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  • 1.
    Cowley, Benjamin
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland / Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kosunen, Ilkka
    University of Helsinki, Finland / Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, Finland.
    Lankoski, Petri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology. Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kivikangas, J Matias
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Järvelä, Simo
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ekman, Inger
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland / University of Tampere, Finland.
    Kemppainen, Jaakko
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ravaja, Niklas
    University of Helsinki, Finland / Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland / Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, Finland.
    Experience Assessment and Design in the Analysis of Gameplay2014In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 41-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report research on player modeling using psychophysiology and machine learning, conducted through interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers of computer science, psychology, and game design at Aalto University, Helsinki. First, we propose the Play Patterns And eXperience (PPAX) framework to connect three levels of game experience that previously had remained largely unconnected: game design patterns, the interplay of game context with player personality or tendencies, and state-of-the-art measures of experience (both subjective and non-subjective). Second, we describe our methodology for using machine learning to categorize game events to reveal corresponding patterns, culminating in an example experiment. We discuss the relation between automatically detected event clusters and game design patterns, and provide indications on how to incorporate personality profiles of players in the analysis. This novel interdisciplinary collaboration combines basic psychophysiology research with game design patterns and machine learning, and generates new knowledge about the interplay between game experience and design.

  • 2. Ekman, Inger
    et al.
    Lankoski, Petri
    Hair-raising entertainment: emotions, sound, and structure In Silent Hill 2 and Fatal Frame2009In: Horror video games: essays on the fusion of fear and play / [ed] Bernard Perron, McFarland, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ekman, Inger
    et al.
    University of Tampere.
    Lankoski, Petri
    University of Tampere.
    Integrating a game with a story: lessons from interactive television concept design2004In: Computers & graphics, ISSN 0097-8493, E-ISSN 1873-7684, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 167-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a summary of the concept work on interactive stories done within the Future Interaction Television at the Hypermedia Laboratory, University of Tampere. One of the largest questions we dealt with in relation to the design of program content for interactive television was how to provide interesting interactive content for future television viewers. Television as a medium has established traditions for how it is used. These are not likely to change drastically overnight. Because of this, the context of viewing has to be considered when developing new concepts.

    Interactive television systems are still under development and standards are still pending. Although the aim of our research has been to consider interactivity from the viewers’ and the content production community's perspective, work on this topic also provides insights into what kinds of iTV broadcasting techniques will be needed in the future. Most importantly, our work here shows an interactive television show concept that can be used already, with television broadcasting as it is done today, only using the Internet as the return channel. As households move into the digital era and the television sets become technically interactive (e.g. come with a built-in return channel), the interactive part can be shifted over from the Internet to be used via the television sets.

    In this paper we propose a solution that combines a game with a traditional story, which in our example prototype is a simulated television series. Our concept relies on the game having effects on the series and vice versa, but solves many of the familiar problems of interactive stories, as the parts still stay separate.

    Consequently, the concept gives viewers greater freedom of choice; in our concept one can choose to only watch the series or only play the game. However, the strength of the concept is that doing both adds something special to the experience of both watching and playing. We implemented this kind of concept as a prototype called Footprints of Power. The concept was tested and the test results indicate that interactive stories following this approach could enhance the experience of both playing and watching.

  • 4.
    Koenitz, Hartmut
    et al.
    HKU University of the Arts Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Roth, Christian
    HKU University of the Arts Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Meklar, Elisa D.
    University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Björk, Staffan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lankoski, Petri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Eladhari, Mirjam Palosaari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Kultima, Annakaisa
    Aalto University, Aalto, Finland.
    Medler, Ben
    EA Games, USA.
    Methods, History, and Impact - Directions in Game Design Research2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into the design aspect of games has proliferated since the early 1970s. Currently, early historical overviews appear and categorical divisions within the field become more pronounced. It is therefore timely to reflect on the development untiltoday, take stock of the current landscape, and consider future topics. This position paperdoes so by bringing together seasoned and emerging scholars, as well as practitioners and industry insiders. Together, they consider which topics are already engaged, and what new ones might be necessary. In addition, the paperwill discuss the relationship between game design research and independent/industry practices as well as implications for game design education.

  • 5.
    Lankoski, Petri
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Media technology.
    Computer Games and Emotions2012In: The Philosophy of Computer Games / [ed] Sageng, John; Fossheim, Hallvard; Larsen,Tarjei Mandt, Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2012, p. 39-55Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How players experience games emotionally is the central question in this essay. The answer varies and depends on the game. Yet, most of the actions in games are goal-driven. Cognitive emotion theories propose that goal status appraisals and emotions are connected, and this connection is used to formulate how goal-driven engagement works in the games. For example, fear is implied when the player’s goal of keeping the player character alive is under threat. This goal-driven engagement is not enough to explain all the emotions involved in gameplay. Empathy, reacting emotionally to an emotional expression is a potential source of emotions in character-based games. As such, the visual beauty of the environment and character can be pleasurable. Lastly, sounds and music can modulate the emotions of the player. For example, loud and fast music tend to correlate with emotions with high arousal. The emotional experience of playing is an amalgam of these different sources. Importantly, the emotional experience is not straightforwardly caused by the game but it depends on the players’ appraisal of the situation in the game.

