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  • 1.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Linke, Sebastian
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Lundberg, Cecilia
    Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Lemke, Paulina
    Gdansk University, Poland.
    Interactions between risk assessment and risk management for environmental risks in the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Deliverable 92011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report has been produced within the interdisciplinary RISKGOV project with the overall aim of comparing risk assessment – risk management interactions connected with five severe Baltic Sea environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges linked to marine transports).

    Specifically, we compare three major aspects connected with assessment  – management interactions and, based on this analysis, suggest possible routes for improving interaction between science-based advice and environmental (risk) management:

    1. Organisational structure of the risk assessment activities and the generation, selection and implementation of management options.
    2. The management of scientific uncertainties and disagreements.
    3. Implementation of the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) and modes of ‘good governance’.

    In order to understand these aspects we started by describing and analysing the characteristics of the five risk cases. This revealed substantial differences in terms of sources, effects and complexities (in terms of scientific uncertainty and socio-political ambiguity). For example, chemical risks are associated with great uncertainty and oil spill with much lower; fisheries relate to very high socio-political ambiguity, whereas invasive species show the opposite nature and oil spill fit with more traditional risk parameters. Our analysis also revealed a great variation in the societal risk responses, which far from always seems rational in relation to the risk characteristics.

    When it comes to the organisational structures, we can conclude that different forms of institutions and institutional arrangements and relations have evolved over time in the various cases, for instance relatively well-formalised in the overfishing case, and rather informal for combating eutrophication. Similarly, we see different forms of expert dependencies. In the overfishing case there are institutionalised formal links between e.g. ICES and the EU Commission and the historic path-dependency is quite strong, thereby causing institutional inertia, even though the development of Regional Advisory Councils (RACs) such as the Baltic RAC are gradually changing the picture. In relation to many other environmental risk cases (e.g. eutrophication and chemicals) HELCOM provides a regional basis for assessment and management (although implementation of management recommendations have often proved complex). Still, assessment-management interactions seem more developed and better organised in the overfishing case, even though it is obvious that the last link, the political decision-making on quotas, has deviated substantially from the science-based advice, thereby opening for continued overfishing. Similarly, well-developed institutions seem to allow for improved deliberative processes for fisheries, including improved analysis of socio-economic dimensions, which we cannot find to the same extent for e.g. chemicals, eutrophication and invasive species.

    The assessment and management responses we see to the studied risks do not seem to be based on any thorough analysis of the specific risk characteristics, or on the suitability of different overall strategies (e.g. traditional science-based assessment, precautionary, deliberative). Instead, all studied assessment-management interactions can be classified as being built primarily on traditional science-based assessment of risks. Of course, we see elements of for example precaution in e.g. the chemicals case, and deliberation in the fish case, and the inclusion of the EAM as a starting point for assessment exercises and management decisions is becoming more common, but overall this happens only partially and infrequently.

    Thus, to summarise, we conclude that there are substantial differences among environmental risks in relation to, for example, complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity, and we argue that it is important to maintain a balance between ideals of holistic approaches such as EAM and context dependent requirements of various management objectives, environmental risks and sectors. For example, high levels of uncertainty (e.g. chemical pollution) and ambiguity (e.g. overfishing) can be assumed to require assessment-management approaches focussed on precaution and participatory deliberation, respectively.

    Furthermore, our analysis identifies six key issues and challenges that, if adequately addressed, may improve assessment-management interactions and facilitate the implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.

    1. We see a need to further develop the regional and ecosystem basis of assessment-management interactions in terms of addressing prioritised knowledge gaps, as well as developing regional knowledge management and monitoring to strengthen regionally-based scientific advice.

    2. Integration of various forms of scientific knowledge is currently rather undeveloped in assessment and scientific advice, which reduces possibilities of addressing also the social dimension of sustainable development as well as possibilities of identifying and reducing ‘blind spots’.

    3. Stakeholder participation requires more consideration since incorporation of practitioner and local knowledge in risk assessments as well as stakeholder deliberation in risk management often are vital for the successful implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.

    4. We identify substantial room for improvements linked to coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement in both risk assessment and risk management. We conclude that there in fact are examples of science-based precautionary approaches and methods, but that a comprehensive and coherent strategy for addressing uncertainty is often lacking.

    5. Interdependencies among environmental risk issues need to be more specifically addressed than today. Climate change will, for example, influence both the outcome of risk assessments as well as the possibilities for successful management in all the studied environmental risk cases.

