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  • 1.
    Cuestas-Caza, Javier
    et al.
    Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lembke, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Andean Intercultural Ecosocialism in times of Buen-Vivir?: A Red-Green-Culturalist Approach2020In: Challenging the Right, Augmenting the Left: Recasting Leftist Imagination / [ed] Robert Latham, A. T. Kingsmith, Julian von Bargen & Niko Block, Black Point: Fernwood Publishing, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Andean Intercultural Ecosocialism in times of Buen-Vivir
  • 2.
    Fortes, Bartira
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porsani, Juliana
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Contesting Extractivism through Amazonian Indigenous Artivism: Decolonial reflections on possibilities for crafting a pluriverse from within2023In: Alternautas, ISSN 2057-4924, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 155-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an analysis of Amazonian Indigenous peoples’ “artivism” – understood as artistic expressions with activist orientation. It approaches artivism within the context of the emergence of Contemporary Indigenous Art in Brazil and its significance in the resistance against the centuries-long oppression of native peoples, illustrated by the advancement of extractivism in the Amazon. We focus on the artworks by four prominent Indigenous artivists: Jaider Esbell’s critical engagements with art history; Denilson Baniwa’s reanthropophagy movement; Daiara Tukano’s critique of articide; and Emerson Pontes’ transformation into Uýra, the Walking Tree. Altogether, the messages embedded in their artworks contest the dominant growth-oriented development narrative anchored on the pre-eminence of the human-nature ontological dualism, where Nature is reduced to economic resource, along with a view of development that positions western ways of knowing, being and living at the forefront of a civilizational continuum. We conclude by elucidating the central decolonizing role of Indigenous artivism and its potential to strengthen Indigenous’ voices and agendas which include exercising self-determination, resisting extractivism, and crafting more plural and just worlds.

  • 3.
    Gerhardt, Karin
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Sverige.
    Wolrath Söderberg, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Rhetoric.
    Lindblad, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Diderichsen, Öjvind
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education, Teacher Education and Aesthetic Learning Processes.
    Gullström, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dahlin, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Rhetoric.
    Köping Olsson, Ann-Sofie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Rasoal, Chato
    Södertörn University, School of Police Studies.
    Dobers, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Berndt, Kurt D.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education, Mathematics Education.
    Karlholm, Dan
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, History and Theory of Art.
    Kjellqvist, Tomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Vallström, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
    Alvarsson-Hjort, Jesper
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Sjöholm, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Aesthetics.
    Lönngren, Ann-Sofie
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Comparative Literature.
    Bydler, Charlotte
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, History and Theory of Art.
    Färjsjö, Eva
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education, Mathematics Education.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sio, Miriam
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education, Teacher Education and Aesthetic Learning Processes.
    Yazdanpanah, Soheyla
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Gender Studies.
    Pihl Skoog, Emma
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies.
    Sörbom, Adrienne
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Wadstein MacLeod, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, History and Theory of Art.
    Garrison, Julie
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Svärd, Veronica
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Hajighasemi, Ali
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Spånberger Weitz, Ylva
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Elmersjö, Magdalena
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Persson, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Borevi, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Carlsson, Nina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Löfgren, Isabel
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Ghose, Sheila
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, English language.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Bornemark, Jonna
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Podolian, Olena
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gunnarsson Payne, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
    Kaun, Anne
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Faber, Hugo
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Cederberg, Carl
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Gradén, Mattias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Sverige.
    Nog nu, politiker – ta klimatkrisen på allvar2022In: Aftonbladet, no 2022-08-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Kröger, Markus
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ethno-territorial rights and the resource extraction boom in Latin America: do constitutions matter?2016In: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 682-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent times a growing number of Latin American rural groups have achieved extended ethno-territorial rights, and large territories have been protected by progressive constitutions. These were the outcomes of extended cycles of national and transnational contentious politics and of social movement struggle, including collective South–South cooperation. However, the continent has simultaneously experienced a resource extraction boom. Frequently the extractivism takes place in protected areas and/or Indigenous territories. Consequently economic interests collide with the protection and recognition of constitutional rights. Through a review of selected demonstrative cases across Latin America, this article analyses the (de jure) rights on paper versus the (de facto) rights in practice.

  • 5.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Between Interculturalism and Ethnocentrism: Local Government and the Indigenous Movement in Otavalo-Ecuador2010In: Bulletin of Latin American Research, ISSN 0261-3050, E-ISSN 1470-9856, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 505-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent might an indigenous mayor govern beyond ethnically defined grievances, without being labelled traitor by the indigenous organisation? This article deals with the challenges faced by the Ecuadorian indigenous movement when it attains power in local government. The issue will be explored through the case of Mario Conejo, who in 2000 became the first indigenous mayor of Otavalo representing the indigenous political movement Pachakutik. Although ethnically based tensions in the local indigenous movement were evident throughout the period, 2006 saw Conejo leave Pachakutik and create a new political movement. This rupture can be traced, I argue, to an intercultural dilemma and the difficulties of ethnically defined political movements.

  • 6.
    Lalander, Rickard
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Stockholms universitet.
    ¿Descentralización socialista?: Reflexiones sobre democracia radical, participación política y el neoconstitucionalismo del siglo xxi en Bolivia, Ecuador y Venezuela2011In: Politeia, ISSN 0303-9757, Vol. 34, no 47, p. 55-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an analysis of the processes of neoconstitutionalism and participatory democracy in Bolivia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Since 2006, these three countries have led the alleged leftist transformation of Latin America and the 21st Century Socialism. This article shows how the ideas ofradical democracy laid down in the new Andean constitutions are reflected and the likely challenges,tensions and contradictions regarding the implementation of these measures to enhance local popular participation and social inclusion of previously marginalized groups. Additionally, this article aims is to apply a relatively novel concept for the academic debate on political development in Latin America: socialist decentralization. Therefore, the study will offer a problematization of the theoretical debateon decentralization and radical participatory democracyin the three Andean countries. Furthermore, certain challenges for the participatory political projects by Presidents Hugo Chávez, Evo Morales and Rafael Correa will be identified.

  • 7.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet / University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Descentralización y populismo: Desafíos teóricos y metodológicos en la investigación sobre las democracias representativas en América Latina2010In: Provincia, ISSN 1317-9535, no 23, p. 33-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research advancement certain theoretical and methodological challenges in social scientific research on Latin America are presented. Through the thematic, conceptual and empirical focal points of decentralization and populism, and departing in the political party systems as the core of representative democracy, different –and at times contradictory- analytical perspectives are presented in order to exemplify the possible assignments in research on the complex Latin American societies. Furthermore, the usefulness of the political opportunity structures theoretical approach is emphasized in the context of political transformations and the perspectives of social movements and political parties. Likewise, the article contributes certain methodological suggestions for scholars dealing with issues of social and political processes in Latin America.

  • 8.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Dilema intercultural y lucha indígena en Otavalo-Ecuador2010In: Anales Nueva Época, ISSN 1101-4148, no 12, p. 107-134Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Entre el ecocentrismo y el pragmatismo ambiental: Consideraciones inductivas sobre desarrollo, extractivismo y los derechos de la naturaleza en Bolivia y Ecuador2015In: Revista Chilena de Derecho y Ciencia Política, ISSN 0718-9389, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 109-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indigenous concept of Sumak Kawsay, in which human beings reside in harmony with each other and with the environment, is the principal framework for the new constitutions in Ecuador and Bolivia. These constitutional reforms strengthen the rights of the environment as well as the countries’ ethnically defined communities. Nevertheless, the same constitutions grant the State the right to exploit and commercialize natural resources, and extractivism has increased since the approval of these radical constitutions. This article examines the tensions between social welfare policies, extractivism, and the rights of the environment and indigenous peoples within the new constitutional contexts found in Bolivia and, especially, Ecuador. Is it possible to justify the extraction of natural resources for the provision of progressive welfare policies and still respect the constitutional rights of the environment? This article argues that the Sumak Kawsay philosophy challenges the dominant understanding of the concepts of well-being, common good, and development and that the governments of the two nations have applied a pragmatic, anthropocentric approach to the constitutional rights of nature in relation to other human values.

