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  • 1. Borén, Thomas
    et al.
    Gentile, Michael
    Metropolitan processes in post-communist states: An introduction2007In: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 89B, no 2, p. 95-110Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study introduces a collection of theme issue papers on metropolitan processes in post-communist states. We first identify and discuss five key significant socialist-era legacy aspects that continue to mould the course of events in the post-communist urban scene. These are central planning, land allocation, the second economy, defence considerations, and the implications of the ideological leadership of the communist parties. We then procede to investigate the literature on the unfolding urban geography of post-communism and the factors underpinning its development, and we place the papers collected in this theme issue into their context.

  • 2. Bouzarovski, Stefan
    et al.
    Salukvadze, Joseph
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    A Socially Resilient Urban Transition?: The Contested Landscapes of Apartment Building Extensions in Two Post-communist Cities2011In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 48, no 13, p. 2689-2714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though social processes across the globe are increasingly being theorised through a resilience lens, this has rarely been the case within the domain of everyday life in the city. The resilience debate also remains highly geographically selective, as regions that have undergone far-reaching systemic change over the past 20 years-including the post-communist states of the former Soviet Union and eastern and central Europe (ECE)-generally remain omitted from it. In order to address such knowledge gaps, an investigation is made of the relationships between social resilience and micro-level socio-spatial change in the built environment of the post-communist city, by focusing on the institutional, spatial and economic underpinnings of apartment building extensions (ABEs) on multistorey residential buildings in the Macedonian capital of Skopje and the Georgian capital of Tbilisi. Both cities contain a wide variety of ABEs, whose reinforced concrete frame constructions often rival the host buildings in terms of size and function. By exploring the architectural and social landscapes created by the extensions, it is hoped to highlight their embeddedness in a set of policy decisions and coping strategies, as well as their controversial implications on the present and future use of urban space.

  • 3. Gentile, Michael
    Beyond the First Decade: the Urban Landscape of Priority of Ust’-Kamenogorsk2005In: Shygystyn Aymaktyk Khabarshysy - Regional’nyi Vestnik Vostoka, no 4, p. 30-53Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4. Gentile, Michael
    Delayed underurbanization and the closed-city effect: The case of Ust'-Kamenogorsk2003In: Eurasian geography and economics, ISSN 1538-7216, E-ISSN 1938-2863, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 144-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study conducted by the author based on a 2001 survey (N = 3,136) compares data on population change at the individual settlement level from the 1999 census of Kazakhstan with unpublished data from the 1989 census. The author documents the unique phenomenon of "delayed underurbanization" in the formerly closed East Kazakh city of Ust'-Kamenogorsk (ca. 300,000 inhabitants in 2002), arguing that the limited financial resources of rural migrants to that city (recently accessible to residents of its rural hinterland) have created spatial patterns of residence and commuting similar to those under the Soviet underurbanization model for open cities. The study, covering an area dominated by military-industrial and/or mining-metallurgical economies, is relevant to research focused on other formerly closed cities throughout the Soviet Union.

  • 5.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Den kartografiska transitionen i före detta Sovjetunionen2008In: Ymer, ISSN 0044-0477, p. 251-264Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6. Gentile, Michael
    Divided Post-Soviet Small Cities?: Residential Segregation and Urban Form in Leninogorsk and Zyryanovsk, Kazakhstan2004In: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 117-136Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Gentile, Michael
    Fertility, age structure and demographic transition in the former Soviet republics: The Central Asian republics in focus2007In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 433-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesising data from Soviet and post-Soviet statistical sources, this paper provides a general overview of some of the major population trends of the Former Soviet Union with a special focus on the Central Asian Republics. The paper investigates the characteristics of the countries' vital statistics, paths of demographic transition and age structure as they have developed during the past 50-60 years. Particular emphasis is placed upon data and methodological problems encountered when doing population research on the region.

