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  • 1.
    Anikina, Maria
    et al.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univeristy.
    Dobek-Ostrowska, Boguslawa
    University of Wroclaw.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    A cross-national survey2013In: Journalists in three media systems: Polish, Russian and Swedish journalists about values and ideals, daily practice and the future / [ed] Maria Anikina, Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Gunnar Nygren, Moscow: Journalism Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2013, p. 30-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2. Anikina, Maria
    et al.
    Dobek-Ostrowska, BogusławaNygren, GunnarSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Journalists in three media systems: Polish, Russian and Swedish journalists about values and ideals, daily practice and the future2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Appelberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism. Mid Sweden University.
    Johansson, Elena
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism. Moscow State University.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Baranowski, Pawel
    Wroclaw University.
    Social media in the professional work of Polish, Russian and Swedish journalists2014In: Journal of Print and Media Technology Research, ISSN 2223-8905, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 107-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional journalistic culture is a complex of journalistic values, practices, norms and media products. On the one hand it tends to unification across the globe, but on the other hand these cultures varies according to cultural diversities.  Technological development leads to a media convergence, increasing interactivity and plenty of opportunities for individualization of media content influence audience’s demands and consequently challenge of traditional routine of journalists’ work, affect professional practices and even undermine traditional role of a journalist in society. Social media creates new conditions for both actors: readers/viewers/listeners and for media professionals who use it as a tool for media work.  Journalists in the different countries, however, use social media for professional needs not equally. This paper is discussing differences and similarities in the patterns of social media use by Polish, Russian and Swedish journalists.  The research is based on a survey of 500 journalists in each country.  

  • 4.
    Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Informatics.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Data Journalism: Implications and Opportunities2012In: Digital Humanities Congress 2012, The University of Sheffield / [ed] Clare Mills, Michael Pidd and Esther Ward, Sheffield: HRI Online Publications , 2012, p. 60-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data journalism is a form of storytelling where elements of text, interactive graphics and datasets are often combined into one interactive journalistic project or service. In addition, the general public are often encouraged to submit their own data for publication within the service. Data journalism is not a new field, but due to the expensive production process and the advanced skills needed by journalists, it is still relatively uncommon in the Swedish media landscape. This study is based on a joint research project together with SVT Pejl, the data journalism department at the Sveriges television (SVT). The main aim of this paper is to explore this emerging form of interactive journalism based on public sector data, and how the general public engages with it. This paper is based on a four-month case study in 2011 and 2012 of SVT Pejl and “Brottspejl”one of its data journalism services. An action research approach has been used, and the methods were in-depth interviews and a web-based survey.

  • 5.
    Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Data Journalism In Sweden: Introducing new methods and genres of journalism into “old” organizations2014In: Digital Journalism, ISSN 2167-0811, E-ISSN 2167-082X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 394-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data journalism is an evolving form of investigative journalism. In previous research andhandbooks published on this topic, this form of journalism has been called computer-assistedreporting and data-driven journalism, as well as precision, computational or database journalism.In Sweden, data journalism is still fairly uncommon. The purpose of this paper is to providean overview of the development of data journalism at seven Swedish traditional mediacompanies, using action research methods. The content of this paper is based on an onlinesurvey of journalists and in-depth interviews with editors at these participating companies. Theresults indicate that, based on how this field is currently perceived by journalists in the interviews,there is a common definition of data journalism. Furthermore, the survey shows thatthe attitudes towards data journalism during the process of introducing new methods andgenres of journalism into “old” organizations are correlated with the level of perceived experiencein data journalism working methods. The main challenges facing the working methodsof data journalism today are a shortage of time and the need for training and developingdata journalism skills.

  • 6. Hedman, Lowe
    et al.
    Alström, Börje
    Enlund, Nils
    Hvitfelt, Håkan
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Medieutveckling: ett forskningsområde med många ingångar2005In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 25-41Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Hovden, Jan Fredrik
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen, Bergen, Norge.
    Nygren, GunnarSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.Zilliacus-Tikkanen, HenrikaHelsingfors universitet, Helsingfors, Finland.
    Becoming a journalist: journalism education in the Nordic countries2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hovden, Jan Fredrik
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen, Bergen, Norge.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Zilliacus-Tikkanen, Henrika
    Helsingfors universitet, Helsingfors, Finland.
    Introduction: The nordic model of journalism education2016In: Becoming a Journalist: Journalism Education in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Nygren, Hovden & Zilliacus-Tikkanen, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2016, p. 11-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a “Nordic model” of journalism education. This is partly due to great similarities in the Nordic countries and their history, which has led to similar political and media systems, systems of professional journalism and education. But it is also a result of the extensive dissemination of ideas across borders due to a tradition of close collaboration and close social ties among the Nordic journalism educators.

