authors.

  • 11.
    Gren, I. -M
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Aklilu, A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Forest carbon sequestration, pathogens and the costs of the EU's 2050 climate targets2018In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 9, no 9, article id 542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon sequestration is suggested as a low-cost option for climate change mitigation, the functioning of which can be threatened by pathogen infestation. This study calculates the effects of infectious pathogens on the cost of achieving the EU's 2050 climate targets by combining the so-called production function method with the replacement cost method. Pathogens are then assumed to affect carbon sink enhancement through the impact on productivity of forest land, and carbon sequestration is valued as the replacement for costly reductions in emissions from fossil fuels for reaching the EU's 2050 climate targets. To this end, we have constructed a numerical dynamic optimization model with a logistic forest growth function, a simple allometr+ic representation of the spread of pathogens in forests, and reductions in emissions from fossil fuels. The results show that the annual value of forest carbon sequestration ranges between approximately 6.4 and 14.9 billion Euros, depending on the impact and dispersal of pathogens. Relatively large values are obtained for countries with large emissions from fossil fuels, e.g., Germany, France, Spain and Italy, which also face costs of pathogen together with countries with large forest area, such as Romania. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 12.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Credit stacking in nutrient trading markets for the Baltic Sea2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 79, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy loads of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus cause severe damage in many waters in the world. Nutrient trading markets where capped firms can buy and sell nutrient load credits have been established in several countries in order to achieve certain nutrient reduction targets at minimum costs for society. The availability of multifunctional nutrient abatement measures that simultaneously reduce loads of both nutrients, such as wetland construction, raises the issue of credit stacking, i.e. whether a firm constructing the wetland should earn credits for both nutrients. This article examines theoretically and empirically the implications of establishing alternative nutrient trading market designs (markets with and without credit stacking, a market for a bundled payment of nutrients, and separate markets for either nutrient) for total costs and achievement of stipulated nutrient reduction targets for the Baltic Sea. The results show that the total abatement cost of achieving reduction targets of both nutrients is always lowest if a market design with credit stacking is established, that markets without credit stacking result in higher abatement cost and nutrient abatement in excess of the reduction targets, and that none of the single nutrient market systems is able to generate the required abatement of both nutrients. The application to the Baltic Sea shows that the total abatement cost can be 20% higher when credit stacking is not allowed than when it is allowed.

  • 13.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Häggmark-Svensson, Tobias
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Engelmann, Marc
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Economics of wildlife management-an overview2018In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 64, no 2, article id 22Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study makes an explorative overview on two main research topics in economics of wildlife management: determination of population sizes and policy design. The results point out a large and comprehensive research on each of these issues, in particular on the estimation of values and costs of wildlife, where this information is necessary for the determination of population size. A drawback is that most of the value and cost studies do not relate their estimates to wildlife population size, which limits their usability for efficient policy design. Most valuation studies estimate the recreational value of hunting, which can range between 13 and 545 USD/hunting day (in 2013 prices), and two thirds of the included studies have been applied to wildlife in the USA. A majority of the studies on the costs of wildlife management calculate losses from carnivore predation on livestock and ungulate damage to crops, while a few consider dispersal of diseases and the cost of traffic collisions. Unlike valuation studies, several of the cost estimates apply to wildlife in developing and emerging economies. With respect to policy design the literature, which is mainly theoretical, suggests economic incentives for conflict resolution, where those suffering from wildlife damages are compensated for their losses. However, there are some issues which remain to be addressed by economists: relating costs and benefits to wildlife populations; estimating values and costs of wildlife in developing countries; evaluating wildlife policies in practice; addressing implications of uncertainty in population size, costs, and benefits for policy design; and estimating transaction costs for implementation and enforcement of wildlife policies.