    6. Despite a commonly expressed idea of a clear separation between assessment and management, the studied science-policy interactions are in general rather diffuse and politicised. This lack of transparency about how these interactions evolve and are constructed may mislead political decision makers and the public and thus potentially hamper management progress.

  • 2. Johannesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    André, Carl
    The future of Baltic Sea populations: local extinction or evolutionary rescue?2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 179-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental change challenges local and global survival of populations and species. In a species-poor environment like the Baltic Sea this is particularly critical as major ecosystem functions may be upheld by single species. A complex interplay between demographic and genetic characteristics of species and populations determines risks of local extinction, chances of re-establishment of lost populations, and tolerance to environmental changes by evolution of new adaptations. Recent studies show that Baltic populations of dominant marine species are locally adapted, have lost genetic variation and are relatively isolated. In addition, some have evolved unusually high degrees of clonality and others are representatives of endemic (unique) evolutionary lineages. We here suggest that a consequence of local adaptation, isolation and genetic endemism is an increased risk of failure in restoring extinct Baltic populations. Additionally, restricted availability of genetic variation owing to lost variation and isolation may negatively impact the potential for evolutionary rescue following environmental change.

  • 3. Smolarz, Kasia
    et al.
    Renault, Tristan
    Soletchnik, Patrick
    Wolowicz, Macciek
    Neoplasia detection in Macoma balthica (Bivalvia) from the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland): comparison of flow cytometry, histology and chromosome analysis2005In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, ISSN 0177-5103, E-ISSN 1616-1580, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 187-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A flow cytometry protocol was applied for the detection of neoplasia in Macoma balthica L. from the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland). A simple method, based on an osmotic shock, was used to permeabilise gill cells. The cytometric pattern of normal clams consisted of 2 peaks, a major peak B and a smaller peak C. The cytometric pattern of affected clams consisted of 2 peaks named B' and C'. Two parameters were used to define the stages of abnormalities in M. balthica clams based on the percentage of cells in peaks B, C, B' and C' and on the ratio between the fluorescence value of peaks B, C, B' and C' in all individuals. Three stages of neoplasia were clearly distinguished by flow cytometry considering peak C'. Stage 1 was characterised by a major population of cells in peak B' and more than 10 % of cells in the C' peak. Stage 2 consisted of a lower percentage of cells in peak B' and more than 25 % of cells in peak C'. Stage 3 of the neoplasia was characterised by a further reduction in peak B' and more than 40 % of cells in peak C'. Flow cytometry allowed for objective detection of neoplasia and provided a rapid method for measuring the DNA content of thousands of cells per individual. The accuracy of flow cytometry was assessed by comparing with standard histological techniques, used here as a reference technique for the detection of neoplasia, and with chromosome analysis. All individuals were analysed in parallel using the 3 techniques. The proportion of normal and affected individuals diagnosed using flow cytometry was comparable to the proportion determined by histology and chromosome analysis

  • 4. Smolarz, Kasia
    et al.
    Renault, Tristan
    Wolowicz, Macciek
    Survey for neoplasia in Macoma balthica from the Gulf of Gdansk by flow cytometry2005In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, ISSN 0177-5103, E-ISSN 1616-1580, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using flow cytometry, 234 Macoma balthica were examined during a survey to determine frequency of neoplasia in the Gulf of Gdansk (Poland). Clams were collected in 4 locations and DNA content in gill tissue cells was determined by flow cytometry using propidium iodide staining. Cell permeabilization was induced by osmotic shock. Prevalence of neoplasia ranged from 9.6 to 26.7 % depending on location. DNA content in aneuploid cells was higher than in normal dividing cells. The fluorescence value for aneuploid cells corresponded to tetraploid/pentaploid cells. Three stages of neoplasia were defined, based on the percentage of aneuploid cells determined by flow cytometry. Histopathological and cytogenetic analyses were also carried out on the same clams for comparative study. Proportions of normal and affected clams detected using flow cytometry were similar to those identified using both methods. In the present study, no clear relationship was demonstrated between prevalence of neoplasia and pollutant detection in the different sampling sites.