  • 9. Hvitfelt, Håkan
    et al.
    Nygren, GunnarSödertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies, Journalism.
    På väg mot medievärlden 2020: journalistik, teknik, marknad2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Informatics.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Making The Case For Data Journalism – Challenges For An Ongoing Evolution2012In: i-COME international conference on communication and media 2012: Revisiting Communication for Organisational and Social Change: Exploring the Missing Link / [ed] Che Su Mustfaffa, Hassan Abu Bakar, Mohd Bahardin Othman, Timothy Wlaters, Mohd Khairie Ahmad, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Johansson, Elena
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Russian journalists and social media: updated traditions and new challenges2014In: Central European Journal of Communication, ISSN 1899-5101, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 273-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Russian journalism has certain peculiarities based on deeply rooted traditions and state of the modern media system. It has developed a double professional culture; on the one hand it has been serving the state interests and on the other hand journalism has been a mission of enligthment and education in the tradition of the “intelligentia”. New technologies drastically affect media work. Since the mid of 2000s the introduction of social media challenged journalists’ role in society as well as professional practices and norms. This paper discusses an existence of pattern of using social media by Russian journalists based on historical roots and socio-cultural and political background. 

  • 12.
    Kjeldsen, Jens
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Rhetoric. Universitetet i Bergen.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Planerad och iscensatt fotojournalistik2013In: Journalistica, ISSN 1901-6220, E-ISSN 1904-7967, no 1, p. 209-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I januari valåret 2010 publicerade Svenska Dagbladet en gruppbild av alla åtta partiledare. Bilden är ett exempel på planerad fotojournalistik, men också ett exempel på hur bilders betydelse kan förändras och ges nya tolkningar jämfört med den ursprungliga avsikten. Artikeln analyserar arbetsprocessen bakom bilden utifrån observationer och intervjuer, dess iscensättning och relation till bildjournalistikens normer och traditioner. Det utgår från teorier om pseudohändelser och ikoniska bilder, och analyserar fotografiets estetiska och retoriska kvalitéer. Resultatet visar att processen bakom bilden inrymmer en rad ambivalenser i bildjournalisternas självförståelse och syn på pressfotografi. Det visar också att den process som skapar ikoniska bilder är komplicerad och oförutsägbar. Mediernas representationer av politiker kan planeras, men också omtolkas i mötet med publiken.

  • 13.
    Leckner, S.
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Tenor, Carina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    What About the Hyperlocals?: The drivers, organization and economy of independent news media in Sweden2017In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a survey of a sample of hyperlocal actors in Sweden (N = 178), this article examines preconditions, motivations and sustainability for hyperlocal media operations, outside the traditional media chains, in order to provide a picture of their function in the current media landscape, and to further build on the understanding of the hyperlocal business model. This study extends the hyperlocal definition by including media platforms other than websites. The results show that the operations indeed aim to support and foster citizenship, strengthen democracy and mirror the local community. At the same time, as shown by other studies, the fact that they are not large-scale, highly profitable operations may challenge their sustainability. Nonetheless, most of them claim to be profitable, largely because of the print platform, and have a positive outlook on the future. Revenues from advertising and readership are currently less substantial for Web-based operations, which reinforces the need to broaden the definition of hyperlocal publishing platforms when talking about financial sustainability. Currently, hyperlocal media in Sweden, with small resources and a lower publishing frequency, cannot be viewed as a replacement of established media, but play important roles as complementary alternative voices and contribute to media plurality in the local community.

