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  • 1.
    Lindell, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Stockholms universitet.
    Young People, Class and the News: Distinction, socialization and moral sentiments2017In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Journalism studies almost exclusively rely on a “sociology of integration” perspective when theorizing the social function of journalism. Focus is put on if and how journalism facilitates democratic processes, encourages civic engagement and strengthens the sense of community. In providing an alternative view, this study mobilizes the cultural sociology of Pierre Bourdieu—a “sociologist of conflict”—in order to study how young people’s conditions of existence have given rise to vastly different orientations towards news and the normative order surrounding journalism. Based on focus group interviews with young people in Brazil and Sweden, the study shows that socialization into the world of news in the family and in school generates class-distinctive news orientations. The world of news is a site where social groups draw moral and cultural boundaries against each other. Since different social groups monopolize completely different news practices and preferences, they work to legitimate social differences. As such, the findings challenge common notions of news as creating the “healthy citizen”, and that news media provide spaces for the practice of civility and citizenship.

  • 2.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Becoming a circumstantial media activist Brazilian Landless Workers Movement struggle to construct arenas for communication: Brazilian Landless Workers Movement's struggle to construct arenas for communication2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative or radical media (Downing 2000) are characterized by collective production, democratic participation and promotion of minorities’ rights to self- expression. This kind of media production is common among social movements and insurgent organizations whose members do not see themselves and their causes represented in mainstream media. This is the case of the Brazilian Landless Workers Movement (MST), which since its foundation in 1984 has been creating media outlets and producing content for different platforms. However, realizing that alternative arenas would not grant participation in the public debate, MST became also active in the area of media and communication rights in Brazil. Based on fieldwork carried out in 2013 and 2014 this article proposes a perspective to communication rights (cf. Peruzzo 2007 and 2014) that is attentive to the structural configuration of media landscape and not only to the provision of technology and production skills. In the current context were technology enabled activism has become the focus of research; this study shows that collective action and promotion of structural change are still relevant. Because the possibility to express discontentment and organize through digital media does not necessarily mean that those at the margins will be represented (cf. Fraser 2009) in the public sphere. 

  • 3.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Becoming an incidental media activist: On Brazilian Landless  Workers’ Movement struggle to construct arenas for communication2014In: Voice & Matter: Glocal Conference on Communication for Development, Malmö: Ørecomm , 2014, p. 26-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian Landless Workers’ Movement (MST) has since its creation in 1984 acted for the promotion of agrarian reform and rural workers’ and their families’ rights to education, healthcare, culture and infrastructure. Throughout its trajectory, the social movement faced the difficulties that arise from the scarcity of arenas and resources to communicate. Recognising at early stage that voice matters (cf. Couldry 2010) and that the means to form and express opinions are not equally available in a society, MST has since its foundation being active in constructing and maintaining communication channels on the side of the core cause of promoting agrarian reform. The article is based on fieldwork carried out in 2013 and 2014 and interviews with MST militants working with communication. The analysis of the material raises questions of relevance, potential and actual achievements of media activism. From the realisation, at an early stage, that voice is an important element in the promotion of social change; MST started their activities as incidental media activists. These activities run parallel and complement the movement’s work and include demands to change community radio legislation in Brazil and participation in FNDC, the National Forum for Democratisation of Communication. Based Fraser’s (2009) view of justice as a matter of recognition, redistribution and representation and on Couldry’s (2010 and 2013) critique of corporative media’s role in neoliberalism, this article discusses the experience of MST in becoming an incidental actor in the democratisation of media. The term incidental is used here to draw attention to the importance of voice for those considered marginal, even if acting on another aspect of marginality. 

  • 4.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Stockholms universitet.
    Between opportunities and threats: an analysis of the Brazilian Landless Workers’ movement experiences with new media technologies2016In: IAMCR 2016: Participatory Communication Research Section: Abstracts of papers presented at the annual conference of the International Association for Media and Communication Research, 2016, p. 66-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent discussions and research about the uses of digital social media platforms by social movements and protest organizations have raised questions about threats and challenges represented by these technologies. There is also a debate on whether digital social media platforms can contribute to establish and strengthen long-standing oppositional groups and structural change. In this context, this article analyses how the Brazilian Landless Workers Movement (MST) experiences and views the use of digital social media platforms in its communicative processes. Based on interviews and observations, the article shows how MST militants present ambivalent views towards platforms such as Facebook and Twitter and towards the dynamics of digital communication. Conclusions point that the main concern is threat to the organic collective character of the movement posed by individualistic digital social media platforms. Different from contemporary protest organisations, MST sees a clear separation between the movement and its media. The goal is to appropriate of and control media technologies, which brings many difficulties when dealing with digital social media platforms.