  • 8. Gentile, Michael
    Former closed cities and urbanisation in the FSU: an exploration in Kazakhstan2004In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 263-278Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Gentile, Michael
    From Migration to Segregation in the Former Closed City2006In: Geographia Polonica, ISSN 0016-7282, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 23-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Mass Privatisation, Unemployment and Mortality2012In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 785-787Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Umeå universitet.
    Meeting the 'organs': The tacit dilemma of field research in authoritarian states2013In: Area (London 1969), ISSN 0004-0894, E-ISSN 1475-4762, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 426-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To the regret of many scholars, science and politics often overlap, and nowhere as clearly as inside countries ruled by authoritarian governments, where research tends to attract the surveillance of repressive authorities and, more specifically, of the secret services (known as the 'organ' within post-communist space). While such surveillance places significant ethical and methodological challenges on field research, it is rarely discussed in the literature. This paper discusses what may happen when the organ takes interest in fieldwork. Based on the author's experiences in a range of post-communist countries, the aim is to present and discuss the related risks, and to show how these may materialise in relation to the organ's (c)overt activities.

  • 12.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Neighbourhood reputation in the Soviet city and beyond: Disassembling the geography of prestige in Ust’-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan2016In: European Urban and Regional Studies, ISSN 0969-7764, E-ISSN 1461-7145, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 697-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper revisits the geographical legacy of socialism in the urban areas of the former Soviet Union. Building on research on housing and socio-spatial differentiation under and after socialism, this will be achieved by examining an important component in the spatial differentiation of the city, namely neighbourhood reputation. The analysis is based on survey data (n = 1515) from the city of Ust’-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan; a combination of descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression are deployed in order to shed light on the factors that are associated with the reputation of the neighbourhoods in which people reside. The results show that the Soviet system manufactured its own brand of socio-spatial distinction, which reflected the priority hierarchies built in the socialist planned economy. Education, age and, most importantly, area of employment appear to have been ‘rewarded’ with prestigiously located housing.

  • 13. Gentile, Michael
    Optimal City Size and Urban Growth in the Soviet Union: Planning Perspectives2000In: Politisk geografi: en uppsatsantologi / [ed] Thomas Lundén, Sture Öberg, Uppsala: Uppsala Universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen , 2000Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14. Gentile, Michael
    Population Geography Perspectives on the Central Asian Republics2005Report (Other academic)
  • 15. Gentile, Michael
    Residential segregation in a medium-sized post-Soviet city: UST'-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan2003In: Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, ISSN 0040-747X, E-ISSN 1467-9663, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 589-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the occurrence of ethnic and socio-economic residential segregation in Ust'-Kamenogorsk, a medium-sized city in Kazakhstan, using data collected by the author in collaboration with the Eastern Kazakhstan oblast' statistical authority in an extensive questionnaire survey carried out during January 2001. Together with the marketisation of the city's housing resources, a number of Soviet legacies, including the major industrial enterprises' housing strategies for their workers and the city's previous status as 'closed', are identified. Finally, the paper maps and analyses existing segregation patterns.

  • 16.
    Gentile, Michael
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Studies in the Transformation of Post-Soviet Cities: Case Studies from Kazakhstan2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the demise of central planning, post-Soviet cities have found themselves operating in a radically different economic climate. Contrary to the situation during the Soviet époque, market relations and the urban economy's adjustment thereto constitute the reality which urbanites face in their daily lives. For the vast majority, this reality has been harsh. Even so, market agency in post-Soviet cities is circumscribed by a physical infrastructure composed to foster its rejection, leading to an inevitable tension between Soviet legacy and the reality of the market economy. An overarching task of this dissertation is to contribute to a greater understanding of the new urban form which is emerging out of this tension. For this purpose, eight papers, using case studies from urban Kazakhstan, are brought together in order to shed light on recent urban developments in the former Soviet Union.Two broad themes are subject to particular attention: urbanisation and regional migration processes, and urban socio-spatial differentiation. Urbanisation is studied through the comparative analysis of census data from 1989 and 1999, from which a "closed city effect" pattern emerges. Sovietand post-Soviet era urban-bounf migrant characteristics are compared using survey data (N=3,136) collected by the author, demonstrating the existence of a significant ethnic transition within the migrant flow. Socio-spatial differentiation patterns are mapped and analysed for three Kazakh military-industrial case study cities (Ust'-Kamenogorsk, Leninogorsk and Zyryanovsk), revealing significant spatial disparities which are principally explainable in light of the workings of the Soviet economy, and its built-in priority system. Market forces tend to accentuate them.