  • 14.
    Hasler, B.
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Smart, J. C. R.
    Aarhus University, Denmark / Griffith University, Australia.
    Fonnesbech-Wulff, A.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Andersen, H. E.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Thodsen, H.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Blicher Mathiesen, G.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Smedberg, E.
    Stockholm University.
    Göke, C.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Czajkowski, M.
    University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Was, A.
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Humborg, C.
    Stockholm University.
    Wolfsberg, A.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Wulff, F.
    Stockholm University.
    Hydro-economic modelling of cost-effective transboundary water quality management in the Baltic Sea2014In: Water Resources and Economics, ISSN 2212-4284, E-ISSN 2212-3717, Vol. 5, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Helcom's recently revised Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) aims to reduce eutrophication in the, Baltic Sea by reducing nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins. The BALTCOST costminimisation, model, featuring abatement cost and effect functions which utilise spatial data down to, 10×10km2 grid cell resolution, is used to identify a cost-effective distribution of nutrient abatement, measures between drainage basins whilst attempting to achieve specified nutrient load reductions for, separate Baltic Sea regions. Results indicate that the 2013 BSAP load reduction targets for nitrogen and phosphorus can be achieved in most Baltic Sea regions, except for phosphorus into the Baltic Proper, and the Gulf of Finland. The estimated minimum total cost of delivering these reductions is 4.17 billion, Euros annually, with substantial differences in the cost burden between countries and measures.Results are strongly influenced by differences in nutrient retention between drainage basins. Detailed, retention modelling and high spatial resolution source data are major novel features of this research. 

  • 15.
    Häggmark Svensson, T.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    The Ex-Post Cost-Effectiveness of Nitrogen Load Reductions From Nine Countries to the Baltic Sea Between 1996 and 20102019In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 5119-5134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy efforts to improve Baltic Sea water quality will be expensive if the ambitious targets agreed are to be achieved. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ex-post cost-effectiveness of nitrogen load reductions to the Baltic Sea made between 1996 and 2010. We first calculate the counterfactual change in nitrogen load to the Baltic Sea and compare to observed loads. The costs of the net reductions are evaluated using a Baltic-wide cost-effectiveness model, which includes a wide set of nitrogen abatement measures in the littoral countries. Results show that the net nitrogen reductions achieved through environmental policy, about 145,000 tons total nitrogen, could have been obtained at 12% of the realized cost, through reallocation of abatement between countries. The total budget spent on abatement could, if used in a cost-effective manner, be sufficient for a doubling of the net nitrogen load reduction. Milestone targets, in combination with a compensation scheme between countries, could help to reduce policy costs. 

  • 16.
    Kiessling, Anders
    et al.
    SLU.
    Futter, Martyn
    SLU.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. SLU.
    Vidakovic, Aleksandar
    SLU.
    Musselodling i Östersjön som miljöåtgärd: nya positiva data från tre pågående EU-projekt2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nya resultat visar att musselodlingar i Östersjön har en betydande potential att bidra till att minska övergödningen samtidigt som förutsättningar skapas för en cirkulär ekonomi/produktion. För att ta musselodling till nästa nivå krävs dels ytterligare förfining av den nya tekniken, men framförallt fler och i förlängningen också större odlingar samtidigt som vi måste vidareutveckla alla de initiativ som nu pågår hur näringen kan återanvändas i livsmedelssystemet på ett effektivt och ekonomiskt lönsamt sätt.

  • 17.
    Konrad, Maria Theresia
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Ørsted Nielsen, Helle
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Branth Pedersen, Anders
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. SLU.
    Drivers of Farmers' Investments in Nutrient Abatement Technologies in Five Baltic Sea Countries2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 159, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adoption of new manure and fertiliser technology is considered an effective tool to reduce diffuse nutrient pollution from agriculture, and policy instruments to encourage technology uptake are therefore widespread. But policy makers need to understand farmers' reasons for adoption of such technologies to design policies that actually work. Using data from a survey with responses from 2439 farmers in five countries around the Baltic Sea, we identify the drivers of technology adoption for three different abatement technologies: manure spreading equipment, slurry tanks, and precision technology for fertiliser application. We compare drivers for technology investments across technologies with a particular focus on the role of the scale of farm operations, neighbour relations, environmental concerns and innovation readiness. The results show that the scale of farm operation is important for the uptake of all three technologies, while we find no evidence that neighbour relations are important for technology investments. Environmental concerns for soil quality and other on-farm environmental qualities do drive investment; however, the impact of environmental concerns differs across technologies. Innovation readiness is a driver of investments in relation to some technologies, suggesting that the novelty or sophistication of the technology matters to the investing farmers.