  • 10.
    Lalander, Rickard
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Stockholms universitet.
    Ethnic rights and the dilemma of extractive development in plurinational Bolivia2017In: International Journal of Human Rights, ISSN 1364-2987, E-ISSN 1744-053X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 464-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bolivian constitution of 2009 has been classified as one of the most progressive in the world regarding indigenous rights. The indigenous principles of Suma Qamaña/Vivir Bien/Good Living on the harmonious relationship between humans and nature are established in the constitution. Nonetheless, these rights clash with the constitutionally recognised rights of the nation state to extract and commercialise natural resources (mainly hydrocarbons and mining) under the banner of redistributive justice, welfare reforms and the common good, in this study labelled the dilemma of extractive development. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and combines a political economy perspective on the extractive dilemma, while similarly examining the tensions between ethnically defined rights in relation to broader human rights in terms of values and norms related to welfare and conditions of living. The ethnic identity is multifaceted in Bolivia. Large segments of the indigenous population prefer to identify in class terms. The class-ethnicity tensions have altered throughout history, according to changing socio-economic, cultural and political settings. A central argument is that, during Evo Morales' presidency, class-based human rights in practice tend to be superior to the ethnically defined rights, as a reflection of the dilemma of extractive development.

  • 11.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gendering Popular Participation: Identity-Politics and Radical Democracy in Bolivarian Venezuela2016In: Multidisciplinary Latin American Studies: Festschrift in Honor of Martti Pärssinen / [ed] Harri Kettunen & Antti Korpisaari, Helsinki: University of Helsinki , 2016, p. 149-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Indigeneidad, descolonización y la paradoja del desarrollismo extractivista en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia: Indigeneity, decolonization and the paradox of extractive development in the Plurinational State of Bolivia2017In: Revista Chilena de Derecho y Ciencia Política, ISSN 0718-9389, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 47-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, indigenous peoples have been marginalized and oppressed in the Bolivian political economy. During the presidency of Evo Morales, and under the 2009 Constitution, political, economic, social and cultural decolonization has become the central project for the transformation of the State and society. On the one hand, the new Constitution has been classified as one of the most progressive in the world with respect to ethnically defined rights; the indigenous ethical-philosophical principles of Suma Qamaña/Vivir Bien, referring to the harmonious relationship between individuals and nature, have been incorporated into the Constitution. On the other hand, these rights collide with broader social rights (defined by class) and also the rights of the State to extract and market natural resources (especially hydrocarbon extraction and mining) under the banner of redistributive justice, social reforms and the common good. This collision is defined in this study as the paradox of extractivist developmentalism. The article is based on an ethnographic work and problematizes the extractivist dilemma and the tensions between ethnic rights and class rights, thus contributing to debates about indigeneity and the challenges and dilemmas of decolonizing projects.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Indigeneidad y diálogos interculturales en la política local: Una etnografía del Estado sobre los Kichwas de Cotacachi y Otavalo2018In: Imbabura Étnica / [ed] Albert Arnavat, Ibarra, Ecuador: Editorial UTN/ Universidad Técnica del Norte , 2018, p. 73-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo principal del presente texto es examinar y problematizar la politización de la indigeneidad mediante el enfoque analítico en los encuentros y diálogos interculturales, y más específicamente de los Kichwas de Cotacachi y Otavalo, localidades tradicionalmente marcadas por las estructuras sociales excluyentes y racistas. Dentro del marco de la democracia deliberativa intercultural y las estructuras de oportunidades políticas, se analizarán las alianzas sociopolíticas de diferentes agrupaciones de ciudadanos y colectivos indígenas, que anteriormente estuvieron excluidas de las esferas públicas, y que confrontan nuevos desafíos y dilemas una vez que emergen como autoridades políticas a nivel local. ¿Cómo se reflejan las complejidades identitarias y de las alianzas interculturales en los procesos político-electorales locales de Cotacachi y Otavalo desde las perspectivas de los actores indígenas? Teóricamente y metodológicamente, la presente etnografía del Estado enfoca concretamente en el las transformaciones de los vínculos entre las poblaciones indígenas de Cotacachi y Otavalo y el Estado, asimismo considerando los diálogos y alianzas interculturales del movimiento indígena en las dos localidades. Estos procesos asimismo conllevan modificaciones de la indigeneidad, considerando que el grupo étnicamente definido siempre se autoidentifica en relación con otra categoría étnica, es decir: ¿Qué pasa con la identidad étnicamente definida cuando el movimiento colectivo llega a la posición de autoridad del Estado? Esta aproximación se sostiene metodológicamente en trabajo etnográfico en el campo, con una gran cantidad de entrevistas, conversaciones informales y observaciones participativas durante períodos en Cotacachi y Otavalo entre 2004 y 2018, así como una lectura crítica de publicaciones de los temas. Asimismo, hasta cierto grado se utiliza una aproximación metodológica comparativa, pero hay que aclarar que no se ofrecerá una comparación completamente sistemática entre los dos casos, más bien se destacarán las características y complejidades particulares de los dos contextos.

    Download full text (pdf)
    LalanderCapituloIndigeneidadKichwaImbabura
  • 14.
    Lalander, Rickard
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Stockholms universitet.
    La interseccionalidad en la política identitaria de los Indígenas Evangélicos Ecuatorianos2014In: Ecuador Debate, ISSN 1012-1498, no 90, p. 173-198Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    En este trabajo se analiza el movimiento indígena evangélico ecuatoriano con énfasis particular enlas tensiones entre etnicidad y religión en contextos de movilización política en la provincia deChimborazo. Una provincia que ha sido una fortaleza tradicional tanto de la Iglesia Católica comoposteriormente de las Iglesias Evangélicas, lo que ha contribuido a la excepcionalidad de la provinciay asimismo ha animado la formación de diferentes movimientos políticos. El enfoque principal de esteanálisis es la Federación Ecuatoriana de Indígenas Evangélicos/FEINE y su brazo electoral AmautaJatari, así como sus complejas relaciones con el más amplio movimiento indígena. Teórica ymetodológicamente, el artículo se apoya en ideas de Interseccionalidad, se integran dentro de unmarco analítico sociológico-politológico. Se justifica esta integración analítica por su valor para laapertura de posibilidades de problematización del tema, sino también para comprender la complejamezcla identitaria que influye en las lógicas colectivas e individuales en la sociedad.