  • 17. Gentile, Michael
    The Central Asian Industrial City2005In: Ymer, ISSN 0044-0477, p. 95-142Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Helsinki, Finland.
    The "soviet" factor: Exploring perceived housing inequalities in a midsized city in the Donbas, Ukraine2015In: Urban geography, ISSN 0272-3638, E-ISSN 1938-2847, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 696-720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I revisit the role of Soviet legacy factors in explaining todays housing inequalities in a midsized post-Soviet city by investigating social, demographic, economic and geographic determinants of perceived housing quality. Building on a sample survey dataset (n = 3,000) that brings together both Soviet legacy effects and more universal influences on housing inequality, it is shown that various aspects of Soviet housing policy can be traced as well-preserved legacies today. The survey was conducted in 2009 in Stakhanov, Ukraine, and the method of analysis is binomial logistic regression. By capturing both the social costs attributed to the post-Soviet transition crisis as well as the underlying legacy factors inherited from the Soviet epoch, the findings suggest that any analysis of housing inequalities or residential segregation in the post-socialist city must come to terms with the impacts of socialist-era economic priorities on the urban social landscape.

  • 19. Gentile, Michael
    Urban residential preferences and satisfaction in the former Soviet Union: Results from a survey in Ust'-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan2005In: Urban geography, ISSN 0272-3638, E-ISSN 1938-2847, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 296-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and analyses the geography and structure of the neighborhood residential preferences and residential satisfaction of the inhabitants of the medium-sized, post-Soviet city of Ust'-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan (population ca. 300,000). It is based on a questionnaire survey (N = 1516 + 320) conducted by the author in cooperation with the statistical authority of the Eastern Kazakhstan oblast'. At the aggregate level, the evidence that is presented suggests distinct preference patterns, and that the main focus of preference is on the city center. The geography of residential satisfaction is different. Differences in satisfaction have been found between residents of housing built by former high-priority enterprises and those occupying most of the remainder of the housing stock. These differences underscore the pervasive and continuing importance of the legacy of Soviet economic and territorial planning, and the still rather limited changes that the marketization of the economy has been able to produce.

  • 20. Gentile, Michael
    Urban Residential Preferences, Residential Satisfaction and Housing Quality in Two Small Cities in Kazakhstan: Leninogorsk and Zyryanovsk2004In: Featuring the Quality of Urban Life in Contemporary Cities of Eastern and Western Europe / [ed] Iwona Sagan, Mariusz Czepczyński, Gdańsk: Department of Economic Geography, University of Gdańsk , 2004, p. 199-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21. Gentile, Michael
    Urbanism and Disurbanism in the Soviet Union2000In: Inblick Östeuropa, ISSN 1404-014X, no 4, p. Onlinep. Online-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22. Gentile, Michael
    Vancouver: vid Pacific Rim2005In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, no 4, p. 236-238Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    West oriented in the East-oriented Donbas: a political stratigraphy of geopolitical identity in Luhansk, Ukraine2015In: Post-Soviet Affairs, ISSN 1060-586X, E-ISSN 1938-2855, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 201-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on data from a survey (n = 4000) conducted in the eastern Ukrainian city of Luhansk in late 2013, this article explores the link between national identity and foreign policy preferences in the Donbas, suggesting that they are increasingly conflated in distinct geopolitical identities. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression are used to compare the characteristics of pro-West and uncertain individuals with those of the pro-Russian/Soviet individuals, with preferences on North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and European Union (EU) accession underlying this distinction. The results show that geopolitical identities in Luhansk have a complex political stratigraphy that includes demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and attitudinal components. The pro-West constituency is younger, not Russian but often including members of other ethnic groups, well educated, more tolerant toward sexual minorities, generally more satisfied with life, and it also speaks better English. Conversely, those with pro-Russia/Soviet geopolitical identities are older, Russian, low educated, less fluent in English, intolerant, and unsatisfied with their lives. Uncertainty is more randomly distributed among social groups, indicating different underlying causes related to the source of the respondents’ uncertainty.

