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  • 1.
    Edquist, Samuel
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Arkivvetenskap.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Islands of Identity: History-writing and identity formation in five island regions in the Baltic Sea2015 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gotland, Åland, Saaremaa, Hiiumaa and Bornholm are five island regions in the Baltic Sea which constitute, or have until recently constituted, provinces or counties of their own. Combining perspectives from two disparate academic fields, uses of history and island studies, this book investigates how regional history writing has contributed to the formation of regional identity on these islands since the year 1800. The special geographic situation of the islands-somewhat secluded from the mainland but also connected to important waterways-has provided their inhabitants with shared historical experiences. Due to varying geographic and historical circumstances, the relationship between regional and national identity is however different on each island. While regional history writing has in most cases aimed at integrating the island into the nation state, it has on Åland in the second half of the 20th century been used to portray its inhabitants as a separate nation. Dramatic political upheavals as the World Wars has also caused shifts in how regional history writing has represented the relationship to the mainland nation state, and has sometimes also resulted in altered national loyalties.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Islands of Identity: History-writing and identity formation in five island regions in the Baltic Sea
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 2.
    Furuhagen, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Teachers as a political force: Teacher unions, teacher cultures, and teacher education in Sweden and Finland, 1970–20202022Inngår i: Schoolteachers and the Nordic Model: Comparative and Historical Perspectives / [ed] Jesper Eckhardt Larsen; Barbara Schulte; Fredrik W. Thue, Abingdon: Routledge, 2022, s. 157-170Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates the differing roles of teacher unions in Sweden and Finland. In Sweden, there are separate teacher unions for subject teachers, with their roots in the grammar-school tradition, and for class teachers, rooted in the folk-school tradition. In Finland, these two teacher categories were merged into one union in the early 1970s. The Swedish teacher unions have different views on the organisation and content of teacher education, with disagreements focused on lower secondary school, where both subject and class teachers claim the right to teach. This has been connected to ideological arguments, where subject teachers have defended the role of subject knowledge in teacher education, supported by the political centre-right, and class teachers have argued for the importance of general pedagogical skills, supported by the Social Democrats. This has led to new reforms of teacher education at every change of government since the 1970s. During this entire period, no new reforms of teacher education have taken place in Finland where the united teacher union has, in order to please both categories of teachers, emphasised flexibility and the importance of in-service training as a means of adapting teachers’ competencies for different student age groups.

  • 3.
    Furuhagen, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Holmén, Janne
    Uppsala University.
    Säntti, Janne
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    The ideal teacher: orientations of teacher education in Sweden and Finland after the Second World War2019Inngår i: History of Education, ISSN 0046-760X, E-ISSN 1464-5130, Vol. 48, nr 6, s. 784-805Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many similarities between the Nordic countries of Sweden and Finland, but they have made different decisions regarding their teacher-education policies. This article focuses on how the objectives of teacher education, particularly the vision of the ideal teacher, have changed in Sweden and Finland in the period after the Second World War. In Finland, the period since the 1960s can be described as a gradual scientification of teacher education. The image of the ideal teacher has transformed according to a research-based agenda, where teachers are expected to conduct minor-scale research in the classroom. In Sweden since the 1980s, on the other hand, teacher education has oscillated between progressivist and academic orientations, following shifts in government between the Social Democratic Party and the centre-right. Since the turn of the millennium, however, a consensus in favour of a strengthened research base of teacher education has also emerged in Sweden.