  • 14.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Det lokala och hyperlokala medielandskapet: nyhetspublicering utanför de etablerade medierna2016In: Mediestudiers årsbok: Tillståndet för journalistiken 2015/2016 / [ed] Lars Truedson, Stockholm: Institutet för mediestudier , 2016, p. 42-85Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns många lokala medier i Sverige, närmare 600 olika lokalmedier med ett redaktionellt innehåll om lokala händelser. Allt från stora regionala dagstidningar till små hyperlokala gratistidningar som kommer varje vecka eller mer sällan. Hälften av alla lokalmedier är gratistidningar, och ytterligare knappt hundra är lokala nyhetssajter. Det skiljer mycket i intensitet hos dessa mindre lokalmedier, några har dagliga uppdateringar medan det hos andra går betydligt längre tid mellan nyheterna och utgåvorna. Men gemensam för de nya typerna av lokalmedier är en stark vilja att göra sin bygd synlig, både för att stärka den lokala identiteten och för att visa omvärlden att man finns – i många fall en reaktion på att de gamla medier som tidigare fyllde denna roll ofta har dragit sig tillbaka och finns mer på distans.

  • 15. Nord, Lars
    et al.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Lokala politiska ledare i motvind2002In: Den personliga politiken / [ed] Håkan Hvitfelt, Lauri Karvonen, Sundsvall: Demokratiinstitutet , 2002, p. 68-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16. Nord, Lars
    et al.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Medieskugga2002Book (Other academic)
  • 17. Nord, Lars
    et al.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Präktiga massmedier: de lokala mediernas valbevakning 20062007Book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Autonomy - a crucial element of professionalization2012In: Journalism in Russia, Poland and Sweden: traditions, cultures and research / [ed] Gunnar Nygren, Huddinge: Journalistik, Södertörns högskola , 2012, p. 73-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19. Nygren, Gunnar
    Belönad granskning: kommunalt grävande belönat med Guldspade 1991-20012003Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Bland multireportrar och innehållsleverantörer2013In: På väg mot medievärlden 2020: Journalistik, teknik, marknad / [ed] Gunnar Nygren och Ingela Wadbring, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 5, p. 269-291Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En av 2011 års mest intensiva debatter bland journalister handlade om den egna yrkesrollen. Medieanalytikern Anders Mildner konstaterade i en essä för Simos årsbok att den traditionella journalistiska yrkesrollen befinner sig i total upplösning. Det oredigerade flödet på nätet och i sociala medier håller på att bli en jämbördig motståndare till journalisternas filter, konstaterade Mildner.

    Anders Mildner mötte motstånd, både från tidningen Journalisten och från journalistutbildare. Under våren 2011 böljade en debatt på bloggar, på Twitter och i branschmedier om frågan och positionerna blev snabbt ganska låsta. Journalistens chefredaktör Helena Giertta betonade de professionella journalisternas ansvar att söka sanningen och hålla sig till yrkets etiska regler. Journalistprofessorn Sigurd Allern betonade journalistikens roll som institution i samhället och menade att den hotas av mediernas vinstintressen. Samtidigt fanns det andra debattörer, aktiva i sociala medier och på bloggar, som understödde Mildner (von Krogh 2011).

    Diskussionen speglar den osäkerhet som finns runt journalisternas yrkesroll i ett nätverkssamhälle. Den handlade om två olika frågor som ibland blandades ihop:

    • Behövs det journalister i ett nätverkssamhälle när publiken är uppkopplad och själva kan både söka information och sprida den genom bloggar och sociala nätverk? Om journalisternas roll som förmedlare minskar – finns det då andra delar av yrkesrollen som kan växa?
    • Hur stort ekonomiskt utrymme finns det för professionella journalister i ett alltmer kommersiellt medielandskap, där medieföretagen är ekonomiskt pressade?

    Syftet med detta kapitel är att ge några olika svar på dessa frågor. Det utgår från det dagliga journalistiska arbetet och den traditionella yrkesroll som har växt fram med de moderna massmedierna, men diskuterar också hur denna yrkesroll påverkas av nätverkssamhället. Centralt är antagandet att värderingar och yrkesideologi inte är något konstant, utan något som förändras i takt med det journalistiska arbetet. Värderingar och föreställningar om journalistikens uppgifter skapas i de arbetsprocesser som dagligen definierar vad en journalist är och vad journalistik är.