  • 24. Gentile, Michael
    et al.
    Maandi, PeterStenbacka, Susanne
    Kulturgeografiska studier i Tallinn2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Gentile, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Marcinczak, Szymon
    No more work for Stakhanov: migrants and stayers in teh depopulating Donbas, Ukraine2012In: Urban geography, ISSN 0272-3638, E-ISSN 1938-2847, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 401-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Labor migration from the less to the more affluent cities and regions is a defining trait of the patterns of population redistribution in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in the former Soviet Union, where international disparities in income and living standards are particularly manifest. While these macro-trends are well portrayed in the literature, their outcome at the household level seldom figures in the literature. In Ukraine, labor out-migration to Russia is a frequently chosen strategy, not least because of the Russophone background of eastern Ukraine and of many of the major cities, including Kiev and Odessa. This out-migration contributes to urban decline. Using multivariate methods, we analyze the characteristics of population subgroups with and without the experience of working abroad. We also use descriptive statistics to assess the impact of migration events within households on the standard of living of the latter. Our data source is the city of Stakhanov Health Interview Survey 2009 (n = 3,000).

  • 26.
    Gentile, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of Helsinki, Finland / Umeå Univsersity.
    Marcińczak, Szymon
    Umeå University / University of Łódź, Poland .
    Housing inequalities in Bucharest: shallow changes in hesitant transition2014In: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, E-ISSN 1572-9893, Vol. 79, no 4, p. 449-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been said, yet little remains known, about the impacts of the changes associated with post-socialist transition on housing inequalities in metropolitan Central and Eastern Europe. To some extent, this depends on the scarcity of 'hard evidence' about the socialist epoch against which the subsequent developments may be gauged. Based on a case study of Bucharest, the Romanian capital and one of the region's major cities, this study investigates various lines of housing inequality using data from a 20 % sample of the national censuses of 1992 and 2002. With only minor changes having taken place since the revolutionary events of late 1989, the year 1992 provides an accurate picture of the housing inequalities inherited from the socialist epoch, whereas the new societal order had largely been established by 2002. We use linear regression and binary logistic regression modeling to identify the factors that predict living space and level of facilities. The results suggest that the first decade of transition did not exert any major influences on the housing inequalities inherited from socialism, with the exception of notable improvements at the very top of the social pyramid. This finding is at odds with the literature that highlights the (suggested) effects of socio-economic polarization on the residential structure of cities after socialism. However, the results from 1992 indicate that housing was segmented along socio-economic lines already under socialism, and perhaps more so than one would have expected in the light of the literature on housing inequalities during this period.

  • 27. Gentile, Michael
    et al.
    Rafiqui, Pernilla S.
    Intryck från 2nd Nordic Geographers Meeting 2007 i Bergen2007In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, no 2-3, p. 56-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Gentile, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Umeå University.
    Sjöberg, Örjan
    Housing allocation under socialism: the Soviet case revisited2013In: Post-Soviet Affairs, ISSN 1060-586X, E-ISSN 1938-2855, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 173-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social or public housing is an important component of the housing supply= n most European countries. Nowhere, however, has the notion of social hou= ng been taken as far as in the countries that formerly were ruled by soci= ist regimes, most notably the Soviet Union. For this reason, it may be ar= ed that the development of theorizations on housing has much to learn fro= this large but inconclusively studied example. One of the avowed virtues = socialism was that the system, in theory, guaranteed its subjects equal = ghts to housing. That this was not quite the case is well known in the li= rature, but in fact no robust evidence to support this view (or the contr= y) has been presented so far. Therefore, this paper's aim is to investiga= the functioning of the Soviet system of housing allocation, assessing it= claims to social equity and justice. Based on a detailed case study of ab= t 3500 Soviet-era housing allocation decisions made in Daugavpils, Latvia= at five poin! s in time covering various stages in the development of Soviet power (ful= coverage of decisions made in 1953, 1960, 1970, 1980, and January-April 1= 0), we illustrate how much living space was allocated to whom. In additio= we detail the characteristics of the waiting times involved. We apply bo= descriptive and regression methods on our data-set, making a significant= ontribution to what is known about the outcome of housing allocation unde= socialism and, at a more general level, under strictly supply-constrained= onditions.