  • 4.
    Götz, Norbert
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Introduction to the theme issue: “Mental maps: geographical and historical perspectives”2018Inngår i: Journal of Cultural Geography, ISSN 0887-3631, E-ISSN 1940-6320, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 157-161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Götz, Norbert
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Holmén, JanneSödertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Mental Maps: Geographical and Historical Perspectives2018Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Mental map’ is a term referring to the way people orientate themselves in their spatial surroundings and how they perceive the world. Alongside ‘cognitive map’, its approximate synonym, the concept of a mental map is established in geography, the behavioral sciences, and psychology. Over the past two decades the idea of mental maps has been adopted by historians in analyzing the construction and dissolution of historical regions, the world views of political elites, and patterns of dominance and subalternity. Despite the resonance the concept of mental maps has had in several disciplines, an international multi-disciplinary conversation on mental maps with an emphasis on cultural patterns is still in its earliest stages. The present special journal issue addresses this situation by bringing together scholars from the fields of history, geography, economics, anthropology, and linguistics, and by using a variety of quantitative and qualitative research methods. The idea of this themed issue emerged at a workshop entitled “Mental Mapping – Historical and Social Science Perspectives”, held 12–13 November 2015 at the Institute of Contemporary History, Södertörn University, and the Italian Cultural Institute “C.M. Lerici” in Stockholm. The workshop was arranged by the research project Spaces of Expectation: Mental Mapping and Historical Imagination in the Baltic Sea and Mediterranean Region, a joint venture between Södertörn University and Ca’ Foscari University in Venice.

  • 6.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Historiska institutionen, Uppsala Universitet.
    A small separate fatherland of our own: regional history writing and regional identity on islands in the Baltic Sea2014Inngår i: Island Studies Journal, E-ISSN 1715-2593, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 135-154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gotland, Åland, Saaremaa, Hiiumaa and Bornholm are five islands in the Baltic Sea which constitute, or have until recently constituted, provinces or counties. Combining perspectives from the fields of island studies and history, this article investigates how regional history writing has contributed to the formation of regional identity on each island since the year 1800. The special geographic situation of the islands somewhat secluded from the mainland but also connected to important waterways has provided their inhabitants with shared historical experiences. Due to varying geographic and historical circumstances, the relationship between regional and national identity is however different on each island. While regional history writing has often aimed at integrating the island into the nation state, it has on Åland in the 20th century been used to portray its inhabitants as a separate nation.

  • 7.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Uppsala universitet / Åbo akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Changing mental maps of the Baltic Sea and Mediterranean regions2018Inngår i: Journal of Cultural Geography, ISSN 0887-3631, E-ISSN 1940-6320, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 230-250Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Little empirical research has considered the way in which macro-regions are perceived outside academic and political circles. Such studies alone can determine what regional narratives mean for the wider public, and the extent to which they coincide with region-building images produced by elites. This article examines the mental maps of high school seniors in 10 cities in the Baltic Sea and Mediterranean regions, focusing upon their perception and knowledge of other countries in those areas. Despite efforts at region building since the Cold War, the two regions remain divided on mental maps. Students have little knowledge of countries across the sea from their own, although such knowledge is generally greater among those from coastal (and particularly island) locations. A comparison with maps constructed by Gould in 1966 reveals that the perception of countries within one's own region among Italian and Swedish students has become more negative over the last 50 years.

  • 8.
    Holmén, Janne
    Uppsala universitet.
    Den politiska läroboken: bilden av USA och Sovjetunionen i norska, svenska och finländska läroböcker under kalla kriget2006Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Education 4.0.: Nordic long-term planning and educational policies in the fourth industrial revolution2021Inngår i: The Nordic Economic, Social and Political Model / [ed] Anu Koivunen; Jari Ojala; Janne Holmén, London: Routledge, 2021, s. 242-256Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyzes how government planning in Sweden, Finland, and Norway perceives the challenges caused by rapid technological and societal change, and its recommendations for how the educational system should adapt to these challenges. Long-term forecasts and plans for economic and social development will be investigated to determine whether they predict a future in which technological advancement will continue at the current pace, or whether they foresee an imminent dramatic increase in the pace of innovation and technological advancement. Wolfgang Streeck bases his prediction that the current interregnum will continue indefinitely on the absence of a practically possible vision of a progressive future. A common explanation for the rise of income inequalities since the 1970s is skill-biased technological change. The most visible advocate of the idea that people are approaching a fourth industrial revolution is Klaus Schwab, executive chairman of the World Economic Forum (WEF).