  • 21.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Changing journalistic cultures2013In: Journalists in three media systems: Polish, Russian and Swedish journalists about values and ideals, daily practice and the future / [ed] Maria Anikina, Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Gunnar Nygren, Moscow: Journalism Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2013, p. 5-11Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22. Nygren, Gunnar
    Den lokala gratispressen i Stockholms medielandskap2006In: Lokalmediestudier / [ed] Karl-Erik Gustafsson, Jönköping: Media Management and Transformation Centre, Jönköping International Business , 2006, p. 205-226Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Framtidens specialreporter outsourcad och sårbar?2011In: Specialreportern: framväxt, funktion, framtid / [ed] Torbjörn von Krogh, Stockholm: SIMO , 2011, p. 137-156Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24. Nygren, Gunnar
    Granskning med förhinder: lokaltidningarnas granskning i fyra kommuner2003Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Guest Editor's introduction2016In: Central European Journal of Communication, ISSN 1899-5101, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 162-163Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Informationskrig – mediekontroll och journalistik2016In: Ukraina och informationskriget: Journalistik mellan ideal och självcensur / [ed] Gunnar Nygren, Jöran Hök, Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) , 2016, p. 17-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Journalism Education and the Profession: Socialisation, Traditions and Change2016In: Becoming a journalist: Journalism education inthe nordic countries / [ed] Hovden, Nygren & Zilliacus-Tikkanen, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2016, p. 73-91Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What is the role of journalism education in the socialisation of future journalists into the profession? This question is discussed in a comparative analysis of two large surveys among journalism students and journalists in Sweden, Poland and Russia in 2011–2012. In the analysis, attitudes towards professional values and integrity are compared between students and professionals. The results show clear differences: Journalists show more professional detachment and less activist ideals than do students. Journalists are also more critical towards development in the quality of journalism and press freedom compared to students. One conclusion is that important parts of socialisation into the profession are still taking place in the newsrooms. There are also important differences between the three countries in terms of traits that are transferred to the students from journalistic cultures in the three countries. An example of this includes the borders of the profession in relation to PR and commercial pressure that are weaker in Poland and Russia compared to in Sweden. The ideals of watchdog journalism are weaker among both students and professionals in Russia compared with other countries.

  • 28.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Journalism in Russia, Poland and Sweden: traditions, cultures and research2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna skrift är en första rapport från ett forskningsprojekt som leds av professor Gunnar Nygren - Journalism in Change. Projektet studerar hur den moderna teknologin förändrar villkoren för journalistiken.

    I skriften, den första på engelska i vår skriftserie, medverkar projektdeltagare från Sverige, Polen och Ryssland: Gunnar Nygren och Jöran Hök från journalistikämnet; Maria Anikina, Moskva och Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Wroclaw.

  • 29.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Journalist – och sen då?: En undersökning av vilka som lämnade Journalistförbundet 2007 och varför2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rörligheten ökar på arbetsmarknaden, och det gäller också den journalistiska professionen. Ett uttryck för detta är att omsättningen på medlemmar i Journalistförbundet ökar, fler går in och fler lämnar förbundet. Men betyder detta också att den journalistiska professionen blir lösare i kanten, att journalistik blir mer av ett genomgångsyrke?

    I skriften undersöker Gunnar Nygren detta genom en enkät till före detta medlemmar i Journalistförbundet med frågor som: Varför slutar man att arbeta som journalist? Dålig lön eller är det andra skäl? De som slutar arbeta som journalister - blir de PR-makare och informatörer? Hur många av dem som går ut Journalistförbundet fortsätter att arbeta med journalistik, och vilka journalister är det som lämnar facket?

    Gunnar Nygren diskuterar också vad detta betyder för den journalistiska yrkesrollen, vad ett svagare yrkesförbund betyder för den journalistiska professionen.

  • 30.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Journalistik som profession2015In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Michael Karlsson och Henrik Örnebring, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 63-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att vara ”professionell” rymmer många dimensioner. Begreppet har minst två olika betydelser – att arbetet blir bra gjort med hög kvalité och att den som gör jobbet tillhör en profession, en sammanhållen yrkesgrupp. Dessa betydelser hänger ihop; de professionella slår vakt om kvalité och om kunskap, att jobbet görs av ett ”proffs” blir en garanti att det blir väl utfört.