  • 29. Gentile, Michael
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Örjan
    Intra-urban landscapes of priority: the Soviet legacy2006In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 701-729Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the urban experience of the Soviet Union, this article explores the value of the so-called priority approach for understanding the mechanisms that contributed to the creation of the spatial structure of the Soviet/socialist city. The changes in priority status that the various urban functions were subject to are highlighted. It is then proposed that these variations were instrumental in the formation of the internal functioning and social differentiation of the Soviet/socialist city and, to the extent that the pre-1991 urban fabric persists, of its post-Soviet successor. Finally, the authors propose a new model of the development of the Soviet/socialist city, fusing the priority approach with an extensive survey of previous scholarly work within the field.

  • 30.
    Gentile, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Sjöberg, Örjan
    Soviet housing: who built what and when? The case of Daugavpils, Latvia2010In: Journal of Historical Geography, ISSN 0305-7488, E-ISSN 1095-8614, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 453-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout much of the Soviet period, access to housing was a major consideration, both for individual citizens and employers intent on increasing their number of employees. Because of the heavy emphasis on industry, and despite the progress made within the area since the late 1950s, Soviet urban residential provision never managed to fully recover from the acute housing shortage that characterized the Stalin years. In this paper, we address the quantitative side of housing construction during the socialist era. Using the mid-sized diversified industrial town of Daugavpils (Latvia) as a case study, we set out to investigate the extent to which employers were involved in decisions concerning housing provision. To do this, we consult a large volume of archival records, our focus being on documents tracing entries indicating that new living quarters were ready and could be allocated to employees of sponsoring organizations and enterprises.

  • 31.
    Gentile, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Sjöberg, Örjan
    Spaces of Priority: The Geography of Soviet Housing Construction in Daugavpils, Latvia2010In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, ISSN 0004-5608, E-ISSN 1467-8306, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 112-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the absence of a land market, socialist-era cities tended to look different from their market-economy equivalents. The difference was made more pronounced by the fact that the command economy also favored industrial investment over infrastructure and housing. Yet, with an increasing appetite for additional labor, needed by production units to ensure plan fulfillment, housing became a means to recruit and retain employees. Not all employers could afford to put resources into such ononproductiveo investment, however, and the literature suggests that the notion of priorities allows for discriminating between those enterprises that enjoyed soft budget constraints, and therefore could afford to spend money on worker welfare, and those that could not. As a heuristic framework based on the economics of shortage, the priority model is compelling, but as yet it lacks empirical substantiation. Setting out to test the landscapes of priority model of urban development, this article details the developments of housing construction in Daugavpils, Latvia, during the Soviet period. Based on extensive archive and field research covering all newly constructed or converted housing projects over the period from 1951 to 1991, it yields considerable, if not unqualified, support for the model that until now has not been made subject to systematic empirical tests.

  • 32. Gentile, Michael
    et al.
    Tammaru, Tiit
    Housing and ethnicity in the post-Soviet City: Ust'-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan2006In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1757-1778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite egalitarian aims, considerable social and ethnic segregation existed in countries with central planning. To date, however, research on residential segregation in the former state socialist countries of east central Europe and the former Soviet Union has been limited and has focused mainly on major metropolitan or capital-city areas and on social segregation. The aim of this study is to analyse ethnic post-Soviet segregation in housing in the medium-sized industrial city of Ust'-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan. The paper uses data from the sample survey Cities of the Rudnyi Altay, and linear and logistic regression to analyse segregation by dwelling type, housing size and facilities between Kazakhs, Russians and other ethnic groups. The study reveals that the housing conditions of Kazakhs are considerably worse than those of both Russians and other ethnic groups.