  • 15.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Neo-Constitutionalism in Twenty-First Century Venezuela: Participatory Democracy, Deconcentrated Decentralization or Centralized Populism?2012In: New Constitutionalism in Latin America: Promises and Practices / [ed] Detlef Nolte & Almut Schilling-Vacaflor, Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2012, p. 163-182Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Pachakutik and the Rise and Decline of the Ecuadorian Indigenous Movement by Mijeski, Kenneth J. & Beck, Scott H. (2011): Book review2013In: Latin American Politics and Society, ISSN 1531-426X, E-ISSN 1548-2456, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 194-197Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Politics in Venezuela: Explaining Hugo Chávez by Michael Derham: Book review2012In: Bulletin of Latin American Research, ISSN 0261-3050, E-ISSN 1470-9856, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 532-534Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Política identitaria e interseccionalidad en la Venezuela Bolivariana: Reflexiones sobre el protagonismo de las mujeres de los sectores populares (2006-2013)2018In: Ontosemiótica, ISSN 2477-9482, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 35-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article problematizes the empowerment of Venezuelan women of the popular sec­tors, who previously were marginalized in terms of gender, ethnicity and class. More specifically, the study focuses on the protagonist role of women in the Community Cou­ncils during 2006-2013. An additional interrelated aim of the study is to question the myth of Venezuela as the least racist country of Latin America. Theoretically, the study connects to an old debate of Leftist academia, namely on how to deal with the identi­tarian elements of class, ethnicity and gender in a broader socio-political setting. This viewpoint is contrasted with the theoretical-methodological framing of intersectionality, which considers the relationships between different identitarian elements at individual and collective level. The article shows that gender, class and ethnicity are intimately and complexly intertwined among the protagonists, and that these identity bases cross each other in local political situations. A further argument is that, generally, class-based identity appears to be superior to those of gender and ethnicity in socio-political settings. Methodologically, the study is based on critical reading of previous literature and, above all, ethnographic fieldwork in Venezuela between 1996 and 2013, including participa­tory observation and hundreds of interviews with actors involved in these political and socio-cultural processes.

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    LalanderOntosemiotica2018
  • 19.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Retorno de los Runakuna: Cotacachi y Otavalo2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    En 1996 el movimiento político Pachakutik –asociado a la confederación indígena CONAIE- participó electoralmente por primera vez y desde entonces el movimiento indígena se ha establecido como una importante fuerza a nivel local, entre otros, en Cotacachi y Otavalo. Estos dos cantones se identifican como la cuna intelectual del movimiento indígena ecuatoriano. En este libro se analiza el proceso político local desde las perspectivas indígenas, principalmente durante el período entre 1996 y 2010. Un enfoque principal está en lo que el autor denomina el dilema intercultural del movimiento indigena, es decir, los desafíos político-electorales asociados a la interculturalidad y las alianzas establecidas más allá de la definición étnica.  Igualmente se problematizan analíticamente las implicaciones de los avances del movimiento político del Presidente Rafael Correa a partir de 2006 dentro del movimiento indígena. Asimismo, se examina el faccionalismo dentro de las organizaciones indígenas en Cotacachi y Otavalo. A través del análisis de las percepciones e interpretaciones por parte de los actores indígenas, se intenta captar la dinámica y las tensiones dentro de esta complejidad al nivel cantonal. Es extremadamente importante ofrecer espacio académico a los protagonistas políticos. Por ende, metodológicamente, se incluye una gran cantidad de entrevistas con los actores. La segunda parte del libro consiste en una selección de 16 conversaciones entre el autor y destacados personajes indígenas, entre otros, los tres alcaldes protagonistas del estudio; Auki Tituaña y Alberto Anrango en Cotacachi, así como Mario Conejo en Otavalo, lo que por sí contribuye a llenar un vacío de documentación académica del movimiento indígena ecuatoriano y la historia política local.

    Rickard Lalander es politólogo, Doctor y Catedrático en Estudios Latinoamericanos, investigador y profesor en las universidades de Helsinki y  Estocolmo. Es investigador asociado de la Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Quito. En Ecuador ha colaborado con la FLACSO, el Centro Andino de Acción Popular/CAAP y la Escuela de Gobierno y Políticas Públicas para las Nacionalidades y Pueblos del Ecuador/ESGOPP. Es autor de Suicide of the Elephants? Venezuelan Decentralization between Partyarchy and Chavismo (2004), editor y co-autor de Política y Sociedad en la Venezuela del Chavismo (2006) y ha publicado ampliamente sobre la democracia en los países andinos, inclusive varios artículos sobre el movimiento indígena ecuatoriano.

  • 20.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Rights of nature and the indigenous peoples in Bolivia and Ecuador: A Straitjacket for Progressive Development Politics?2014In: Revista iberoamericana de estudios de desarrollo / Iberoamerican Journal of Development Studies, E-ISSN 2254-2035, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 148-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it possible to justify resource extractivism to provide progressive welfare politics and still respect the constitutional rights of nature? The Indigenous concept of Sumak Kawsay on human beings living in harmony with each other and the environment is the fundamental framing of the new constitutions of Ecuador and Bolivia. These constitutional reforms embrace strengthened proper rights of nature and similarly of ethnic rights. However, the same constitutions grant the State the right to exploit and commercialize natural resources and extractivism has increased. This study revises the tensions between welfare politics, extractivism and the rights of nature and the Indigenous peoples in the new constitutional settings of Bolivia and, particularly, Ecuador. The article argues that Sumak Kawsay challenges dominating understandings of theconcepts of welfare, common good and development, and likewise that a pragmatic approach is applied by national governments towards the constitutional rights of nature amidst other human values.

  • 21.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Socialist Decentralization in the Andes? Explorative Reflections on Radical Democracy and 21st Century Neo-Constitutionalism2011In: Independence and Dependence in Latin America, 200 years later : International Symposium October 27-29, 2010 Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies / [ed] Alejandro González & Sergio Infante, Stockholm: ISPLA , 2011, p. 7-24Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the processes of neo-constitutionalism and participatory democracy in Bolivia, Ecuador and Venezuela are analyzed. Since 2006, these three countries spearhead the alleged leftist transformation of Latin America and the 21st Century Socialism. How are ideas of radical democracy reflected in the new Andean constitutions and which are the likely challenges, tensions and contradictions regarding the implementation of these measures to enhance local popular participation and social inclusion of previously marginalized groups? Additionally, an aim of this essay is to applicate a relatively novel concept for the academic debate on political development in Latin America: socialist decentralization. Therefore, the study will offer a problematization of the theoretical debate on decentralization and radical participatory democracy in the three Andean countries. Furthermore, certain challenges for the participatory political projects around presidents Hugo Chávez, Evo Morales and Rafael Correa will be identified.

  • 22.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    The Ecuadorian Resource Dilemma: Sumak Kawsay or Development?2016In: Critical Sociology, ISSN 0896-9205, E-ISSN 1569-1632, Vol. 42, no 4-5, p. 623-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the tensions between constitutional rights, welfare politics and extractivism in Ecuador. In practice, the rights of nature risk being subordinated to other human values amidst strategic State interests in economic development and social programs, due to the government’s pragmatic approach toward environmental rights. The Ecuadorian Constitution of 2008 has been celebrated for being the most radical in the world regarding the specific rights of nature and the indigenous peoples. The central framing of the Constitution is the indigenous concept of Sumak Kawsay regarding humans being in harmony with nature. The Rafael Correa government launched a groundbreaking initiative to protect biodiversity and indigenous peoples in the oil rich national park of Yasuní, adding to the image of Ecuador as an ecological alternative to follow and a challenge to global capitalism. Far-reaching welfare programs have been implemented during the Correa administration, but resource extraction has increased. In light of the Ecuadoran experience, substantial questions remain as to whether Sumak Kawsay can be a path for socialist transformation and ecologically solvent development.