    Under 1900-talet har journalistiken professionaliserats på flera sätt. Journalister har utvecklats till en tydlig yrkesgrupp med egna utbildningar, egna organisationer och en gemensam etik och standard för hur yrket ska utövas. Samtidigt har journalistyrket inte någon särskild yrkeslegitimation – det skulle stå i strid med grundlagens yttrandefrihet att kräva detta av någon som ska uttrycka sig i medier (Engblom 2001). Men de senaste 10-15 åren finns det också tecken på en motsatt utveckling, en de-professionalisering av journalistikens i västvärlden (Nygren 2008, Waisbord 2013). I andra delar av världen där medierna kämpar för en mer självständig ställning i relation till stat och politik är journalisternas strävan mot professionalisering fortfarande stark.

    Det här kapitlet går igenom teorier om vad som kännetecknar en profession i relation till andra sätt att styra arbetet, forskning om journalistikens professionalisering och hur den utvecklats i olika delar av världen. Centrala frågor är professionaliseringens dubbla ansikte, både som en kollektiv identitet och som en disciplinering av de enskilda journalisterna samt journalistikens grad av autonomi i samhället. Även tendenserna till de-professionalisering beskrivs, och frågan är vad det betyder för journalistiken och dess ställning i samhället.

     

  • 31. Nygren, Gunnar
    Lokaljournalistiken och den lokala demokratin2004In: Medierna och demokratin / [ed] Lars Nord, Jesper Strömbäck, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2004, p. 297-318Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Media development and professional autonomy2015In: Journalism in change: Professional journalistic culture in Poland, Russia and Sweden / [ed] Gunnar Nygren and Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015, p. 119-152Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Freedom in  daily work is important for nearly all journalists in the three countries. It is the second most important factor in choosing the place of work, according to the survey. A degree of autonomy is also an important part of self-perception of journalists in their professional roles and closely related to job satisfaction (Weaver and Willnat, 2012:534).

    But there are also clear differences between journalists in how big this perceived autonomy is in  daily work. There are different kinds of pressure from outside and inside the media company – pressure from lack of time and formats of the media, constraints within the organization, political and commercial pressure. There is also a media development challenging the professional identity of journalists;  journalistic work is undergoing fundamental changes – transitioning from a monologue to more of dialogue with the audience, with new tools and media formats introducing new kinds of expressions. Increasing commercialization and fragmentation of the media landscape are changing the foundations on which journalism rests (Deuze, 2007; Mitchelstein and Boczkowski, 2009; Singer et al., 2011).

    One may assume that all these changes influence the degree of professional autonomy for journalists. But the direction is not obvious; some changes, like  strong commercialization might put  pressure on the degree of autonomy, but others might work in another direction; for example it is possible that technological development can both increase perceived autonomy, giving journalists more tools and a stronger position, but also limit the autonomy in an increasing demand to produce more and faster.

    The purpose of this chapter is to study how perceived autonomy in  daily work is related to factors on a different level, from the individual level of journalist, the position of the journalist within the media organization and to the level of media system. This analysis is also related to media development, both technological and commercial factors. From this, perceived professional autonomy is related to different kinds of media systems with various degrees of political and commercial pressure on journalism.

    This allows one to raise three research questions:

     

    RQ1: What are the differences and similarities between the three countries and media systems when it comes to professional autonomy?

    RQ2: What are the most important factors explaining differences in perceived autonomy on three different levels – the individual, organizational and societal level?

    RQ3: How are these factors influenced by media development? What is giving stronger or weaker perceived autonomy?

  • 33.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Medieekologi - ett helhetsperspektiv på medieutveckling2016In: Människorna, medierna och marknaden: Medieutredningens forskningsantologi om en demokrati i förändring, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2016, p. 85-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34. Nygren, Gunnar
    Medier och medborgare i den digitala kommunen: en undersökning om lokal politisk kommunikation i medier och på kommunala webbplatser2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Multiskilling in the newsroom: De-skilling or re-skilling of journalistic work?2014In: The Journal of Media Innovations, ISSN 1894-5562, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 75-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiskilling in a journalism context is not a case of “de-skilling” of the profession. There are problems related to the quality in newsrooms adapting multiskilling strategies, but in general multiskilling is more correctly defined as a re-skilling or an up-skilling. This is the conclusion from results of a survey of 1,500 journalists in Poland, Russia and Sweden, along with interviews with 60 journalists in these three countries. Multiskilling in journalism gives more room for creativity and more power to the individual journalist, according to those with experience of working as multi-reporters. It allows them more freedom to make their own decisions in their daily tasks, e.g., choosing subjects and stories. At the same time, from the perspective of the media company, multiskilling is a strategy to increase production in the newsrooms. But multiskilling has no direct correlation with downsized newsrooms: it is rather an industry norm for how to organize work in newsrooms of today.  Multiskilling is also changing the journalistic culture, putting more focus on production and adapting content for different channels.