  • 18.
    Menichetti, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Touzot, Laura
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, Lyon, France .
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Department of Economics, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan.
    Interactions between a population of fallow deer (Dama dama), humans and crops in a managed composite temperate landscape in southern Sweden: Conflict or opportunity?2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0215594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscapes composed of agricultural land mixed with forest are desirable since they provide a wide range of diversified ecosystem services, unlike specialized agricultural landscapes, but that creates a trade-off between these land uses since wildlife usually feed on crops and reduce yields. In Nordic countries, where human population density is low and game hunting can be a viable economic alternative, mixed landscape systems are particularly interesting. To evaluate the economic sustainability of such systems we need to quantify wildlife damage to crops. One important species, being popular among Swedish hunters and therefore economically valuable, is fallow deer (Dama dama). Our objective was to evaluate the economic sustainability of mixed landscape systems including cultivated fields and commercial hunting of fallow deer. We studied the effects of excluding fallow deer by using 86 exclosures and adjacent plots in winter wheat and oat fields in south-west Sweden. We analyzed yield losses and interactions between spatial and temporal grazing patterns, anthropogenic landscape features, and topological characteristics of the landscape. We found that animals avoided exposed spots, irrespective of distance from human activity. We also found a seasonal grazing pattern related to the different growing periods of winter wheat (more grazed, emerging in autumn) and spring oat (less grazed, emerging in spring). We then compared the costs of crop damage against the commercial value of fallow deer hunting. The damage amounted to 375 ±196 € ha-1 for wheat and 152 ±138 € ha-1 for oat, corresponding to a total cost per animal of 82.7 ±81.0 €, while each animal had an estimated market value of approximately 100 €. Therefore the value of fallow deer presence compensated for the associated cost of crop damage. Profit could be further improved in this case by adopting additional management strategies. In general our study confirmed the economic feasibility of this particular mixed land management.

  • 19.
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    An Empirical Analysis of Hunting Lease Pricing and Value of Game in Sweden2017In: Land Economics, ISSN 0023-7639, E-ISSN 1543-8325, Vol. 93, no 2, p. 292-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game species generate considerable benefits to society in terms of hunting values, tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem balance. This paper seeks to estimate hunting values for multiple hunted species by diseniangling the role of wildlife harvesting opportunities from other factors that affect hunting lease prices. We examine the determinants of hunting lease prices in Sweden using both spatial and nonspatial econometric techniques. Our analysis confirms considerable hunting values for fallow deer and wild boar. Also, the study reveals the presence of spatial spillovers in lease prices, implying that landowners have little scope for exerting monopoly power on the hunting lease market.

  • 20.
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Jens
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Effects of Carnivore Presence on Hunting Lease Pricing in South Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carnivore conservation is considered essential because the species offer significant benefits to biodiversity. However, their predation on ungulates reduces ungulate populations with subsequent effects on hunters’ harvests and welfare. In this paper, we use the hedonic price method to estimate the effects of large carnivores on hunting lease prices. We divide the impact of carnivores into two effects: one effect affects game harvests, and the other effect affects the hunters’ direct preferences for the presence of carnivores on hunting land. Results reveal that lynx impose a significant economic cost to owners of hunting rights due to the predation of game. On average, the implicit cost of an additional lynx family is SEK 1.51 million (EUR 0.162 million) per year, and with 95% certainty, the cost per lynx family is at least SEK 340 thousand (EUR 36.6 thousand) per year.

  • 21.
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Jens
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of carnivore presence on hunting lease pricing in South Sweden2019In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 106, article id 101942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carnivore conservation is considered essential because the species offer significant benefits to biodiversity. However, their predation on ungulates reduces ungulate populations with subsequent effects on hunters' harvests and welfare. In this paper, we use the hedonic price method to estimate the effects of large carnivores on hunting lease prices. We disentangle the impact of carnivores through their effect on game harvest from their effect on hunters' preferences. Results reveal that lynx impose a significant economic cost to owners of hunting rights due to the predation of game. On average, the implicit cost of an additional lynx family is SEK 1.51 million (EUR 0.162 million) per year, and with 95% certainty, the cost per lynx family is at least SEK 340 thousand (EUR 36.6 thousand) per year.

  • 22.
    Vass, Miriam Munnich
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Is forest carbon sequestration at the expense of bioenergy and forest products cost-efficient in EU climate policy to 2050?2016In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 24, p. 82-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest management affects the quantity of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere through carbon sequestration in standing biomass, carbon storage in forest products and production of bioenergy. The main question studied in this paper is whether forest carbon sequestration is worth increasing at the expense of bioenergy and forest products to achieve the EU emissions reduction target for 2050 in a cost-efficient manner. A dynamic cost minimisation model is used to find the optimal combination of carbon abatement strategies to meet annual emissions targets between 2010 and 2050. The results indicate that forest carbon sequestration is a low-cost abatement method. With sequestration, the net present costs of meeting EU carbon targets can be reduced by 23%. 