  • 5.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Berger, Agata
    Long-term toxicity of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) to the benthic clam Macoma balthica from the Baltic Sea2009In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 95, no 3, p. 239-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world's largest brackish water sea area, the Baltic Sea, is considered to be one of the most polluted seas of the world. Many new pollutants are constantly entering the environment, such as brominated flame-retardants (BFRs). BFRs represent a group of compounds that structurally resemble hydrophobic organic contaminants, but only scarce data about their toxicity to marine organism exist. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze long-term in vivo cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hexabromocyclodododecane (HBCDD) to exposed marine invertebrates using a suite of cytogenetic biomarkers. This included a set of nuclear and nucleolar characteristics and the micronucleus test. The use of those parameters reflects different mechanisms of nuclear activity regulation in cells (as a parameter of cytotoxicity) and measures subcellular processes. The induction of nuclear abnormalities (like the formation of micronuclei) was also employed here as a parameter of genotoxicity. In order to reflect the proliferative and metabolic activity of the cells the number of argylophillic nucleolar organiser regions (NORs) in interphase cells was scored. Over a period of 50 days an in vivo exposure experiment with a clam Macoma balthica and different concentrations of HBCDD (nominal concentrations of 0, 100 and 250 μg/l) with three replicates each was performed. Gill cells were used as “sentinel systems” considering specificity in metabolism, repair mechanisms, adaptative response and cell proliferation. A significant increase in nuclear and nucleolar abnormalities and in the frequency of dead cells was observed during the duration of the experiment with the highest peak occurring 10 days after exposure for nuclear abnormalities and 20–30 days after exposure for malfunction of ribosomal genes (NORs) (GLM analyses and Spearman correlation, p < 0.05). Thus, the induction of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities reflected the toxic potential of HBCDD to marine invertebrates while an increase in the number of NOR may also reflect adaptive responses of the system as enhanced induction of proliferative regeneration of the gill tissue

  • 6. Smolarz, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Renault, Tristan
    Wolowicz, Maciej
    Histology, cytogenetics and cytofluorymetry in diagnosis of neoplasia in the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (Bivalvia, L.) from the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea)”.2005In: Caryologia (Firenze), ISSN 0008-7114, E-ISSN 2165-5391, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 212-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents results of histopathologic, cytogenetics and flow cytometry analyses performed on Macoma balthica collected from the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea) in 2003 in order to compare the techniques for diagnosis of neoplasia. The proportion of affected clams gave a crude prevalence of 15.7 %. The four stages of the disease defined by histology and three stages of neoplasia defined by flow cytometry were reported. Stage I defined by flow cytometry corresponded to stages I and II defined by histology. Chromosome analysis did not lead to a staging of neoplastic progression. Both cytogenetics and flow cytometry indicated a difference in the DNA content of non-neoplastic and neoplastic cells. Cytogenetics examination marked that the range of chromosome numbers scored in abnormal mitosis corresponded to pentaploid-like cells (2.37 x diploid) and was similar to the mean DNA quantity identified using flow cytometry (2.36 x diploid). These methods generally have lower diagnosis sensitivity because with both techniques only a part of an animal can be studied. Thus, histology examination appeared to be the most sensitive tool for detection of the possible foci of neoplastic cells, metastasis and rare tumour cells freely circulating in the hemolymph in the early stages of the disease. Cytogenetic analysis has been considered as an important tool for the evaluation of aquatic environment quality as well as for the ecological risk assessment. Flow cytometry provided a rapid and easy method for discrimination of the aneuploid cells within thousands of cells per individual. Thus, in diagnosis of early stages of the cancer as well as early metastasis histology analyses should be performed. Chromosomes analysis and flow cytometry examination are important techniques for detection abnormalities in cell division, cell viability and DNA quantity. They appear to be very important in diagnosis of tumors based on high aneuploidy level

  • 7. Smolarz, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Renault, Tristan
    Wolowicz, Maciej
    Ultrastructural study of neoplastic cells in Macoma balthica (Bivalvia) from the Gulf of Gdansk (Poland)2006In: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, ISSN 0022-2011, E-ISSN 1096-0805, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 79-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Baltic clam Macoma balthica from the Gulf of Gdansk, neoplasia is considered as a serious epizootic linked to bad environmental conditions and high levels of pollutants. Previous research was focused on the diagnosis, prevalence, seasonality and histopathological characteristic of the cancer. This study is focused on electron microscopy analyses describing cell ultrastructure abnormalities related to neoplasia. Examinations using the electron microscopy highlighted changes confined to anatomic ultrastructures, shapes and functions of neoplastic cells. The lobulated appearance of the nucleus, changes in cellular matrix and the occurrence of large granular cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, atypical Golgi structures and deterioration of rough endoplasmic reticulum manifested the disease. The presence of atypical mitochondria, free ribosomes and hypertrophic nuclei suggests the adaptation of neoplastic cells to increased mitotic activity, while the observed modification of cellular membranes may reflect functional changes connected to increased pinocytotic activity or intercellular transport. The cancer cells were found to appear in two types, abnormal round-shaped cells and spindle-shaped cells, both with increased frequencies of cell division. Round-shaped cells typical for disseminated neoplasia were observed in all affected bivalves, in a few cases co-occurring with abnormal spherical cells. Spindle-shaped cells containing some intracytoplasmic filaments, and with a tendency of the nuclei to be orientated as in a palisade were interpreted as myofibroblasts-like cells and were observed in five out of eleven clams diagnosed as neoplastic. This finding represents the first demonstration of phenotypic differences in the cell types co-occurring in animals diagnosed as neoplastic and by that suggests coexistence of two types of bivalve cancer, disseminated neoplasia and probable fibrosarcoma.