  • 36.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies, Journalism.
    Nyhetsfabriken: journalistiska yrkesroller i en förändrad medievärld2008Book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University College, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Passing through journalism2010In: Journalism education, training and employment / [ed] Bob Franklin, Donica Mensing, New York: Routledge , 2010, p. 207-221Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Professionalization and autonomy2013In: Journalists in three media systems: Polish, Russian and Swedish journalists about values and ideals, daily practice and the future / [ed] Maria Anikina, Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Gunnar Nygren, Moscow: Journalism Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2013, p. 12-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Professionalization, media development and comparative journalism studies2015In: Journalism in change: Professional journalistic culture in Poland, Russia and Sweden / [ed] Gunnar Nygren and Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015, p. 19-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of  ongoing professionalization has been a key area in journalism studies for many years (Zelizer, 2004; Schudson, 2003; Waisbord, 2013). Journalism has been described as gaining influence within the media system, mainly in relation to political power and state. With common standards and professional institutions, journalism has grown stronger in modern society. But is this still the case in an emerging interactive network society? Is the development the same in different media systems – is it possible to still have a process of professionalization in some parts of the world, and the reverse process in other parts of the world; a de-professionalization? Is professionalization the same in different media systems?

    This theoretical introduction gives some background to these questions covered in the project “Journalism in Change”. It gives different perspectives from research in four areas:

    -  Professions and professional logic, based on sociological research on professions.

    -  Ideals and standards as described in comparative journalism research.

    -  Professional autonomy and pressure from the political and economic spheres.

    -  Professionalization and media development, professional control and open participation.

     

    In the title, the object of study is labelled as “professional journalistic cultures” in Poland, Russia and Sweden. We know from cultural studies that cultures are not fixed, but remain in a constant flux and develop under influences from outside – from other cultures and areas. In journalism this becomes clear in the study of the history of journalism; for example in Sweden journalism has developed since the 18th century under French, German, British and American influence (Gustafsson and Rydén, 2010). The question is not if but how  journalistic cultures are changing; if globalization brings a more homogeneous journalistic culture, or if the development rather can be labelled as a hybridization where some element of global values and standards in journalism are adapted to national journalistic cultures (Hallin and Mancini, 2012:286).

    “Culture” is one of the key notions in this project, and the other is “professional”. To be a professional demands some kind of control over your own work, to have some kind of autonomy to follow the standards and values of the profession. Research in professions emphasize this autonomy as a question of power, about creating institutions making it possible for the members of the profession “to make a living while controlling their own work” (Freidson, 2001:17). Research has described a professionalization of journalism during the 20th century, but the question is how this is influenced by media development. Digital technology and commercialization are global trends, but how does this influence nationally rooted professional cultures? Are the consequences for professional autonomy the same in different kinds of media systems?

    For example: in Western countries, some researchers describe a de-professionalization of journalism: more unclear borders around the profession, harder economic conditions for traditional media and professional control questioned by an interactive network society (Nygren, 2008b:168, Örnebring, 2010b:568, Waisbord, 2013:60). But at the same time, journalists and media in many developing countries struggle for more professional control in relation to authoritarian regimes and also use new kinds of media platforms to achieve this. In countries with authoritarian regimes, professionalization can still be a strategy towards a greater degree of press freedom (Harro-Loit et al., 2012:153).

    In the project “Journalism in Change” we use theories on professionalization and comparative journalism research to analyze how  professional cultures are influenced by media development. Our basic assumption is that the changes are not the same in countries as different as Poland, Russia and Sweden. But it is also likely to find similarities – and these might bring  journalistic cultures closer to each other.

    In the  end there is also the underlying question about  media content; how are standards and practices among journalists influencing  journalistic content, which is so important for all citizens to construct their picture of the world? This project does not include analyses of media content, but the basic assumption is that journalists´ belief about standards and values and their professional practice also influence the results in newspapers, broadcasts on TV and radio and in online news sites.