  • 23.
    Vass, Miriam Munnich
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    An equity assessment of introducing uncertain forest carbon sequestration in EU climate policy2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 61, p. 1432-1442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large emissions of greenhouse gases are expected to cause major environmental problems in the future. European policy makers have therefore declared that they aim to implement cost-efficient and fair policies to reduce carbon emissions. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the cost of the EU policies for 2020 can be reduced through the inclusion of carbon sequestration as an abatement option while equity is also improved. The assessment is done by numerical calculations using a chance-constrained partial equilibrium model of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and national effort-sharing targets, where forest sequestration is introduced as an uncertain abatement option. Fairness is evaluated by calculation of Gini-coefficients for six equity criteria to policy outcomes. The estimated Gini-coefficients range between 0.11 and 0.32 for the current policy, between 0.16 and 0.66 if sequestration is included and treated as certain, and between 0.19 and 0.38 when uncertainty about sequestration is taken into account and policy-makers wish to meet targets with at least 90 per cent probability. The results show that fairness is reduced when sequestration is included and that the impact is larger when sequestration is treated as certain.

  • 24.
    Widman, Marit
    et al.
    National Institute of Economic Research / Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Costs of Livestock Depredation by Large Carnivores in Sweden 2001 to 20132018In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 143, p. 188-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Livestock depredation by large carnivores entails economic damage to farmers in many parts of the world. The aim of this paper is to analyse and compare the costs of livestock depredation by carnivores in Sweden across different carnivore species and counties. To this end, we estimate the government's compensation cost function using Swedish data on the county level over the period of 2001 to 2013. Compensation costs due to depredation by three large carnivores are considered: the brown bear (Ursus arctos), the wolf (Canis lupus) and the lynx (Lynx lynx). The results show that a 1% increase in the density of the carnivores leads to a 03-0.4% increase in compensation costs, whereas a 1% increase in the density of sheep results in a 0.8 and 1.1% increase in the compensation costs for brown bears and wolves, respectively. A larger share of unfenced pastures is associated with higher compensation costs for brown bear. The marginal cost of an additional carnivore individual varies considerably between counties, ranging between 1 and 82 EUR for lynxes, 0 and 266 EUR for brown bears, and 52 and 1067 EUR for wolves. (C) 2017 The Authors. 

  • 25.
    Widman, Marit
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Steen, Margareta
    Swedish Centre for Animal Welfare, SCAW; wedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Indirect Costs of Sheep Depredation by Large Carnivores in Sweden2019In: Wildlife Society bulletin, ISSN 0091-7648, E-ISSN 1938-5463, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carnivore depredation gives rise to direct costs for killed and injured animals as well as indirectcosts due to productivity losses and additional labor requirements. Our aim was to investigate indirect costs to sheep farmers in Sweden due to carnivore depredation and presence. We estimated these costs using surveydata describing conditions in 2013. Reproduction and time spent on fence maintenance and taking care of animals were analyzed to isolate effects of carnivore exposure from other factors that affect these variables. Results indicate that both high carnivore densities and attacks are associated with comparatively lower sheep reproduction. Farmers who experienced an attack spent much more on labor for maintaining fences, searching for lost animals, and bringing the animals in for the night. Results suggest that the indirect cost per adult female sheep is EUR23 for nonattacked herds in areas with high carnivore densities; EUR71 in herds that were attacked and where sheep are kept on fenced grazing land; and EUR100 on attacked summer-pasture farms, where free-range grazing is applied. A flat rate compensation per adult female sheep, differentiated between herds in areas with high carnivore density that have not been attacked and herds that have been attacked could be used to compensate sheep farmers for these costs.

  • 26.
    Wulff, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University.
    Andersen, Hans Estrup
    Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte
    Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Czajkowski, Mikolaj
    Universty of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders
    Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Hasler, Berit
    Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Hong, Bongghi
    Cornell University, l, Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Jansons, Viesturs
    Latvia University of Agriculture, Jelgava, Latvia.
    Morth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Smart, James C. R.
    Griffith University, South Brisbane, Australia.
    Smedberg, Erik
    Stockholm University.
    Stalnacke, Per
    Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research (Bioforsk), Ås, Norway.
    Swaney, Dennis P.
    Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Thodsen, Hans
    Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Was, Adam
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Zylicz, Tomasz
    University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Reduction of Baltic Sea Nutrient Inputs and Allocation of Abatement Costs Within the Baltic Sea Catchment2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 11-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion a,not sign.

1 - 26 of 26
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