  • 8. Smolarz, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Thiriot-Quiévreux, Catherine
    Wolowicz, Maciej
    Recent trends in prevalence of neoplasia in the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea)2005In: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 61-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses the occurrence of neoplasia in the Baltic clam Macoma balthica from the Gulf of Gdańsk in recent years and investigates potential relationships between toxic compounds in the environment and the presence of the cancer. The disease was identified at four sampling stations during 1999-2002. Comparison with previous results highlighted the substantial prevalence of the tumour between 1998 and 2002. The prevalence of the cancer was strongly dependent on the sampling location (p > 0.001): it was highest at sampling point H45 (the deepest part of the gulf) and lowest at station PB30 (central part of the gulf). Monthly studies showed a trend towards an increasing prevalence of neoplasia during the warm months. However, over several sampling months no strong statistical correlation between the prevalence of the disease and the sampling time was found. The results of the study suggest that several environmental factors may promote the progress of the cancer in M. balthica from the Gulf of Gdańsk: it is most probably an indirect effect of pollution, although causality cannot be proven at this stage. Seriously polluted and exhibiting a considerable asymmetry of contamination, the ecosystem of the gulf provides an ideal environment for testing potential cause-effect relationships between pollutants and their biological effects

  • 9. Smolarz, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Wolowicz, Maciej
    Stachnik, Magdalena
    First record of the occurrence of ”Gill disease” in Mytilus edulis trossulus from the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland2006In: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, ISSN 0022-2011, E-ISSN 1096-0805, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 207-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are presenting the first report of the occurrence of “gill disease” in Mytilus edulis trossulus from the southern Baltic Sea, Gulf of Gdańsk (Poland). The disease preliminary diagnosis was based on the presence of white and yellow “spots” causing deep indentations in the gills with degeneration, destruction and necrosis of gill filaments. Average prevalence of gill erosion in the blue mussels population was 15.8%. According to other authors, gill erosion may affect over 80% of the bivalve population resulting in mortality rates of up to 40%. The origin of the gill erosion remains unknown, but viruses are most likely involved in the etiology of these pathological conditions. The disease as such may indicate a decrease in the immunological resistance of organisms to infections and inflammations directly or indirectly caused by harmful factors in the ambient environment. Furthermore, the occurrence of numerous pathologies in bivalves is a particular problem in the Gulf of Gdańsk being a low biodiversity ecosystem. Pathologies reduce bilvalves’ reproduction ability, worsen their physiological condition and increase their mortality rate. Those factors may also pose a significant ecological danger and lead to negative alterations of the ecosystem.

  • 10. Smolarz, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Wolowicz, Maciej
    Thiriot-Quiévreux, Catherine
    Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in interphases and metaphases of normal and neoplastic gill cells of Macoma balthica (Bivalvia: Tellinidae) from the Gulf of Gdansk, Baltic Sea2003In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, ISSN 0177-5103, E-ISSN 1616-1580, Vol. 56, p. 269-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromosome analysis of gill cells of different populations of Macoma balthica (L.) from the Bay of Gdansk (Baltic Sea) revealed 2 clam categories, 1 with neoplastic features and 1 without. Silver-staining was performed on interphase and metaphase cells of both categories. The mean argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) count per abnormal interphase cell was significantly higher than in normal interphase cells. Normal silver-stained metaphases had 3 nucleolar organizer region (NOR) chromosome phenotypes. The location of the NORs in the most frequent phenotype  (55.6% in 54 metaphases scored) was interstitial on the largest metacentric chromosome pair, Pair No. 1. Abnormal silver-stained metaphases had a higher number of active NOR sites. Different phenotypes were observed (frequency greater than 10% for 67 metaphases scored); 2 were similar to those in normal metaphases and 5 were ectopic. The higher activity of AgNORs observed in abnormal cells confirmed the diagnosis of malignant neoplasia