    That is why professional journalistic cultures are not only a question for journalists, but for society as a whole.

  • 40. Nygren, Gunnar
    Skilda medievärldar: Lokal offentlighet och lokala medier i Stockholm2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis is to study mediated political communication in Stockholm, focusing on media content as well as media consumption and the role media play in a democracy. The study is based on content analysis of local and regional media (newspapers, tv and radio) in the greater Stockholm region and on a survey with 2 440 answers from people living in different parts of the region.

    Three different theoretical perspectives are combined in the thesis:

    • Political communication and the question whether media has a positive or negative impact on political processes.

    • The perspective of media as a part of the public sphere as described by Habermas, and the publis spheres in a society with a fragmented media use.

    • The role of media in the integration of people in local society and in creating a place identity.

    The results show that a large part of the region is in a ”media shadow”, seldom covered by the regional media. When the big media report about suburbs where most people live the picture is full of negative stereotypes creating a picture of the dangerous suburb. The picture in the local papers distributed for free is different. They are the only source of local information for citizens in the suburbs and are very important for local identity.

    The results also show that the public sphere in Stockholm is divided. The wealthier areas of Stockholm read daily subscription newspapers, and the less affluent suburbs rely mostly on thin free newspapers like Metro. In wealthy areas people use public service channels in radio and tv, and in suburbs the commercial channels are as big as the national public service. High quality political news for the wealty areas and free short news and entertainment is an important factor behind the knowledge gap and the gap in political interest between different social groups.

    Consequently, the models that work on the assumption that media and citizens are homogeneous groups in the political communication correspond less to the realities of political communication. Instead a politically divided society emerges, where large groups of citizens find themselves outside the processes of political communication. Today one third are neither interested in politics nor do they have faith in politicians. They abandon politically relevant media content and switch to entertainment. This is the group which does not see any point in engagement and more and more often stays at home on polling day.

  • 41.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Sverige: Geopolitik och en mänsklig vinkel2016In: Ukraina och informationskriget: Journalistik mellan ideal och självcensur / [ed] Gunnar Nygren, Jöran Hök, Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) , 2016, p. 161-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Tillfällig och flexibel: Arbetsmarknad och yrkesroller för journalister i förändring2012In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 34, no 3-4, p. 19-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den journalistiska professionen växte sig stark på 1900-talets stora redaktioner. Två studier vid Södertörns högskola undersöker hur den journalistiska arbetsmarknaden förändras under 2000-talet, och vad detta betyder för professionen. Det handlar om en växande andel tillfälligt anställda, om produktion som läggs utanför redaktionerna och om otydliga gränser mellan journalistik och andra områden. De två studierna undersöker vilken typ av arbeten som 436 nyutexaminerade studenter går till, samt varför journalister lämnar facket (Journalistförbundet).  Resultaten visar att den journalistiska arbetsmarknaden förändras – de flesta nyutbildade journalister får jobb utanför de stora redaktionerna och en stor andel har olika typer av tillfälliga anställningar. Allt fler arbetar i journalistikens gränsland mot information och PR och Journalistförbundet har svårt att organisera de unga journalisterna. En majoritet av dem som lämnar Journalistförbundet fortsätter arbeta med journalistik, och bland dem som också lämnar yrket är de osäkra anställningsförhållandena den viktigaste orsaken.

  • 43. Nygren, Gunnar
    Vi mot dom: mediernas bild av den lokala politiken2001In: Demokratins konflikter / [ed] Håkan Hvitfelt, Lauri Karvonen, Sundsvall: Demokratiinstitutet , 2001, p. 102-119Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Vilseledning och förfalskning – desinformation som vapen2016In: Ukraina och informationskriget: Journalistik mellan ideal och självcensur / [ed] Gunnar Nygren, Jöran Hök, Karlstad: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) , 2016, p. 223-240Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies, Journalism.
    Yrke på glid: om journalistrollens de-professionalisering2008Book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Althén, Kajsa
    Landsbygd i medieskugga: nedmonteringen av den lokala journalistiken och bilden av landsbygden i Dagens Nyheter2014Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Appelberg, Jonas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism. Mid Sweden University.
    Swedish journalists - a profession in decline?2013In: Journalists in three media systems: Polish, Russian and Swedish journalists about values and ideals, daily practice and the future / [ed] Maria Anikina, Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Gunnar Nygren, Moscow: Journalism Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2013, p. 115-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Data journalism in Sweden: introducing new methods and genres of journalism into “old” organizations2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data journalism is an evolving form of investigative journalism. In previous research and handbooks published on this topic, this form of journalism has been called computer assisted reporting and data-driven journalism, as well as precision, computational or database journalism.