  • 5.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Bridging the gap between administrative and critical approaches in development and participatory communication2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Explorando a dimensão empírica da cidadania comunicativa e direito à comunicação2014In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 08, no 03, p. 115-129Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Stockholms universitet.
    Exploring Inclusive Ethnography as a Methodology to Account for Multiple Experiences2016In: Innovative methods in media and communication research / [ed] Sebastian Kubitschko, Anne Kaun, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 189-205Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sartoretto shows the necessity of ethnography inspired methodologies that are attentive to communication as an open-ended process to better understand media related practices. The chapter highlights the ways multimedia ethnographic fieldwork is useful to inform research that seeks to understand realities in transitional and unequal societies outside the Euro-American context. Sartoretto also explicates that a too strong focus on analyzing the significances for social action of new technologies that are unequally available across different groups tends to give an eschewed view of the democratizing potentials of these technologies. By focusing on the experiences of a marginalized group in Brazil that is geographically distant from urban centers and does not have access to the most advanced technologies, the chapter broadens the horizons of analysis of the interplay between social action and media.

  • 8.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Mediatized occupations: Analysing media practices in connection to the political landscape2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Mobilization and action in the new mediapolis: Understanding action and mobilization offline and online2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Mobilization as Communication: A Latin American contribution to the study of social movements2016In: Commons: revista de comunicación y ciudadanía digital, ISSN 2255-3401, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 93-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many scholars have noted the lack of interdisciplinary dialogue and research between the areas of social movements studies and that of media and communications. While social movement studies fail to fully analyse media practices and communicative processes in relation to mobilization, in media and communication the social and political aspects of mobilization are seldom taken into account when analysing communication in social movements. This apparent lack of dialogue is presented in the paper as a consequence of north-centred theorization in the fields of social movement studies and media and communication, which is addressed by spelling out the contribution of Latin American communication scholarship and a view of mobilization as anchored in communication.

  • 11.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mobilization as communication: A Latin American Perspective to the Study of Social Movements2016In: Social Movements Around the World, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a critique to dominant social movement theories problematising their North-centrism and the lack of an in-depth analysis of media and communication's role for social movements. Drawing on Downing’s (2008) argument that there is very little dialogue between the areas of social movement studies and media and communication, a link between social mobilization and communication is identified in Latin American scholarship. The argument advanced is that concepts such as hybridization and conscientization, developed by Latin American scholars to explain social mobilization in the region, can be the missing analytical connection between social movement studies and media and communication. Furthermore, as these concepts were developed to explain social mobilization in post-colonial, underdeveloped and unequal societies, they are presented as a theoretical alternative to the Euro-American universalism of the dominant theories.

  • 12.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Ocupar. Resistir. Produzir. Comunicar: Processos comunicativos no Movimento Sem-Terra2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Stockholms universitet.
    The Circumstantial Media Activist: An Analysis of the Relation between Media and Political Representation2016In: Javnost - The Public, ISSN 1318-3222, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 273-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative or radical media are kinds of media production common among social movements whose members do not see their causes represented in mainstream media. This is the case of the Brazilian Landless Workers Movement (MST), which since 1984 has created media outlets and produced content for different platforms, later becoming active in the area of media and communication rights in Brazil. Based on fieldwork carried out in 2013 and 2014, this article proposes that a perspective of communication rights is attentive to the structural configuration of the media landscape and not only to the provision of technology and production skills. This study shows that collective action and promotion of structural change are still relevant alongside new technologies.

  • 14.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Voices from the Margins: People and the media in the struggle for land in Brazil2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Karlstads universitet.
    Voices from the margins: People, media, and the struggle for land in Brazil2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study looks into communicative processes and media practices among members of a subaltern social movement. The aim is to gain an understanding of how these processes and practices contribute to symbolic cohesion in the movement, how they develop and are socialized into practices, and how these processes and practices help challenge hegemonic groups in society. These questions are explored through a qualitative study, based on fieldwork and interviews, of a subaltern social movement. The empirical object of the study is the Brazilian Landless Workers Movement (MST), which was founded in 1984 to promote agrarian reform and defend the rights of rural workers in Brazil.

     

    At the macro-level, the discussion addresses social realities marked by the meta-processes of globalisation, neo-liberalisation, and mediatisation. Against this background, the experiences of MST militants and of the movement as a whole help us to understand how different communicative processes play a role in the ways people experience globalisation, neo-liberalisation, and mediatisation in their daily lives. Departing from an understanding of communication as a process that structures practices (mediated and non-mediated), this study questions the media-centric understanding of communication, arguing that media practices are created through appropriation processes.

     

    The results show that communicative processes are crucial to reinforcing values and symbologies associated with the rural worker identity. There is also a high level of reflexivity about media practices and an understanding that they must serve the principles of the collective. As a consequence, the movement seeks to maintain control over media, routinely discussing and evaluating the adoption and use of media. The interviews show ambivalence towards the alleged dialogic and organisational potential of digital media and to the adaptability of these media to the MST’s organisational processes. Through observation, it is possible to conclude that media have an instrumental function, as opposed to a structural function, in the processes of social transformation engendered by the MST. 