  • 33.
    Gentile, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Tammaru, Tiit
    van Kempen, Ronald
    Heteropolitanization: Social and spatial change in Central and East European Cities2012In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 291-299Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Marcinczak, Szymon
    et al.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Umeå University.
    Stepniak, Marcin
    Paradoxes of (Post)Socialist Segregation: Metropolitan Sociospatial Divisions Under Socialism and After In Poland2013In: Urban geography, ISSN 0272-3638, E-ISSN 1938-2847, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 327-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The state of the art in research on residential segregation and concentr= ion in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) largely focuses on process descri= ion (e.g., the multitude of works on gentrification and suburbanization).= ven though major advances in the conceptualization and measurement of seg= gation have been made, works that scrutinize the patterns of segregation = d/or concentration in CEE are rare, while studies that simultaneously exp= re and link segregation patterns under socialism and after are virtually = nexistent. Relying on Polish census-tract level data on the educational s= ucture of population in 1978, 1988, and 2002, this study explores the pat= rns of social segregation and concentration in the three major Polish cit= s (Warsaw, Cracow, and od), representing different paths of development u= er socialism and after. The results show that the population of the three= ajor Polish cities was still socially heterogeneous at the census tract l= el in 2002. ! he results also reveal that the level of social residential segregation i= the three cities has been decreasing steadily since 1978, irrespective of= he prevailing economic system.

  • 35. O'Hara, Sarah
    et al.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Household Incomes in Central Asia: The Case of Post-Soviet Kazakhstan2009In: Eurasian geography and economics, ISSN 1538-7216, E-ISSN 1938-2863, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 327-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two European geographers present the findings of a sizeable survey (n = 7,5 15) providing a detailed geographical analysis of household incomes and reliance on personal subsidiary garden plots across Kazakhstan. The authors focus on assessing the extent to which Kazakhstan's rising GDP during the post-Soviet period has coincided with an increase in the general population's personal income and ability to secure adequate food supplies for personal consumption. The fine geographical scale of analysis of the survey data (significantly less coarse than oblast-level data) enabled them to identify regions characterized by "trickle-down" income, largely centered on the country's two main urban centers and areas of resource exploitation. The patterns revealed in the paper have relevance to the debate concerning the uneven distribution of benefits from resource exploitation (notably oil and gas) to Kazakhstan's population.

  • 36. O'Hara, Sarah
    et al.
    Ivlevs, Artjoms
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    The Impact of Global Economic Crisis on Remittances in the Commonwealth of Independent States2009In: Eurasian geography and economics, ISSN 1538-7216, E-ISSN 1938-2863, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 447-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two European geographers and an economist analyze the impact of the 2008-2009 global economic recession on remittances in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Drawing on balance-of-payments data as well as information on money transfers to and from the region, they detail the annual growth of remittances since 2001, illustrating the growing importance of this income stream to a number of countries in the region. Using quarterly data, they then provide details of the impact of the financial crisis on remittances starting with the 2007 credit crunch and intensifying with the collapse of global markets in 2008. Based on the impact of the 1998 Russian Crisis, they suggest that by 2012, remittances to the region could fall to only one-third the 2008 level, and that a return to pre-crisis levels of remittances could take almost a decade.

  • 37. Petrova, Saska
    et al.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Umeå University.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Bouzarovski, Stefan
    Perceptions of thermal comfort and housing quality: exploring the microgeographies of energy poverty in Stakhanov, Ukraine2013In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1240-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing recognition of the importance of indoor environments as 'active political-ecological spaces' has rarely been followed up by a systematic empirical engagement with the constituent dynamics and conceptual issues associated with infrastructural deprivation in this domain, particularly in non-Western contexts. Therefore, we investigate the relationship between self-reported perceptions of thermal comfort in the home, on the one hand, and a range of sociodemographic, housing, and health-related variables, on the other, via a quantitative analysis of a large-scale survey undertaken in the Eastern Ukrainian town of Stakhanov. Using the perceived level of thermal comfort as a starting point for its empirical explorations, we estimate the number and type of households who feel that they are receiving inadequate energy services in the home. Special attention is paid to the role of buildings in shaping the perceptions of thermal comfort.

  • 38. Rafiqui, Pernilla S.
    et al.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Vientiane2009In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 38-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vientiane, the capital of the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a small city that has experienced various rounds of socio-economic experimentation during the past few decades: currently, it is set in a capitalist economic context under the rule of a communist regime. With increasing connectivity to regional and global networks, the city has embarked on a far-reaching path of urban transformation. This city profile describes the historical influences affecting the spatial structure of Vientiane, the urban spatial structures and the land use patterns that have unfolded as a result of the economic liberalization that has been taking place since the late 1980s, as well as some salient aspects of the urban management process with respect to planning procedures.

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