    In Sweden, this form of journalism is still fairly uncommon. Since 2011, researchers at Södertorn University have been working together with data journalists at SVT (Swedish public service television) to develop knowledge about methods and challenges. In November 2012, the project group was expanded to include five daily newspapers, Aftonbladet (national tabloid), Svenska Dagbladet (national morning paper), Norrköpings Tidningar (regional publishing house), Helsingborgs Dagblad (regional morning paper) and Mittmedia (regional publishing company), the Swedish public service radio as well as the software company, SAS. The expanded project will end in 2014.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the development of data journalism at these media companies, using action research methods. The content of this paper is based on an online survey of journalists working at the participating media companies and in-depth interviews with editors at these companies. The results indicate that, based on how this field is currently perceived by the journalists in the survey, there is a common definition of data journalism. Furthermore, the attitudes towards data journalism during the process of introducing new methods and genres of journalism into “old” organizations are correlated to the level of perceived experience in data journalism working methods. The main challenges facing the working methods of data journalism today are a shortage of time and the need for training and developing data journalism skills.

  • 49.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Färre journalister som producerar mer för fler kanaler2015In: Mediestudiers årsbok - tillståndet för journalistiken 2014/2015 / [ed] Lars Truedson, Stockholm: Institutet för mediestudier , 2015, p. 67-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det blir färre journalister på de svenska nyhetsredaktionerna. De två senaste åren har fem procent av journalistjobben försvunnit.

    Men det är tydliga skillnader mellan olika typer av medier: På dagstidningar har antalet journalister minskat med 13 procent, medan redaktionerna inom public service är stabila. På gratistidningar och prenumererade endagarstidningar har redaktionerna däremot blivit större. Det visar enkäten Svenska nyhetsredaktioner som gjordes i augusti-september 2015 vid Södertörns högskola. Enkäten gick ut till 236 redaktioner i alla typer av nyhetsmedier. Svar inkom från 143 redaktioner, en svarsfrekvens på 59 procent. Bortfallet är relativt jämnt fördelat, förutom gratistidningar som är underrepresenterade och att TV4 saknas i enkäten[1].

    Medieföretag är kunskapsföretag. Det innebär att deras främsta tillgång är de resurser och kompetenser som finns hos de anställda, hos de journalister som producerar innehållet. När resurser och kompetens förändras och skärs ner, så påverkar det också mediernas möjligheter att uppfylla sitt samhällsuppdrag när det gäller information och granskning. Redaktionell kompetens och journalisternas arbetsvillkor är därför inte någon intern fråga för mediebranschen, det handlar om vilken typ av journalistik som medierna har möjlighet att producera. Med detta perspektiv är redaktionella resurser och kompetenser i grunden en demokratifråga, till exempel att det finns nyhetsmedier som informerar och granskar i hela landet (Strömbäck 2009).

    Enkäten kretsat kring tre områden:

    • Redaktionernas resurser och sammansättning.

    • Redaktionernas organisation och arbete på olika plattformar.

    • Redaktionernas kompetens både när det gäller bevakade ämnesområden och behov av fortbildning.

    Svaren redovisas inte för enskilda medieföretag, utan för grupper av företag.  Ett antal stora medieföretag har valt att inte svara på enkäten 2015, bland dem t ex Expressen, Sydsvenska Dagbladet/HD, TT och TV4 med hänvisning till att det efterfrågas interna uppgifter. I några av dessa fall används offentliga uppgifter ur årsredovisningar och branschpress för att beskriva utvecklingen av resurser och kompetens.

  • 50.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Journalistik hittar nya vägar till användarna2014In: Nordicom-Sveriges Mediebarometer 2013 / [ed] Ulla Carlsson, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2014, 1, p. 165-166Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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