  • 16.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Stockholms universitet.
    Watchdogs or influential political players? The blurring line between editorializing and informing in Argentinean and Brazilian news media2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The watchdog role of the press has been a widely accepted concept in political communication for decades. According to this view, by monitoring the conduct of governments, news media play a regulatory role that is vital to democracy, such that their independence from political actors enables them to consider different sources of information and perspectives on an issue and present a balanced coverage to the public, and the quality of their news is defined by rigorous fact-checking, a focus on information rather than infotainment, and due attention to the complexity of the issue covered (including adequate discussion of context, causes and consequences). This view, however, is challenged by the current Latin American scenario, in which the boundaries between editorial line and information are blurred in connection with the engagement of media holdings in society as commercial and political actors with their own interests.  In this paper we approach the problem by way of a comparison of the reporting by Brazilian and Argentinian printed news outlets of two recent stories involving political personalities in government in both countries. . We a) analyze the quality of their respective coverage and b) establish similarities and differences in their approaches. We then compare this coverage with that of four smaller-scale news media outlets (Página/12 daily newspaper and bimonthly magazine Acción in Argentina, and weekly newspaper Brazil de Fato and online newspaper Brasil 247 in Brazil) that are not components of media conglomerates, analyzed following the same approach. Findings of this exploratory study indicate that the coverage of dominant news media outlets fails to meet the quality standards considered a hallmark of watchdog journalism, and reveal commonalities in their approaches to framing the stories under scrutiny. These commonalities call for further comparative investigation of the production of political news by dominant media players in the region. Moreover, our findings illustrate the use of newsmaking to advance specific interests rather than inform the public, and indicate the need to rethink the location of the watchdog role in democracies affected by media concentration. If dominant media groups use their news outlets to advance specific interests and therefore play a powerful role in the democratic game other than duly informing citizens, where should the watchdog role lie?

  • 17.
    Sartoretto, Paola Madrid
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ativismo mídiatico circunstancial – uma análise da relação entre representações mídiáticas e políticas2016In: Animus: Revista Interamericana de Comunicação Midiática, ISSN 1677-907X, E-ISSN 2175-4977, Vol. 15, no 30, p. 118-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circumstantial media activist – an analysis of the relation between media and political representation

    Alternative or radical media (Downing, 2000) are kinds of media production common among social movements whose members do not see their causes represented in mainstream media. This is the case of the Brazilian Landless Workers Movement (MST), which since 1984 has created media outlets and produced content for different platforms, becoming later active in the area of media and communication rights in Brazil. Based on fieldwork carried out in 2013 and 2014 this article proposes a perspective to communication rights is attentive to the structural configuration of media landscape and not only to the provision of technology and production skills. This study shows that collective action and promotion of structural change are still relevant alongside new technologies.

  • 18.
    Sartoretto, Paola Madrid
    Stockholms universitet.
    Between opportunities and threats – an analysis of Brazilian Landless Workers’ movement experiences with new media technologies2016In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, no SI, p. 035-053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent discussions and research about the uses of digital social media platforms by social movements and protest organizations have raised questions about threats and challenges represented by these technologies. There is also a debate on whether digital social media platforms can contribute to establish and strengthen long-standing oppositional groups and structural change. In this context, this article analyses how the Brazilian Landless Workers Movement (MST) experiences and views the use of digital social media platforms in its communicative processes. Based on interviews and observations, the article shows how MST militants present ambivalent views towards platforms such as Facebook and Twitter and towards the dynamics of digital communication. Conclusions point that the main concern is threat to the organic collective character of the movement posed by individualistic digital social media platforms. Different from contemporary protest organisations, MST sees a clear separation between the movement and its media. The goal is to appropriate of and control media technologies, which brings many difficulties when dealing with digital social media platforms.

  • 19.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Rosa, Rosane
    Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Brasil.
    Democratização da Comunicação no MST: a rádio comunitária e o fortalecimento da luta em defesa do direito à comunicação e à terra2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Uppal, Charu
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Sartoretto, Paola
    Stockholm University.
    Cheruiyot, David
    Karlstads universitet.
    The Case for Communication Rights: A Rights Based Approach for Media Development2016In: Communicating with Power: 66th Annual International Communication Association Conference, Japan, Fukuoka, June 9-13, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the 1980s international organizations have devised strategies to develop national media systems to make them more diverse and inclusive, and preserve local cultures. In many countries these strategies have been unsuccessful and information has become a commodity as the interests of private actors prevent many groups from full access to communication rights. This paper attempts to provide a new view on media development from a rights-based approach, derived from a critique to dominant perspectives from international organizations with a too strong focus on technology provision. The paper argues for media development based on the right to communication as an alternative to commodification of information. Through examples from Brazil and Kenya the paper illustrates that viewing communication as a basic right can lead to the inclusion of more voices in the public discourse. Furthermore, a model for media development is proposed that suggests states’ involvement in preserving local cultures.

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