  • 10.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Finlands okända historia: Den svenska tiden 1150–18092009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Uppsala University.
    Fluctuating Dynastic and National Affiliation: The Impact of War and Unrest on Bornholm, Åland, and Saaremaa2014Inngår i: The Sea of Identities: A Century of Baltic and East European Experiences with Nationality, Class, and Gender / [ed] Götz, Norbert, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2014, s. 31-52Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Fluctuating Dynastic and National Affiliation: The Impact of War and Unrest on Bornholm, Åland, and Saaremaa
  • 12.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Historiens roll i byggandet av en åländsk nationell identitet2009Inngår i: Tiedepolitiikka, ISSN 0782-0674, nr 4, s. 31-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Humorn som vapen under Kalla kriget2013Inngår i: Samband historia tema / [ed] Niklas Ericsson, Stockholm: Sanoma utbildning , 2013, s. 100-111Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Uppsala universitet / Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Mapping Historical Consciousness: Mental Maps of Time and Space among Secondary School Students from Ten Locations around the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas2017Inngår i: Journal of Autonomy and Security Studies, ISSN 2489-4265, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 46-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article investigates the temporal and spatial structure of historical consciousness among secondary school students from ten locations around the Baltic and Mediterranean seas. It examines what eras and spaces in history that are important to the students, and discusses how the mental maps of individuals at a certain location are affected by geopolitics and interpretations of historical experiences.

    The results are mainly based upon one open survey question: Write down the name of as many important historical figures as possible within five minutes. Psychological theories of memory are used in order to explain how such simple memory retrieval can be used in studies of historical consciousness. The data from the survey is presented in the form of maps, using techniques of mental mapping developed by geographers,

    The empirical investigation reveals three categories of historical consciousness: national, found in Italy and Morocco, Americanized, found in Sweden, and multipolar, found in Estonia and on Åland and Malta. The article argues that each of the three strands of historical consciousness is linked to specific historical and geopolitical circumstances.

  • 15.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Nation-Building in Kenyan Secondary School textbooks2011Inngår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 79-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Nordic Models for a Democratic School: Educational Reform and Political Culture in Sweden and Finland 1960–20202020Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    "Nordic Models for a Democratic School" analyzes the efforts to create a democratic and equal society by the means of educational reform in Sweden and Finland 1960–2020, based on official print and earlier research. Of special concern is how the inherent contradiction between democracy and rule of law – the principle of the Rechtsstaat – has affected the development. For historical and geopolitical reasons, the balance between these principles has been different in Sweden and Finland. Swedish democratic development has been society-oriented rather than individual-oriented, without any real counterweight against the popularly elected politicians’ influence over society, including the school system. In Finland, the powers of government have been limited by the mechanisms of the Rechtsstaat, with a decentralized state and more independent civil servants, including teachers. These differences in political culture have profoundly influenced the realm of education. Sweden has experienced continuous reforms, gives priority to democracy in the value bas of curricula, and emphasizes the schools function as a transmitter of values. Finland has experienced rare but revolutionary bursts of reforms, emphasizes human rights in the value base of curricula, and gives priority to the school’s role as a transmitter of knowledge.

  • 17.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Perception of the Baltic Sea and Mediterranean regions among secondary school students2020Inngår i: Journal of Baltic Studies, ISSN 0162-9778, E-ISSN 1751-7877, Vol. 51, nr 4, s. 513-531Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveys were conducted in ten schools: five in locations around the Baltic Sea and five around the Mediterranean. Students were asked to delimit the two regions on a map of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, to assess how much they would like to live in each region, and to write down the advantages and disadvantages associated with living in each region. Students tended to describe the two regions in terms of a North–South dichotomy, describing the Baltic Sea region as cerebral, advanced, and wealthy, while culture, food, and climate were described as advantages of the Mediterranean region.

