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  • 1. Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Friberg, Anders
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    Karlsson, Jessika
    Feedback learning of musical expressivity2004In: Musical excellence: Strategies and techniques to enhance performance / [ed] Aaron Williamon, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2004, p. 247-270Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication of emotion is of fundamental importance to the performance of music. However, recent research indicates that expressive aspects of performance are neglected in music education, with teachers spending more time and effort on technical aspects. Moreover, traditional strategies for teaching expressivity rarely provide informative feedback to the performer. In this chapter we explore the nature of expressivity in music performance and evaluate novel methods for teaching expressivity based on recent advances in musical science, psychology, technology, and acoustics. First, we provide a critical discussion of traditional views on expressivity, and dispel some of the myths that surround the concept of expressivity. Then, we propose a revised view of expressivity based on modern research. Finally, a new and empirically based approach to learning expressivity termed cognitive feedback is described and evaluated. The goal of cognitive feedback is to allow the performer to compare a model of his or her playing to an “optimal” model based on listeners’ judgments of expressivity. This method is being implemented in user-friendly software, which is evaluated in collaboration with musicians and music teachers.

  • 2. Juslin, Patrik N.
    et al.
    Karlsson, Jessika
    Lindström, Erik
    Friberg, Anders
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    Play It Again With Feeling: Computer Feedback in Musical Communication of Emotions2006In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 79-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication of emotions is of crucial importance in music performance. Yet research has suggested that this skill is neglected in music education. This article presents and evaluates a computer program that automatically analyzes music performances and provides feedback to musicians in order to enhance their communication of emotions. Thirty-six semi-professional jazz/rock guitar players were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) feedback from the computer program, (2) feedback from music teachers, and (3) repetition without feedback. Performance measures revealed the greatest improvement in communication accuracy for the computer program, but usability measures indicated that certain aspects of the program could be improved. Implications for music education are discussed.

  • 3. Karlsson, Jessika
    A Novel Approach to Teaching Emotional Expression in Music Performance2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important aspects of music performance is the expression of emotions, yet research has suggested that this skill is neglected in music education. The aim of this thesis was thus to develop and test a novel and empirically-based approach to teaching emotional expression in music performance.

    Study I explored the nature of instrumental teaching in its natural context, with a focus on emotional expression. Although there were individual differences among teachers, a common feature was a lack of clear goals, specific tasks, systematic teaching patterns, and informative feedback.

    Study II presented and tested a computer program that analyzes music performances and offers informative feedback, including specific suggestions on how to enhance the emotional expression. Performers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) feedback from the computer program, (2) feedback from music teachers, and (3) repetition without feedback. The results indicated the greatest improvements in communication accuracy for the computer feedback group, but although the computer program was rated as easy to understand and use, performers did not want to use it in the future.

    Study III explored whether the negative views towards the computer program were due to negative attitudes towards computers or a dislike of the characteristics of the actual feedback contents. Results from a deception experiment revealed that the mere belief that the feedback derived from a teacher yielded higher quality ratings, but so did also feedback that did indeed derive from a teacher. The latter feedback was perceived as more detailed.

    The thesis shows that it is possible for performers to improve their abilities to express emotions through computer-assisted teaching, but suggests that the feedback may benefit from including human-like aspects such as encouragement, examples, and explanations in order to make it more attractive in the eyes of its potential users.

  • 4. Karlsson, Jessika
    et al.
    Juslin, Patrik N.
    Musical expression: an observational study of instrumental teaching2008In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 309-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that both music students and teachers think that expression is important. Yet, we know little about how expression is taught to students. Such knowledge is needed in order to enhance teaching of expression. The aim of this study was thus to explore the nature of instrumental music teaching in its natural context, with a focus on expression and emotion. Lessons featuring five music teachers and 12 students were videofilmed, transcribed, content analyzed, and coded into categories of feedback and language use. Results suggested that the focus of teaching was mainly on technique and on the written score. Lessons were dominated by talk, with the teacher doing most of the talking. Issues concerning expression and emotion were mostly dealt with implicitly rather than explicitly, although some teachers used a variety of strategies to enhance expression. Though there were individual differences among teachers, a common feature was the lack of clear goals, specific tasks, and systematic teaching patterns.

  • 5. Karlsson, Jessika
    et al.
    Liljeström, Simon
    Juslin, Patrik N.
    Teaching Musical Expression: Effects of production and delivery of feedback by teacher vs. computer on rated feedback quality2009In: Music Education Research, ISSN 1461-3808, E-ISSN 1469-9893, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 175-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that a computer program may improve performers' abilities to express emotions through their performance. Yet performers seem reluctant to embrace this novel technology. In this study we explored possible reasons for these negative impressions. Eighty guitarists performed a piece of music to express various emotions, received feedback on their performances, and judged the quality of the feedback they received on rating scales. In a 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial design, we manipulated (a) the performers’ belief about whether the feedback was produced by a teacher or a computer program (feedback delivery) and (b) the feedback contents in terms of whether they were really produced by a teacher or a computer program (feedback production). Results revealed significant main effects of both production and delivery, but no interaction between the two. That is, the mere belief that the feedback derived from a teacher yielded higher quality ratings, but so did also feedback that did indeed derive from a teacher. While both types of feedback were rated as equally easy to understand, feedback from teachers was rated as more detailed. Additional analyses revealed that teacher-produced feedback was appreciated because it offered encouragement, examples, and explanations. Implications for computer applications in music education are discussed.

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