  • 23.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    The intersecting identity-politics of the Ecuadorian evangelical Indians2012In: Ibero-Americana, Nordic Journal of Latin American Studies, ISSN 0046-8444, Vol. XLII, no 1-2, p. 135-158Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Venezuela 2010-2011: Polarización y Radicalización del Proyecto Socialista: Venezuela 2010-2011: Polarization and Radicalization of the Socialist Project2012In: Revista de Ciencia Política, ISSN 0716-1417, E-ISSN 0718-090X, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 293-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The years of 2010 and 2011 were characterized by political and social polarization and similarlyby a radicalization of the socialist government of Hugo Chávez Frías, with the establishmentof new laws to expand the model of radical participatory democracy. The period however alsowitnessed the return of the opposition to the National Assembly in 2010. In 2011, the alreadyexisting crisis within the chavismo was hit by the health problems of the President, whichadded to uncertainty regarding the leadership of a movement that hitherto has been characterizedby a high degree of personalism and power concentration in Chávez. In the social field, thegovernment has maintained its progressive (and/or paternalist) policies of different State SocialMissions (Misiones), since 2011 mainly to confront housing shortages. Already in 2011, thebeginning of a pre-campaign before the presidential elections of 2012 can be observed. This study provides a political summary of Venezuela in 2010 and 2011, and there will be specialanalytical attention paid to the parliamentary elections of 2010, and –particularly– the tensionsbetween two different democratic schemes: a liberal representative model and a more radicaland participatory type of democracy. As for the second type there will be special attention tothe Community Councils and their implications for Venezuelan democracy.

  • 25.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Venezuelas ofullbordade demokrati2010In: Prometokrati: mellan diktatur och demokrati / [ed] Sten Widmalm & Sven Oskarsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2010, 1, p. 197-238Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Cuestas-Caza, Javier
    Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ecuador.
    El Sumak Kawsay y el Buen-Vivir2018In: Trayectorias Humanas Trascontinentales/ TraHs, E-ISSN 2557-0633, no 3, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Cuestas-Caza, Javier
    Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ecuador.
    Sumak Kawsay y Buen-Vivir en Ecuador2017In: Conocimientos ancestrales y procesos de desarrollo: Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador / [ed] Ana Dolores Verdú Delgado, Loja, Ecuador: Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja , 2017, p. 30-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    El interés de la academia por investigar sobre el término del Sumak Kawsay ha despegado a partir de su incursión en la Constitución del Ecuador en 2008. Su cuestionada traducción como Buen-Vivir ha despertado diversos debates epistemológicos y ontológicos. En la actualidad, son tres las corrientes de pensamiento que estudian al paradigma emergente del Buen-Vivir: indígena-culturalista, postdesarrollista-ecologista y socialista-estatista. Cada una de ellas ha interpretado de diferente manera los saberes indígenas relacionados con el Sumak Kawsay, lo que ha dado lugar a varios cuestionamientos, entre ellos, un posible extractivismo epistémico en el uso y contenido del término Buen Vivir. Además, en la práctica, la inclusión del Buen-Vivir en la Constitución ecuatoriana de 2008 y el reconocimiento de los derechos de la naturaleza ha dado lugar a una serie de críticas y dilemas político-ambientales debido a las políticas públicas neo-extractivistas implementadas por el gobierno de Rafael Correa. El presente capítulo tiene como objetivo ahondar y enfatizar varios de los debates intelectuales sobre el Sumak Kawsay y el Buen-Vivir, así como identificar algunos dilemas y desafíos en la implementación práctica de los principios y valores de estas visiones.

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    LalanderCuestasCazaSumakKawsay
  • 28.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Eguiguren Riofrío, María Beatriz
    Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Ecuador.
    Vera, Ana Karina
    Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Ecuador.
    Reyes, Maleny
    Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Ecuador.
    Espinosa, Gabriela
    Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Ecuador.
    Lembke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Indigenous Gold Mining in the Kenkuim Shuar Community: A Decolonial and Postcapitalist Approach to Sustainability2021In: Revista iberoamericana de estudios de desarrollo / Iberoamerican Journal of Development Studies, E-ISSN 2254-2035, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 178-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the experiences of the small Shuar community of Kenkuim (Congüime) in the Ecuadorian Amazon that since 2016 carries out gold mining through the communitarian company Exploken Minera. The case is unique in South America, not only for being the only example of indigenous mining granted formal state concession, but also for its green profile, without the usage of chemicals or heavy metals. Within a setting of expanding extractivism conditioned by global capitalism and a theoretical framework of a decolonial and postcapitalist approach to sustainability, this ethnographic study deals with the expressions of resistance and adaptation of the Kenkuim community and how socio-cultural, ecological, and economic values are articulated by Shuar actors in relation to the new indigenous mining project. The results indicate that this mining experiment constitutes a meaningful alternative to destructive extractivismin line with decolonial and postcapitalist reasoning.

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    Online-first version of article
  • 29.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Eguiguren Riofrío, María Beatriz
    Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja.
    Vera, Ana Karina
    Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja.
    Reyes, Maleny
    Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja.
    Espinosa, Gabriela
    Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja.
    Lembke, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Una ecología política de minería indígena responsable: Dilemas, disputas y desafíos en la comunidad Shuar de Congüime de la Amazonía ecuatoriana2020In: Revista Chilena de Derecho y Ciencia Política, ISSN 0718-9389, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 66-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2016, the Shuar indigenous community of Congüime in the Ecuadorian Amazon has held the gold mining concession in its territory through the community company Exploken Minera. With its mission of socially and ecologically responsible mining, investing the incomes in the community and without using chemicals or heavy metals, this unique model contrasts with transnational and illegal mining in indigenous territories. The present ethnographic study, which draws theoretical and methodological inspiration from political ecology, environmental justice, post-development and the conceptualization of real utopias, deals with the experiences of socio-environmental governance and justice of the Shuar mining company, and the dilemmas, disputes and challenges that emerge in the community in this unprecedented situation. The result indicates that structural challenges remain unsolved. While Exploken's experiments in socio-ecological responsibility constitute an alternative to destructive extractivism, and considering the improved living conditions enjoyed by many Shuar families, new social tensions have emerged in Congüime, including transformations of social power structures.

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    Lalander et al. Shuar Conguime RChDCP2020
  • 30.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kröger, Markus
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Extractivism and the de jure and de facto ethno-territorial rights in Latin America: How important are the constitutions?: Extractivismo y derechos étnico-territoriales de jure y de facto en Latinoamérica: ¿Cuán importantes son las constituciones?2016In: Observatorio del Desarrollo, ISSN 2393-6916, no 23, p. 1-22Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of Latin American rural groups have attained extended ethno-territorial rights, and sizeable territories were safeguarded by progressive constitutions. This trend was the product of extended cycles of protest at local, national and transnational levels; social movements struggle, with broader collective South-South collaboration. Nonetheless, the continent simultaneously experienced a resource extraction boom. Commonly, the extractivism takes place in protected areas and/or indigenous territories. Accordingly, economic interests clash with the safeguarding and recognition of constitutional rights. Through the analysis of selected illustrative cases across Latin America, this study analyses the (de jure) rights on paper versus the (de facto) rights in practice. 