  • 6.
    Lankoski, Petri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Embodiment in character-based videogames2016In: AcademicMindtrek'16: Proceedings of the 20th International Academic Mindtrek Conference, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 358-365Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embodiment is used to denote the sense that something is a part of one's body. The sense of own body is argued to relate to the sense of agency of one's own actions and of the ownership of the body. In this sense of own body can incorporate something external to the body, such as simple tools or virtual hands. The premise of the study is that the player-characters and game controllers get embodied in a similar to a tool or a virtual hand. In order to study embodiment, a psychometric scale is developed using explorative factor analysis (n=104). The scale is evaluated with two sets of data (n=103 and n=89) using confirmatory factor analysis. The embodiment scale ended to having two dimensions: controller ownership and player-character embodiment. Finally, the embodiment scale is tested and put into action in two studies with hypotheses 1) embodiment and players' skills correlate and 2) the sense of presence and embodiment correlate. The data (n=37 and n=31) analysed using mixed effects models support both hypotheses.

  • 7.
    Lankoski, Petri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Modeling Player-Character Engagement in Single-Player Character-Driven Games2013In: Advances in Computer Entertainment: 10th International Conference, ACE 2013, Boekelo, The Netherlands, November 12-15, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Dennis Reidsma, Haruhiro Katayose, Anton Nijholt, Cham: Springer, 2013, Vol. 8253, p. 572-575Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study looks at how the formal features of character-driven games can be used to explain player-character engagement. Questionnaire data (N=206), formal game features (in 11 games), and ordinal regression were used in the analysis. The results show that interactive dialogue and cut-scenes showing the romances between the player-character and another character relates to higher character engagement scores, while romance modeling and friendship modeling relate to lower character engagement scores.

  • 8.
    Lankoski, Petri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Models for Story Consistency and Interestingness in Single-Player RPGs2013In: Academic Mindtrek 2013: Proceedings of International Conference on Making Sense of Converging Media / [ed] Arthur Lungmayr, Heljä Franssila, Hannu Kerkkainen, Janne Paavilainen, New York: ACM Press, 2013, p. 246-253Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the elements that affect story interestingness or consistency in single-player videogames? The question is approached by comparing player evaluations (N=206) of 11 videogames against a set of features derived by formal (qualitative) analysis. Ordinal regression was used to analyze the collected data. The study posits that dialogue system, romance, moral choice, appearance customization, and support for different play styles relate to story evaluation. Females tend to judge game stories more favorably and those with doctoral degree less favorably than players with other education.

  • 9. Lankoski, Petri
    Player Character Engagement in Computer Games2011In: Games and Culture: A Journal of Interactive Media, ISSN 1555-4120, E-ISSN 1555-4139, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 291-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues how players can control a player character influence interpretation and facilitate engagement within a game. Engagement with player characters can be goal-related or empathic, where goal-related engagement depends on affects elicited by goal-status evaluations whereas characters facilitate empathic engagement. The concepts of recognition, alignment, and allegiance are used to describe how engagement is structured in games. Recognition describes aspects of character interpretation. Alignment describes what kind of access players have to a character's actions, knowledge, and affects. Allegiance describes how characters elicit sympathy or antipathy through positive or negative evaluation of the character.

  • 10.
    Lankoski, Petri
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Björk, Staffan
    Formal analysis of gameplay2015In: Game Research Methods: An Overview / [ed] Petri Lankoski, Staffan Björk, ETC Press, 2015, p. 23-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Lankoski, Petri
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Björk, Staffan
    Game Research Methods: An Overview2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Games are increasingly becoming the focus for research due to their cultural and economic impact on modern society. However, there are many different types of approaches and methods than can be applied to understanding games or those that play games. This book provides an introduction to various game research methods that are useful to students in all levels of higher education covering both quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. In addition, approaches using game development for research is described. Each method is described in its own chapter by a researcher with practical experience of applying the method to topic of games. Through this, the book provides an overview of research methods that enable us to better our understanding on games.