  • 18.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The autonomy of higher education in Finland and Sweden: global management trends meet national political culture and governance models2022Inngår i: Comparative Education, ISSN 0305-0068, E-ISSN 1360-0486, Vol. 58, nr 2, s. 147-163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to their common history, Finland and Sweden share many similarities. However, important differences have also developed in constitutional law, political culture and governance models. These differences have affected the implementation of international trends in the governance of higher education in the two countries. Both the Finnish and Swedish governments have strived to give institutions of higher education more formal autonomy through legislative and constitutional measures while increasing the external representations in their governing boards. However, in Finland, strong constitutional safeguards for university autonomy have counteracted the growth of external influence. The differences between the countries in this regard have their roots in political culture. There is a stronger emphasis on the division of power in Finland, as in other states that have experienced periods of political turmoil, while in Sweden, long dominated by strong social democracy, checks and balances have been considered undemocratic obstacles to the will of the people.

  • 19.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Uppsala University.
    Time and Space in Time and Space: Mapping the Conceptual History of Mental Maps and Historical Consciousness2020Inngår i: Contributions to the History of Concepts, ISSN 1807-9326, E-ISSN 1874-656X, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 105-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental maps and historical consciousness, which describe the spatial and temporal dimensions of worldviews, are not, as commonly stated, twentieth century concepts. Historical consciousness was coined simultaneously by several German scholars in the mid-1800s. Mental maps, used in English since the 1820s, had a prominent role in US geography education from the 1880s. Since then, the concepts have traveled between practical-technical, educational, and academic vocabularies, cross fertilizing fields and contributing to the formation of new research questions. However, when these initial periods of reflection gave way to empirical investigation, strict intra-disciplinary definitions of the concepts have strengthened disciplinary borders by excluding the interpretations of the same concepts in other fields.