  • 31.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lembke, M.
    Stockholm University.
    The Andean Catch-22: ethnicity, class and resource governance in Bolivia and Ecuador2018In: Globalizations, ISSN 1474-7731, E-ISSN 1474-774X, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 636-654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the tensions and contradictions between resource governance, welfare policies, and the constitutionally recognized rights of nature and the indigenous peoples in Bolivia and Ecuador. We have identified a certain reductionism in current debates on these issues and propose a more systematic analytical focus on class and the class-ethnicity duality, as expressed in historical and contemporary indigenous struggles, and also confirmed via our ethnographic material. Drawing on the double bind as expressed in Joseph Heller’s Catch-22 wherein the protagonists face situations in which they do not have any choice to achieve a net gain, this article centres on how national governments have to choose between the protections of rights – in this case ethnic and environmental rights – and welfare provision financed by extractive revenues. From the perspective of ecologically concerned indigenous actors, the Catch-22 is articulated in the choice or compromise between universal welfarism on the one hand, and ethno-environmental concerns on the other hand. The article draws primarily on ecosocialist arguments and on indigenous-culturalist perspectives on Good Life (Sumak Kawsay or Vivir Bien). A central finding is the existence of awareness among involved actors – oppositional movements and government authorities – that the Catch-22 quandary and joint class-ethnic concerns are unavoidable ingredients in their discourses, struggles, and understandings of Good Life.

  • 32.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lembke, Magnus
    Stockholm universitet.
    Dilemas e desafios na construção do Estado plurinacional: Territorialidade, Indigeneidade e Diálogo Deliberativo Intercultural no Equador2017In: Revista MovimentAção, E-ISSN 2358-9205, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 178-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the promulgation of the 2008 Constitution, Ecuador is formally a Plurinational and Intercultural State, the result of a process that had gained increasing societal legitimacy after decades of struggle by the indigenous peoples. After 2008, a central challenge for the indigenous organizations concerns the implementation of the principles and values of the Plurinational State. Different positions and interpretations are expressed among indigenous political actors. We problematize how they are expressed inwards, that is within the organization, and outwards, towards the surrounding political society. We refer to the second process as the intercultural deliberative dialogue. The main objective of the text is to analytically problematize the challenges and dilemmas associated with the Plurinational State project from the perspectives of the indigenous peoples. The theoretical framework draws on the literature on deliberative democracy in divided and/or multiethnic societies. The principal research question is: How are the complexities of implementing the Plurinational State reflected in the discourses of the actors involved? The plurinational project was contextually inserted in a complex relationship between territoriality and ethnic self-identification. We emphasize the centrality of territoriality for indigeneity and as an organizational and discursive strategy of the indigenous organizations. In discursive disputes about territoriality, different indigenous groups position themselves according to their historical relationship with the white-mestizo society. In this light, different temporalities of territoriality are constructed. This research is based on critical reading of the thematic literature and ethnographic work in Ecuador, including hundreds of interviews between 2001 and 2018 with politicians, intellectuals, and spokespersons of the indigenous organizations.

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    Lalander Lembke 2019 Dilemas e desafios na construção do Estado plurinacional
  • 33.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lembke, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Interculturality from Below: Territoriality and Floating Indigenous Identities in Plurinational Ecuador2020In: Ciencias Políticas y Relaciones Internacionales, ISSN 1390-7131, Vol. 9, p. 129-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This text problematizes the perceptions and visions held by leading spokespersons of the indigenous movement regarding the challenges and dilemmas related to the advancement of the Plurinational State and the intercultural society in post-2008 Ecuador. From a constructivist viewpoint, the study emphasizes that different factions of the indigenous movement nurture varying connotations of the tension-ridden plurinationality-interculturality nexus, depending on their historical relationship with the territory and the nature of their ethnocultural identity. Theoretically drawing on theories of deliberative democracy and indigeneity-territoriality, the article constitutes a synthesis of previous debates on the subject, backed up by years of ethnographic work in the field. A central finding indicates a relative consensus that Plurinational Ecuador must be built on inclusion and cross-ethnic co-operation. However, according to the interviewees, harmonious interculturality will not materialize without the grassroots-led practical implementation of the Plurinational State.

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    Lalander Lembke 2020 Interculturality from Below
  • 34.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lembke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Reflexiones Decoloniales Sobre Sumak Kawsay Y Justicia Social2021In: Libro de Acta de Memorias del Congreso Internacional Ciencias Jurídicas, sociales y políticas / [ed] Andrea Aguirre Bermeo; María Beatriz Eguiguren, Jorge Maldonado Ordóñez & Janeth González Malla, Loja, Ecuador: Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja/UTPL , 2021, p. 98-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study departs in a decolonial understanding of the Indigenous ethical-philosophical conceptualization of the Good Life: Sumak Kawsay/Buen-vivir. We argue that we need toview this concept as integrated by cultural, socio-economic and ecological dimensions, separate but interrelated values and identities that sometimes clash. One of our arguments likewise emphasizes that the class perspective is sometimes subordinated in the debates on Buen-vivir and therefore we pay special attention to the element of social justice, which is also central in decolonial theory on the capitalist colonial matrix of power and the strategies to disconnect from these structures of domination and marginalization. We view the indigenous contribution of Buen-vivir as a decolonial discourse and project. For the understanding of different interpretations and expressions of Buen-vivir, we must likewise consider particularities of indigenous peoples in terms of varying ethnic-cultural identity, that is, the relative and situational comprehensions of indigeneity. Methodologically, we should emphasize decades of ethnographic fieldwork, as well as critical reading of the debate on Sumak Kawsay/Buen-vivir and the theoretical contributions in the field of decolonial thought.

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    Lalander Lembke 2021 Reflexiones decoloniales
  • 35.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lembke, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Ospina Peralta, Pablo
    Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Quito.
    Political economy of state-indigenous liaisons: Ecuador in times of Alianza PAIS2019In: Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe / European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, ISSN 0924-0608, E-ISSN 1879-4750, no 108, p. 193-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the contentious liaisons between the indigenous movement and the state in Ecuador during the government of Alianza PAIS under the presidency of Rafael Correa (2007-2017). The research question examines to which measure, how and why the shift from neoliberal to leftist administrations could have affected the principal strategic repertoire of the indigenous movement. Leaning on a political economy approach and social movement theorizing, and accentuating the relative power balance between the indigenous movement and the state, it focuses on indigenous oppositional strategies and the ambivalent attitude of the state regarding participatory democracy and the rights of the indigenous peoples. By contrasting this period with the neoliberal 1990s – considered the heyday of the indigenous struggle – we examine contemporary strategic responses of the movement amidst the new political setting characterized by hyper-presidentialism and a systematic effort to de-corporatize the state. A central finding is that, while retaining its powerful organizational network which could be reactivated during critical situations, the indigenous movement weakened in relation to the 1990s. This relative decline is manifested in three types of social movement relationships: between leaders and grassroots (mobilizing capacity); between the movement and its alliance partners (alliance politics); and between the movement and the legal institutional terrain of the state (institutional participation).

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    Lalander Lembke Ospina 2019
  • 36.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lembke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Porsani, Juliana
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Livelihood Alterations and Indigenous Innovators in the Ecuadorian Amazon2023In: Alternautas, E-ISSN 2057-4924, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 95-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article approaches livelihood alterations in Indigenous communities of the Ecuadorian Amazon as means of adaptation and resistance to socio-environmental impacts brought along by the expansion of global capitalism. The cases comprise collective Indigenous endeavors in typically capitalist sectors -tourism and mining -illustrated by the experiences of Kichwa community tourism in Shiripuno in the central Amazon, and sustainable mining in the southern Amazonian Shuar community of Congüime (Kenkuim). Theaim is to unravel these emerging livelihood strategies in relation to Indigenous ethno-cultural identity. Methodologically, we rely on comparative and ethnographic work in the field with Indigenous actors, and on a theoretical framework anchored in the concepts of innovators, cultural boundary changes (Fredrik Barth), social fields of force (William Roseberry), and intercultural regimes (Fernando Galindo and Xavier Albó). In both empirical cases -Indigenous-controlled tourism and mining -communities are framing their ethnic identity to engage with, and positively reposition themselves in relation to the wider society. We hold that these endeavors must be comprehended as highly innovative, and that indigeneity and cultural boundaries can be strengthened bysocio-cultural changes toward livelihoods previously considered as “unauthentic” or “non-Indigenous”. We also argue that these new livelihood orientations have (purposely) altered gender relations within the communities in benefit of women. Additionally, our cases suggest that cultural strengthening and gender empowerment, among other positive outcomes, requires a nuanced apprehension of indigeneity as a partly floating concept and instrument gaining ground amid the increasing interconnectedness of ancienttraditions and capitalist modernity.