  • 12.
    Lankoski, Petri
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Björk, Staffan
    Introduction2015In: Game Research Methods: An Overview / [ed] Petri Lankoski, Staffan Björk, ETC Press, 2015, p. 1-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Lankoski, Petri
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Media technology.
    Björk, Staffan
    Theory Lenses: Deriving Gameplay Design Patterns from Theories2011In: MindTrek '11 Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments / [ed] Artur Lugmayr, Heljä Franssila, Christian Safran, Imed Hammouda, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2011, p. 16-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gameplay design patterns are semiformal interconnected descriptions features of gameplay. While most previous patterns have been identified through analyzing existing games, this paper proposed how patterns can be identified using theories as starting points. More specifically, we propose three different approaches to harvesting gameplay design patterns: 1) using theories as analysis foci, 2) distilling patterns from theories, and 3) using theories to understand the consequences of having or not having patterns present in a game design. The three approaches are presented together with examples of their use, and based upon this the concept of Theory Lenses as an analytical tool is introduced as a way of allowing theories independent of their research field to be applied to research on gameplay design.

  • 14.
    Lankoski, Petri
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Eladhari, Mirjam P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Constructive Alignment in Teaching Game Research in Game Development Bachelors Programme2019In: Paper presented at Teaching Games: Pedagogical Approaches - DiGRA 2019 Pre-Conference Workshop(TGPA:DiGRA2019), 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study of a Bachelor level game research methods course (15 ECTS). The course covers observations, interviews, and introduction to statistical analysis. The course set-up follows \textit{constructive alignment} design where the aim is that the learning goals, learning tasks, and evaluation are aligned. During the course, students first learn research design and later design their research based on a set of examples and conduct data gathering and analysis. The evaluation of the pedagogical approach used is based on students' learning diaries where the focus is the methods and applying methods. Qualitative evaluation indicates that students can better describe their research designs and analyses.

  • 15.
    Lankoski, Petri
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Holopainen, JussiUniversity of Lincoln, UK.
    Game design research: An introduction to theory & practice2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The design has been a study topic in various fields where design methods have been the focus of inquiry.

    Design research, or design studies as it is also called, has been gaining momentum as a field of academic inquiry since the beginning of 20th century. Originally, design research focused on design methods and processes but it has moved to cover more varied research questions related to design. Current research topics include, for example, how to study design and what methods can be used to study design along with the more fundamental questions such as what is design in the first place and what kinds of knowledge design research produces. The topics of design research have also become more wide and varied with active research on architecture, information systems, product, service, graphic, and interaction design to name a few. Game design research, however, has received surprisingly little attention regardless of the large body of work in the more general design research.

    The main aim of this book is to situate game design research within and alongside general design research.

  • 16.
    Lankoski, Petri
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Holopainen, Jussi
    University of Lincoln, UK.
    Game design research: An overview2017In: Game design research: An introduction to theory & practice / [ed] Petri Lankoski & Jussi Holopainen, Pittsburgh: ETC Press, 2017, p. 1-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Lankoski, Petri
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Media technology.
    Järvelä, Simo
    CKIR.
    An Embodied Cognition Approach for Understanding Role-playing2012In: International Journal of Role-playing, ISSN 2210-4909, Vol. 3, p. 18-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article proposes that the theories of grounded cognition and embodiment can be utilized in explaining the role-playing experience. Embodied cognition theories assume that cognition is not only a feature of the brain, but the body as a whole and it’s interaction with the environment  it operates in. Grounded cognition proposes that an action, perceiving an action, and thinking about an action rely on the same processes. Moreover, knowledge is inseparably grounded to bodily states and modalities. Based on the grounded cognition theory and especially embodiment, we argue the character immersion and bleed are natural consequences on how the brain works. Also we illustrate how the operation of  simulators explain some of the central features in the creation of fiction and it’s similarities to our everyday experiences. In general, grounded cognition provides a rather simple explanation how fiction is experienced as in this theoretical framework action and thinking about an action largely utilize the same brain mechanics and so are phenomenally similar.

  • 18.
    Lankoski, Petri
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Media technology.
    Waern, Annika
    Thorhauge, Anne Mette
    Introduction to special Issue: Experiencing games: Games, play and players2011In: Journal of Gaming & Virtual Worlds, ISSN 1757-191X, E-ISSN 1757-1928, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 175-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Lankoski, Petri
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Media technology.
    Waern, AnnikaThorhauge, Anne MetteVerhagen, Harko
    Experiencing games: games, play and players2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 20. Mäyrä, Frans
    et al.
    Lankoski, Petri
    Play in Hybrid Reality: Alternative Approaches to Game Design2009In: Digital Cityscapes: Merging Digital and Urban Playspaces / [ed] Adriana de Souza e Silva & Daniel M. Sutko, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2009, p. 129-147Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21. Reunanen, Markku
    et al.
    Heinonen, Mikko
    Lankoski, Petri
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Media technology.
    Joystickit kuumina: varhaista erotiikkaa kotitietokoneilla2011In: Digirakkaus 2.0 / [ed] Petri Saarikoski, Ulla Heinonen, Riikka Turtiainen, Turku: Turun yliopisto , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
1 - 21 of 21
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