  • 20.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Vikingatid och medeltid i åländsk historieskrivning2009Inngår i: Tankar om ursprung: forntiden och medeltiden i nordisk historieanvändning / [ed] Samuel Edquist, Lars Hermanson, Stefan Johansson, Stockholm: Statens historiska museum , 2009, s. 311-328Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Åländsk högre utbildning: Styrning och autonomi2021Inngår i: Styr ålänningarna sitt öde?: demokratiperspektiv på Åland / [ed] Sia Spiliopoulou Åkermark, Mariehamn: Cavannus , 2021, s. 75-96Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Holmén, Janne
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Edquist, Samuel
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för genus, kultur och historia, Arkivvetenskap. Uppsala universitet.
    Identities and history writing on islands in the Baltic Sea2012Inngår i: From One Island to Another: A Celebration of Island Connections / [ed] Karin Topsø Larsen, Nexø: Centre for Regional and Tourism Research (CRT) , 2012, s. 73-82Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Holmén, Janne
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Uppsala universitet.
    Ringarp, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Stockholms universitet.
    1968 och reformer av högre utbildning i Finland och Sverige2020Inngår i: 1968 och pedagogiken / [ed] Anders Burman & Joakim Landahl, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2020, s. 49-69Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    1968 och reformer av högre utbildning i Finland och Sverige
  • 24.
    Holmén, Janne
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ringarp, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Becoming universities?: Academisation and the integration of Finnish and Swedish teacher education institutions into the system of higher education2022Inngår i: Schoolteachers and the Nordic Model: Comparative and Historical Perspectives / [ed] Jesper Eckhardt Larsen; Barbara Schulte; Fredrik W. Thue, Abingdon: Routledge, 2022, s. 113-126Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Holmén, Janne
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Ringarp, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Public, private, or in between?: Institutional isomorphism and the legal entities in Swedish and Finnish higher education2023Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, nr 1, s. 57-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past few centuries, an accelerating process of legalization and classification have moulded the diverse range of earlier institutions into a limited number of isomorphic organizational forms. Today, institutions of higher education, with their roots in the corporate forms of medieval universities, can also have the legal status of, for example, government agencies, associations under public law, foundations, and joint stock companies. This article investigates the types of legal entities Swedish and Finnish institutions of higher education have been organized into in the period from the 1990s until 2020, and why these particular types have been chosen. It also explores how the special characteristics, aims, and demands of the university have caused adaptations to organizational forms such as joint stock companies and foundations. Comparative studies benefit from investigating societies that are as similar to each other as possible, making it easier to identify and isolate the effects of the factors that actually differ. In this respect, Finland and Sweden are ideal for comparative studies. Both Swedish and Finnish institutions of higher education have experienced coercive, mimetic, normative, and managerial-professional isomorphic pressure. However, there are important pre-existing national differences, such as the greater reliance on public agencies in Sweden and the multiplicity of semi-private legal entities in Finland, most significantly the associations under public law. These differences made the transition of universities into independent legal entities seem natural in Finland in 2009, while it was too radical in the Swedish context. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Holmén, Janne
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Ringarp, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet.
    Reforms of higher education and research in the Nordic countries: global trends and Nordic models in Academia2023Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 1-3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Koivunen, Anu
    et al.
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Ojala, Jari
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Always in crisis, always a solution?: The Nordic model as a political and scholarly concept2021Inngår i: The Nordic Economic, Social and Political Model / [ed] Anu Koivunen; Jari Ojala; Janne Holmén, London: Routledge, 2021, s. 1-19Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses the Nordic model as an empirical, policy-based phenomenon and as a political idea and a trope for the imagination through the lenses of social scientists and historians. The emergence and development of the Nordic model as a concept in international discussion can be roughly outlined by a quantitative bibliometric analysis using Google Books Ngrams. The notion of a distinctive Nordic social model began to attract international attention during the Great Depression of the 1930s. The prime minister of Denmark, Anker Jørgensen, answered by defining the common core of the Nordic model as democracy, welfare state, peace, solidarity with the Third World and, despite the differences between the Nordic countries, a strong cultural affiliation. In the Nordic context, scholarship on the Nordic model is a vast and lively field – impossible to subsume in a way that accurately mirrors its diversity and complexity.

  • 28.
    Koivunen, Anu
    et al.
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Ojala, JariUniversity of Jyväskylä, Finland.Holmén, JanneSödertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Samtidshistoriska institutet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The Nordic Economic, Social and Political Model2021Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Model is the 20th-century Scandinavian recipe for combining stable democracies, individual freedom, economic growth and comprehensive systems for social security. But what happens when Sweden and Finland – two countries topping global indexes for competitiveness, productivity, growth, quality of life, prosperity, and equality – start doubting themselves and their future? Is the Nordic Model at a crossroads?

    Historically, consensus, continuity, social cohesion, and broad social trust have been hailed as key components for the success and for the self-images of Sweden and Finland. In the contemporary, however, political debates in both countries are increasingly focused on risks, threats, and worry. Social disintegration, political polarization, geopolitical anxieties, and threat of terrorism are often dominant themes. This book focuses on what appears to be a paradox: countries with low income differences, high faith in social institutions, and relatively high cultural homogeneity becoming fixated on the fear of polarization, disintegration, and diminished social trust. Unpacking the presentist discourse of "worry" and a sense of interregnum at the face of geopolitical tensions, digitalization, and globalization, as well as challenges to democracy, the chapters take steps back in time and explore the current conjecture through the eyes of historians and social scientists, addressing key aspects of and challenges to both the contemporary and future Nordic Model. In addition, the functioning and efficacy of the participatory democracy and current protocols of decision-making are debated.

    This work is essential reading for students and scholars of the welfare state, social reforms, and populism, as well as Nordic and Scandinavian studies.

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