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    Livelihood Alterations and Indigenous Innovatorsin the Ecuadorian Amazon
  • 37.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lenza, Chiara
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Transmodernity and Socio-Historical Time in the Decolonization Process of the Plurinational State of Bolivia: La transmodernidad y el tiempo sociohistórico en el proceso descolonizador del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia2018In: Revista de Estudios Sociales, ISSN 0123-885X, E-ISSN 1900-5180, no 65, p. 48-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes how transmodernity has been expressed in the Plurinational State of Bolivia since 2009. It specifically focuses on the complexities involved in the reconstruction of the State and the road towards an intercultural society based on the constitutional acknowledgment of the values and praxis of plurinationality. This historic moment —with the reconstruction of the State and society based on the beliefs, traditions, epistemologies and ontologies of the indigenous peoples— symbolizes a particular social time and is the result of the silent survival of pre-colonial cultures which, over centuries, gradually transformed themselves alongside and in interaction with modernity, thus evolving into transmodern cultures. The establishmentof the Plurinational State has also legitimized the indigenous ethical-philosophical concept of SumaQamaña-Vivir Bien (“To Live Well”), which refers to a harmonious relationship between humans and Natureand is enshrined as a socio-political-cultural guideline and alternative to the logics of eurocentrism, anthropocentrism, individualism and capitalism. Methodologically, the study is based on years of ethnographic fieldwork in Bolivia and a critical reading of previous studies of such subjects.

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    Lalander Lenza Transmodernidad Bolivia 2018
  • 38.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Magnus, Lembke
    Stockholms universitet.
    Territorialidad, indigeneidad y diálogo intercultural en Ecuador: Dilemas y desafíos en el proyecto del Estado Plurinacional2018In: Territorialidades otras: Visiones alternativas de la tierra y del territorio desde Ecuador / [ed] Johannes Waldmüller & Philipp Altmann, Quito: Ediciones La Tierra , 2018, p. 183-212Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    LalanderLembke2018TerritorioPrePubl
  • 39.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Maija, Merimaa
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    The Discursive Paradox of Environmental Conflict: Between Ecologism and Economism in Ecuador2018In: Forum for Development Studies, ISSN 0803-9410, E-ISSN 1891-1765, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 485-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecuador in times of the Rafael Correa government constitutes a prime example of the paradox of environmental conflict, in which all involved actors claim to represent the true vanguard concerning safeguarding of the environment and human conditions. The country presents the ecologically most progressive constitution in the world and also incorporates far-reaching recognition of indigenous peoples’ rights. Notwithstanding, the economy remains reliant on extractivism and the government argues that the revenues of extractive industries benefit the common good. Anchored in a distinction between environmentalism and ecologism, this article identifies and problematizes dominant narratives among the actors of the contentious discursive scenarios, and analyses how the state and its ecological-indigenous opposition aim to position themselves within the political conflict. The central questions are: How are eco-progressive politics perceived, defined and expressed in this setting of an intercultural and plurinational society economically reliant on natural resource extraction? Which values, interests and ontological assumptions are at stake and how are these expressed in the discursive struggle? The research is based on several years of ethnographic fieldwork, combined with critical reading of the previous literature and discourse analysis. The article contributes to politico-environmental debates in Ecuador and beyond and shows that environmental struggle is entangled in broader political disputes conditioned by global economic structures. It likewise communicates with debates on argumentative discourse and illustrates that the same core arguments can constitute the argumentative basis of rivalling actors in political struggles, thus emphasizing the centrality of the contextual framing amid ontological divides in contentious discursive settings.

  • 40.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Merimaa, Maija
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    La paradoja político-ambiental ecuatoriana: The Ecuadorian Politico-Environmental Paradox2017In: Provincia, ISSN 1317-9535, no 37, p. 29-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecuador in times of the Rafael Correa government constitutes a perfect example of the politico-environmental paradox, which deals with conflicts in which all involved actors –State authorities as well as ecologist and Indigenous opposition - claim to represent the true vanguard concerning safeguarding of the environment and human conditions. On the one hand, Ecuador presents the most progressive Constitution in the world regarding the protection of nature and it also incorporates far-reaching recognition of Indigenous peoples. On the other hand, the developmentalist economy based on extractivism has continued during the period and the government argues that the revenues of extractive industries benefit the common good (welfare reforms). Based on several years of ethnographic fieldwork in Ecuador, combined with critical reading of previous literature and analysis of public discourses, political documents and material obtained through participatory observation, this article identifies and problematizes the dominant narratives among the actors of the contentious discursive scenarios. It also analyzes how State authorities and their adversaries aim at positioning themselves towards the other in relation to extractivism and ecological concerns. How are (progressive) environmental politics and ecological concerns perceived, defined and expressed by different actors?

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    LalanderMerimaaProvincia20172018
  • 41.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Stockholms universitet.
    Ospina Peralta, Pablo
    Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Quito.
    Movimiento Indígena y Revolución Ciudadana en Ecuador2012In: Cuestiones políticas, ISSN 0798-1406, Vol. 28, no 48, p. 13-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the relationship between the Ecuadorian indigenous movement and the progressive government of Rafael Correa and his PAIS Movement.The objective is to examine why the indigenous movement has decided to oppose the Correa government, despite initial common political concerns. To explain this paradox, both the recent political history of the indigenous movementas well as the attitudes and politics applied by the Correa administration are analyzed. Five fields of political discrepancy and differentiation are offered as probable explanations for the conflictive relationship between the indigenous organizationsand the Correa government. These interconnected themes that seek to explain the distancing are: an intercultural dilemma, opposition to extractivism,different attitudes toward social mobilization, agrarian policies and finally, the state policy labelled de-sectorization.

  • 42.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Ubidia, Peter
    Universidad de Otavalo, Ecuador.
    Prácticas ancestrales en tiempos de COVID-19: Reflexiones decoloniales desde tres comunidades Kichwa-Otavalos2023In: Revista Dialógica Intercultural, ISSN 2960-0847, no 1, p. 86-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The central argument of this article is that, in the peripheries of modernity, highly valuable practices and knowledge exist, vis-à-vis the understanding the world and for the management of crisis situations. In the context of the global pandemic crisis of Covid-19, this text examines and problematizes the reactions, strategies, and attitudes to the pandemic in three Kichwa communities of the northern Ecuadorian highlands: La Calera, Huaycopungo and Punyaro. From a decolonial theoretical point of departure, regarding mechanisms and structures of domination and subordination of certain social groups, and through a comparative ethnographic and participatory case study, the result of the article indicates that the impact of Covid-19 on communities was minimal. Moreover, leaning on Kichwa ontology and traditions, the three communities reactivated and expanded community agricultural production and broadened the practices of ancestral medicinal treatments. Similarly, we conclude that, since the beginning of the pandemic, there was a strong degree of partial or complete disobedience of indigenous populations towards state restrictions and policies amidst Covid-19, and even that a number of Kichwa spokespersons did not even believe in the pandemic or the vaccines.