  • 11.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Wołowicz, Maciej
    Patologie a osady: diagnostyka zmian patologicznych u organizmów morskich2010In: Fizyczne, chemiczne i biologiczne badanie osadów morskich / [ed] Bolałek Jerzy, Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12. Sokolowski, Adam
    et al.
    Wolowicz, Maciej
    Hummel, Herman
    Smolarz-Gorska, Katarzyna
    Fichet, Denis
    Radenac, Gilles
    Thiriot-Quievréux, Catherine
    Namieśnik, Jacek
    Abnormal features of M. balthica (Bivalvia) in the Baltic Sea: alerting symptom of environmental changes?2004In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 49, no 1-2, p. 17-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the southern Baltic (the Gulf of Gdansk) have revealed striking morphological, histological and cytogenetic features. Strong deformation of the shell, including elongation of the posterior end and the appearance of an easily visible flexure in this part, has been recorded. The population contribution of the deformed blunt shelled (“irregular”) clams ranged from 0% to 65% and tended to increase with depth. The morphologically “irregular” clams had higher accumulated tissue concentrations of trace metals (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn), indicating a different metal handling ability. Adverse conditions in deeper water regions of the Gulf (e.g. hypoxia, hydrogen sulphide, elevated bioavailability of contaminants) have been suggested as inducers of the phenotypical changes (morphological deformation) in part of the population and, in parallel, of the specific physiological adaptations that result in higher metal accumulation in the “irregular” clams. Cytogenetic and histological analyses showed the presence of tumours in gill cells and digestive system of the affected clams, the prevalence of disseminated neoplasia ranging from 0% to 94% depending on the site. The disease was manifested by a modified karyotype (i.e. an abnormal number and morphology of chromosomes), a higher activity of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs), and tissue lesions (enlarged cells, actively proliferative with pleomorphic nuclei). Bottom sediments showed acute toxicity and have been proposed as a source of an initialising carcinogenic factor. However, none of the ecotoxicological studies provided was successful in the clear demonstration of a single (or multifactorial) agent that can account for the disseminated neoplasia.

  • 13. Tomaszkiewicz, Marta
    et al.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Wołowicz, Maciej
    Heterogamety in the Baltic Glacial Relict Saduria entomon (Isopoda: Valvifera)2010In: Journal of Crustacean Biology, ISSN 0278-0372, E-ISSN 1937-240X, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 757-761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the karyology of an isopod, Saduria entomon, and provides for the first time evidence of a XY/XX heterogamety for this species. The presented karyotype [56 (m + sm ) + 2 st + XX/XY] is characterised by the dominance of metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes and is considered as apomorphic. This is the first time a valviferan is described with an XX/XY system. Mitotic and meiotic heterogamety observed in S. entomon suggests more advanced evolution of sex determination within this species in comparison to other Isopoda. Based on Ag-staining the presence of secondary constrictions and satellites on the 22nd pair of homologous chromosomes was identified. Inter- and intra-individual variability in chromosome number (2n  =  58, 2n  =  59 or 2n  =  61) was also observed. The between-species variation in heterogamety in isopods and the within-species variation in chromosomes numbers are discussed

  • 14. Wolowicz, Maciej
    et al.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    Sokolowski, Adam
    Neoplasia in estuarine bivalves. Effect of feeding behaviour and pollution in the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland)2005In: The Comparative Roles of Suspension-Feeders in Ecosystems: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Comparative Roles of Suspension-Feeders in Ecosystems Nida, Lithuania 4–9 October 2003 / [ed] Richard F. Dame and Sergej Olenin, Dordrecht: Springer , 2005, p. 165-182Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of tumors in bivalve molluscs is receiving increased attention due to possible detrimental effects on harvested stocks. Although the etiology or causes of neoplasias remains unclear, pollution by carcinogenic agents is implicated in the heavily exploited littoral zones of coastal waters. In the Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea, a higher prevalence of the disorder was observed in infaunal facultative (deposit/suspension) feeders compared to epifaunal obligate suspension-feeders, providing a new behavioural aspect of the tumor. Recent studies also reveal a potential cause-and-effect relationship between sediment factors and the incidence of neoplasia across a range of environmental properties

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