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  • 1.
    Djupedal, Ingela
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Characterization of RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb7 in silencing and transcription2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The DNA in eukaryotes is arranged in fibres of chromatin. The chromatin may be more or less compacted and the degree of condensation of the chromatin affects the accessibility of the DNA. The accessibility of the DNA, in turn, affects transcription and gene regulation. Genes within inaccessible DNA are commonly repressed whereasgenes within accessible DNA are active and expressed. This thesis concerns the interplay between chromatin and transcription with focus on the function of the RNA polymerase II (pol II) subunit Rpb7. We have demonstrated that processing of centromeric transcripts by the ribonuclease III family protein Dcr1 is required for heterochromatin formation at the centromeres of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A point mutation in the pol II subunit Rpb7 caused a specific defect in centromeric heterochromatin formation. We have shown i) that the centromeric transcripts that accumulate in dcr1delta cells are products of pol II, ii) the rpbG150D mutation is deficient in recognition and/or initiation of transcription from the centromeric promoter. Transcription by pol II within the centromeres was surprising since insertion of marker genes within these loci normally results in repression of pol II transcription. Here, paradoxically, pol II transcription was required for the construction of the inaccessible heterochromatin structure. Our analysis of sRNA in S. pombe revealed that most centromeric siRNA are originating from two clusters, which are repeated several times within the centromeres. This lead us to propose a model in which centromeric transcripts fold into double stranded structures that are processed by Dcr1. The resulting siRNAs may contribute with the starting signal for the RNAi feedback loop required for heterochromatin formation at the centromeres. Finally, we demonstrate that the genome-wide association of Rpb7 is nearly identical to that of the core pol II subunit Rpb2, indicating a general role for Rpb7 in transcription. We further show that the occupancy pattern of Rpb4, a pol II subunit that forms a subcomplex together with Rpb7, differs from those of Rpb2 and Rpb7. Rpb4 may therefore have a less general function in transcription than Rpb7. Hence, transcription by pol II is required not only for gene expression but also for repression via formation of inaccessible heterochromatin.

  • 2.
    Djupedal, Ingela
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Durand-Dubief, M.
    Babraham Institute, Cambridge, IK.
    Sinha, Indranil
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Differential Genome-wide Occupancies of RNA Polymerase II Subunits Rpb4 and Rpb7 in Fission YeastManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Djupedal, Ingela
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi.
    Epigenetics: heterochromatin meets RNAi2009Ingår i: Cell Research, ISSN 1001-0602, E-ISSN 1748-7838, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 282-295Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The term epigenetics refers to heritable changes not encoded by DNA. The organization of DNA into chromatin fibers affects gene expression in a heritable manner and is therefore one mechanism of epigenetic inheritance. Large parts of eukaryotic genomes consist of constitutively highly condensed heterochromatin, important for maintaining genome integrity but also for silencing of genes within. Small RNA, together with factors typically associated with RNA interference (RNAi) targets homologous DNA sequences and recruits factors that modify the chromatin, commonly resulting in formation of heterochromatin and silencing of target genes. The scope of this review is to provide an overview of the roles of small RNA and the RNAi components, Dicer, Argonaute and RNA dependent polymerases in epigenetic inheritance via heterochromatin formation, exemplified with pathways from unicellular eukaryotes, plants and animals.

  • 4.
    Djupedal, Ingela
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Molecular biology - The paradox of silent heterochromatin2008Ingår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 320, nr 5876, s. 624-625Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Djupedal, Ingela
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Kos-Braun, Isabelle C.
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK / Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Mosher, Rebecca A.
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Söderholm, Niklas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Simmer, Femke
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Hardcastle, Thomas J.
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Fender, Aurelie
    Uppsala universitet.
    Heidrich, Nadja
    Uppsala universitet.
    Kagansky, Alexander
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Bayne, Elizabeth
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Wagner, E. Gerhart H.
    Uppala universitet.
    Baulcombe, David C.
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Allshire, Robin C.
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Molekylärbiologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    Analysis of small RNA in fission yeast; centromeric siRNAs are potentially generated through a structured RNA2009Ingår i: EMBO Journal, ISSN 0261-4189, E-ISSN 1460-2075, Vol. 28, nr 24, s. 3832-3844Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of heterochromatin at the centromeres in fission yeast depends on transcription of the outer repeats. These transcripts are processed into siRNAs that target homologous loci for heterochromatin formation. Here, high throughput sequencing of small RNA provides a comprehensive analysis of centromere-derived small RNAs. We found that the centromeric small RNAs are Dcr1 dependent, carry 50-monophosphates and are associated with Ago1. The majority of centromeric small RNAs originate from two remarkably well-conserved sequences that are present in all centromeres. The high degree of similarity suggests that this non-coding sequence in itself may be of importance. Consistent with this, secondary structure-probing experiments indicate that this centromeric RNA is partially double-stranded and is processed by Dicer in vitro. We further demonstrate the existence of small centromeric RNA in rdp1D cells. Our data suggest a pathway for siRNA generation that is distinct from the well-documented model involving RITS/RDRC. We propose that primary transcripts fold into hairpin-like structures that may be processed by Dcr1 into siRNAs, and that these siRNAs may initiate heterochromatin formation independent of RDRC activity. The EMBO Journal (2009) 28, 3832-3844. doi: 10.1038/emboj.2009.351; Published online 26 November 2009

  • 6.
    Djupedal, Ingela
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Portoso, M
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Spåhr, H
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bonilla, Carolina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    Gustafsson, C M
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Allshire, R C
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper. Karolinska Institutet.
    RNA Pol II subunit Rpb7 promotes centromeric transcription and RNAi-directed chromatin silencing2005Ingår i: Genes & Development, ISSN 0890-9369, E-ISSN 1549-5477, Vol. 19, nr 19, s. 2301-2306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fission yeast centromeric repeats are transcribed into small interfering RNA (siRNA) precursors (pre-siRNAs), which are processed by Dicer to direct heterochromatin formation. Recently, Rpb1 and Rpb2 subunits of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) were shown to mediate RNA interference (RNAi)-directed chromatin modification but did not affect pre-siRNA levels. Here we show that another Pol II subunit, Rpb7 has a specific role in presiRNA transcription. We define a centromeric presiRNA promoter from which initiation is exquisitely sensitive to the rpb7-G150D mutation. In contrast to other Pol II subunits, Rpb7 promotes pre-siRNA transcription required for RNAi-directed chromatin silencing.

  • 7.
    Provost, P
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Silverstein, Rebecca A
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Dishart, D
    Karolinska Institute.
    Walfridsson, Julian
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Djupedal, Ingela
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Kniola, Barbara
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Wright, Anthony P H
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Samuelsson, B
    Karolinska Institute.
    Radmark, O
    Karolinska Institute.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Dicer is required for chromosome segregation and gene silencing in fission yeast cells2002Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 99, nr 26, s. 16648-16653Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    RNA interference is a form of gene silencing in which the nuclease Dicer cleaves double-stranded RNA into small interfering RNAs. Here we report a role for Dicer in chromosome segregation of fission yeast. Deletion of the Dicer (dcr1(+)) gene caused slow growth, sensitivity to thiabendazole, lagging chromosomes during anaphase, and abrogated silencing of centromeric repeats. As Dicer in other species, Dcr1p degraded double-stranded RNA into approximate to23 nucleotide fragments in vitro, and dcr1Delta cells were partially rescued by expression of human Dicer, indicating evolutionarily conserved functions. Expression profiling demonstrated that dcr1(+) was required for silencing of two genes containing a conserved motif.

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