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    Prácticas ancestrales en tiempos de Covid-19 Free access
  • 43.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Velásquez-Atehortúa, Juan
    Stockholms universitet.
    El Protagonismo Femenino en la Radicalización de la Democracia Venezolana Bolivariana2013In: Revista Latino-Americana de Geografia e Gênero, ISSN 2177-2886, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 29-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to examine the growing protagonism of women in the recently developed participatory structures within the framework of democratic transition in Venezuela, during thepresidency of Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías, mainly from 2006 onwards. While the degree of personalized political symbolic power has deepened during the period, at the same time the political system has changed, towards a model characterizedby broader political participation and social inclusion at grassroots level. The insurgence ofpopular sector women in the local political structures will be emphasized, as well as the female protagonism and empowerment in the radical participatory democracy in progress. In order to make this issue visible, the analytical focus will be placed mainly on one participatory model of the so called Bolivarian Revolution: the Community Councils, although other relevant mechanisms anddimensions of popular participation will be dealt with. Through these frameworks, a growing number of women from the popular sectors have found their own space of empowerment. Theoretically, this research connects to radical and participatory democracy debates, changing StateCitizenshiprelations and the empowerment of women who were previously excluded from the public spheres.

  • 44.
    Lalander, Rickard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Velásquez-Atehortúa, Juan
    Stockholms universitet.
    ¿La Revolución tiene cara de mujer?: La feminización de la participación democrática en Venezuela2013In: Ecuador Debate, ISSN 1012-1498, no 88, p. 147-168Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo del presente artículo es examinar el creciente protagonismo de mujeres en las nuevas estructuras participativas dentro del esquema de transformación de la democracia venezolana en tiempos de la administración del Presidente Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías, particularmente a partir de 2006. Si bien es cierto que se ha acentuado el grado de personalismo político durante la era chavista, al mismo tiempo el sistema político ha cambiado de carácter, con más participación popular e inclusión social en las bases locales. Particularmente se enfatizan los mecanismos para animar a la participación política vecinal e inclusión social. Especialmente se enfatizarán los cambios en cuanto al surgimiento de mujeres en las estructuras políticas locales y su protagonismo en la emergente democracia participativa. Para lograr visibilizar eso se analizan dos modelos participativos de la llamada Revolución Bolivariana: los Consejos Comunales y las Salas de Batalla Social. Dentro de estos esquemas una gran cantidad de mujeres de los sectores populares han encontrado su propio espacio de empoderamiento. Teóricamente, el estudio se vincula con los debates de democracia radical y participativa, relaciones Estado-ciudadanía y el empoderamiento de las mujeres que anteriormente estaban excluidas de las esferas públicas.

  • 45.
    Lembke, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Galindo, J. Fernando
    Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
    Objectivities and Trust in Ethnographic Research On and With Latin American Indigenous Peoples2020In: Co-creating Actionable Science: Reflections from the Global North and South / [ed] Gloria L. Gallardo Fernández, Fred Saunders, Tatiana Sokolova, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020, p. 13-33Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter deals with an inevitable form of subjectivity in field-oriented research on and with ethnically defined peoples in Latin America. It asks whether ethnographers can enter a research field marked by historical injustices and highly asymmetric power struggles without losing the standpoint of value-free outsiders. We argue that scholars in the field are not disconnected from local cultural and institutional settings, they cannot expect to conduct fieldwork without a substantial degree of subjectivity. Theoretically, a distinction is made between fieldwork and work in the field, emphasizing the often-dual position of researchers: as scholars and activists. We argue that an activist stance is sometimes necessary, though stressing that the primary position must always be that of the scholar, particularly in those highly conflictive fields which often characterise the societal periphery of the Global South. Ethnographers are not merely spectators. Interpretations and conclusions will be affected by the passions and ideological positions encountered in the field. Moreover, ethnographers frequently enter the field with worldviews determined beforehand, a predisposition that may generate misunderstandings, exaggerations or even prejudice. Methodologically, the text draws on decades of fieldwork on indigenous peoples´ struggles and conflicts in Bolivia, Ecuador and Guatemala. The text problematizes the intricate intersection between objectivity and research, on the one side, and trust and subjectivity, on the other. The authors conclude by stressing the importance of upholding an “objectivity” that does not clash with the basic premises of a communal narrative rooted in historical experiences and structural perceptions of the world. Situational and relational subjectivity is thus inevitable, but that does not imply that the ambition of academic objectivity must be sacrificed. Such objectivity should not be conflated with “neutrality”, lexically speaking. 

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    SubjectivitiesLembkeLalanderGalindo2020prepubl
  • 46.
    Moberg, Christina
    et al.
    EASAC; KTH, Sverige.
    Wolrath Söderberg, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Rhetoric.
    Sandberg, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Gender Studies.
    Lindblad, Inger
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Sjöholm, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Aesthetics.
    Gullström, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Vallström, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Porseryd, Tove
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlholm, Dan
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, History and Theory of Art.
    Smith, Nicholas
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Philosophy.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Cederberg, Carl
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Svärd, Veronica
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Gunnarsson Payne, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
    Bornemark, Jonna
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Kaun, Anne
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Bergkvist, Anna-Mia
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Gunnarson, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Persson, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Jacobsson, Ellen
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Spånberger Weitz, Ylva
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Diderichsen, Öjvind
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education, Teacher Education and Aesthetic Learning Processes.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Garrison, Julie
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Pröckl, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Janzén, Therese
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dobers, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Bydler, Charlotte
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, History and Theory of Art.
    Westerberg, Charles
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Elmersjö, Magdalena
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Bisander, Thea
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Oreskovic, Nikolina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Fröhlig, Florence
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
    Stedt, Kristoffer
    Göteborgs universitet, Sverige.
    De unga gör helt rätt när de stämmer staten: 1 620 forskare och lärare i forskarvärlden: Vi ställer oss bakom Auroras klimatkrav2022In: Aftonbladet, no 2022-12-07, p. 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi, 1 620 forskare samt lärare vid universitet och högskolor, är eniga med de unga bakom Auroramålet: De drabbas och riskerar att drabbas allvarligt av klimatkrisen under sin livstid. De klimatåtgärder vi vidtar i närtid avgör deras framtid. Sverige måste ta ansvar och göra sin rättvisa andel av det globala klimatarbetet. 

    I strid med Parisavtalet ökar utsläppen av växthusgaser i en takt som gör att 1,5-gradersmålet kan överskridas om några år. De globala effekterna blir allt mer synliga med ständiga temperaturrekord, smältande isar, havshöjning och extremväder som torka, förödande bränder och skyfall med enorma översvämningar, som i Pakistan nyligen. Försörjningen av befolkningen utsätts för allvarliga hot i många länder.

    Minskningen av den biologiska mångfalden är extrem. Klimatkrisen är enligt WHO det största hotet mot människors hälsa i hela världen och barn utgör en särskilt sårbar grupp. Med Sveriges nordliga läge sker uppvärmningen här dubbelt så fort som det globala genomsnittet. Det förskjuter utbredningsområden för växtlighet och sjukdomsbärande insekter och ökar förekomsten av extremväder såsom värmeböljor, skogsbränder och översvämningar samt av många olika sorters infektioner och allergier. När extremväder ökar, ökar även stressen och risken för mental ohälsa. Värmeböljor ökar risken för sjukdom och död hos sårbara grupper som äldre, små barn och personer med kroniska sjukdomar. De negativa effekterna på hälsan kommer att öka i takt med klimatkrisen och barn riskerar att drabbas av ackumulerade negativa hälsoeffekter under hela sina liv. Redan i dag är mer än hälften av unga mellan 12 och 18 år i Sverige ganska eller mycket oroliga för klimat och miljö. Detta är förståeligt när våra beslutsfattare inte gör vad som krävs.

    Den juridiska och moraliska grunden för arbetet mot klimatförändringarna är att varje land måste göra sin rättvisa andel av det globala klimatarbetet. Centralt i det internationella klimatramverket är att rika länder med höga historiska utsläpp, däribland Sverige, måste gå före resten av världen. Dessa länder måste också bidra till att finansiera klimatomställningen i länderna i det Globala Syd, som är minst ansvariga för klimatkrisen men drabbas hårdast. Denna rättviseprincip är tydlig i Parisavtalet och var en het diskussionsfråga under COP27 i Sharm el-Sheikh, men lyser med sin frånvaro i det svenska klimatarbetet. 

    Sverige har satt mål för att minska sina utsläpp. Men de är helt otillräckliga: minskningstakten är för låg och målen tillåter samtidigt att åtgärder skjuts på framtiden. Dessutom exkluderas merparten av Sveriges utsläpp från de svenska nationella utsläppsmålen; bland annat utelämnas utsläpp som svensk konsumtion orsakar utanför Sveriges gränser, utsläpp från utrikes transporter och utsläpp från markanvändning och skogsbruk, exempelvis utsläpp från förbränning av biobränslen eller utsläpp från dikade våtmarker (Prop. 2016/17:146 s.25-28).

    Sverige saknar dessutom ett eget mål för att öka upptaget av växthusgaser genom utökat skydd och restaurering av ekosystem, något som krävs för att begränsa de värsta konsekvenserna av klimatkrisen (IPCC s.32). Trots dessa låga ambitioner misslyckas Sverige med att nå sina utsläppsmål, konstaterar både Klimatpolitiska rådet och Naturvårdsverket. En klimatpolitik i linje med Parisavtalet kräver både att alla typer av växthusgasutsläpp minskar samtidigt som – inte i stället för – upptaget av växthusgaser maximeras: i dag misslyckas Sverige på bägge fronter.

    Slutsatsen är tydlig. Sverige vidtar inte de åtgärder som krävs för att skydda barns och ungdomars rättigheter enligt Europakonventionen till skydd för de mänskliga rättigheterna. Detta medför allvarliga risker för liv och hälsa för unga generationer, människor i andra länder och särskilt utsatta grupper. Detta kan inte fortsätta. Därför ställer vi oss bakom Auroras krav att Sverige börjar göra sin rättvisa andel och omedelbart sätter igång ett omfattande och långtgående klimatarbete som vilar på vetenskaplig grund och sätter rättvisa i centrum.

  • 47.
    Ospina Peralta, Pablo
    et al.
    Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Quito.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet.
    Razones de un distanciamiento político: El Movimiento Indígena ecuatoriano y la Revolución Ciudadana2012In: Observatorio Social de América Latina - OSAL, ISSN 1515-3282, no 32, p. 117-134Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite sharing common initial political concerns, the relationship between the Ecuadorian Indigenous movement –mainly represented by the CONAIE confederation- and the Leftist government of Rafael Correa and his PAIS movement has been characterized by conflicts and disagreements. This is the central contradiction behind this article. The objective of the study is to analytically explore particular reasons behind this conflictive relationship since the establishment of the Correa government from 2007 onwards. Four interconnected thematic fields are emphasized as likely explanations to the disagreement and distance between the indigenous organizations and the government. These programmatic differences are: opposition against resource exploitation, attitudes towards social mobilization, agrarian politics, and lastly, the state policy we label de-sectorization.

  • 48.
    Porsani, Juliana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Börjeson, Lowe
    Stockholm University.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Martins, Angelina R. O.
    Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Enriching perspectives: experienced ecosystem services in rural Mozambique and the importance of a gendered livelihood approach to resist reductionist analyses of local culture2020In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 25, no 4, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a case study from rural Mozambique, we stress that ecosystem services research may be enriched through gendered livelihood approaches, particularly in terms of experienced ecosystem services. Ecosystem services studies have been accused of being gender blind. We argue for the value of open narratives that are attentive to the gender dynamics underpinning the production and reproduction of livelihoods. By focusing on the experienced gender dimension of ecosystem services, livelihood perspectives fulfill the normative role of providing a people-centered means to assess the values of the environment “from below” and can therefore constitute an entry point to a holistic understanding of by whom, how, when, and why the environment is experienced as valuable. Our findings stress the dynamism and plurality of experienced ecosystem services (i.e., they vary across groups and time and cross-cut material and immaterial dimensions), as well as the asymmetrical gendered and fundamentally cultural relations that they enable. Accounting for the experienced gender dimension of ecosystem services is critical to contextualize the environment in people’s lifeworlds and to make understandings of ecosystem services representative of, and instrumental to, people’s voices and agendas. We show how such enriched, diverse, bottom-up ecosystem services perspectives form an essential foundation (together with ecological research) for resisting applications of reductionist top-down categories assumed to represent general local values.

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    fulltext
  • 49.
    Porsani, Juliana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Why Does Deliberative Community Consultation in Large-Scale Land Acquisitions Fail?: A Critical Analysis of Mozambican Experiences2018In: Revista iberoamericana de estudios de desarrollo / Iberoamerican Journal of Development Studies, E-ISSN 2254-2035, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 164-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Community consultation prior to large-scale land acquisitions (LSLA) is a cornerstone that justifies the portrayal of projects as partnerships or land grabs. This study focuses on one of the countries most targeted by LSLA in the last decade, namely, Mozambique. We examine the legal and theoretical bases that support community consultations and analyse their corresponding everyday practices in Mozambique. The article argues that, although the existence of these participatory forums is inspired by normative ideals of popular deliberation, the prevailing practices in these spaces are diametrically opposed to deliberative foundations and values. As shown in this study, this mismatch between theory that is institutionalized in legal frameworks and practice derives largely from the interplay of hierarchical relations anchored in, inter alia, formal and customary ethnically based realms, gender disparities, and livelihood orientations. A core argument of the article is that any attempt to ameliorate these practices must consider critical insights regarding the centrality of enhancing social equality and inclusion in participatory spaces —challenges that are immense in places marked by deep structural inequalities.

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    PorsaniLalander2018
  • 50.
    Porsani, Juliana
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Da Conceição-Carvalho, Jocimar
    Federal Institute of Bahia (IFBA), Brazil.
    Braz-Bomfim, Juari
    Municipal Secretariat for Indigenous Issues in Santa Cruz de Cabralia, Brazil.
    Indigenously controlled tourism as struggle for autonomy: the Pataxó Jaqueira Reserve in Brazil2023In: Revista iberoamericana de estudios de desarrollo / Iberoamerican Journal of Development Studies, E-ISSN 2254-2035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the emblematic experience of an indigenous group in Brazil, the Pataxó, who was able to set up and exercise strong control over an indigenous tourism project: the Jaqueira Reserve. Based on document analysis, interviews, and observations, we show how the Jaqueira Reserve was consolidated not only as a strongly autonomous initiative but also as constituent of a greater quest for autonomy (to craft aspired livelihoods conducive to cultural revitalization and environmental protection). The Pataxó experience shows that indigenous tourism can be an instrument in greater indigenous struggles, and as such can develop not only despite marginalization but also against it.

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