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  • 1. Aaboen, Lise
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Löfsten, Hans
    Incubator performance: an efficiency frontier analysis2008In: International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, ISSN 1751-0252, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 354-380Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Aaboen, Lise
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Löfsten, Hans
    Towards incubator facilitation of technology transfer2008In: International Journal of Management and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1468-4330, E-ISSN 1741-8127, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 331-335Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Aaboen, Lise
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    von Koch, Christopher
    Löfsten, Hans
    Corporate governance and performance of small high-tech firms in Sweden2006In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 955-968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The approach uses data from a sample of 183 small high-tech firms, new, technology-based firms (small high-tech firms) in Sweden (54 variables under the headings of work experience, board and advice, financing, motivation-performance priorities, technological innovation and strategy). This study identifies some core areas of importance in corporate governance. Few managers in this study had a strong background and experience of finance and the preparation of business. Only 64 per cent of the managers have had previous work experience before starting the firm. The survey makes it clear that the small high-tech firms are likely to have a strong link with banking institutions. The consequence of these links is that most of the firm's capital supply is from banks, and that there are strong ownership links between banks and industry. The background of the founder does seem to have had an effect on the problem of financing and ownership issues. It is private sector organizations (banks) and families that are most frequently consulted by small high-tech firms (However, low means). It is also the private and public sector organizations, in connection with external board membership, regional development agencies and banks that are most frequently consulted. In the future, it is reasonable to search for factor patterns that can begin to explain and predict the direction of corporate governance in small new technology-based firms.

  • 4. Dettwiler, Paul
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Löfsten, Hans
    Business environment and property management issues: A study of growth firms in Sweden2006In: Journal of Corporate Real Estate, ISSN 1463-001X, E-ISSN 1479-1048, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 120-133Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Dettwiler, Paul
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Löfsten, Hans
    Utility of location: A comparative survey between small new technology-based firms located on and off Science Parks - Implications for facilities management2006In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 506-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to highlight the role of facilities management (FM) for new technology-based firms (NTBFs) that are located on respectively off Science Parks. It incorporates FM as a contributory background element in the enhancement of the entrepreneurial environment, which is one explanatory factor of the superior performance and growth of NTBFs located inside Science Parks. Differences in location preferences between on and off park NTBFs are brought into evidence in this paper by means of an extensive quantitative survey. This resulted in the finding that the proximity to university is especially significant among NTBFs inside parks. Furthermore, infrastructure has high significance in both groups whereas significance of facilities cost differs in range of significance. In a model it is argued that FM indirectly contributes to beneficial scenarios for interaction, interfirm relations and networks that can be found particularly in Science Parks. A discussion and a set of hypotheses in the conclusive part link FM and location, issues to the performance for NTBFs.

  • 6.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Formal institutional contexts as ownership of intellectual property rights and their implications for the organization of commercialization of innovations at universities comparative data from Sweden and the United Kingdom2011In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 1069-1092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper identifies differences in institutional contexts (legislation) between Sweden and the UK and their effects on technology transfer policies. It then proceeds to examine how such activities are organized by universities. Empirical evidence from surveys conducted with technology transfer managers at eight Swedish universities and eleven UK universities gathered in Sweden and the UK during 2004 is analyzed. It is argued that the historical developments of these systems depend on different institutional contexts, which influence the modes of organization. The UK technology transfer system is based on similar legislation to that of the US, with IPRs being granted to the universities. The Swedish system, however, grants IPRs to the individual researchers, though with some new features such as science parks and incubators suggesting a change towards greater agent (university) involvement in encouraging technology transfer. This change indicates a breakthrough for the "entrepreneurial university" in Sweden.

  • 7.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Teknik- och forskningsparker som entreprenöriell miljö2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 8. Lindelöf, Peter
    et al.
    Löfgren, Hans
    Proximity as a Resource Base for Competitive Advantage: University-Industry Links for Technology Transfer2004In: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 29, no 3/4, p. 311-326Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Lindelöf, Peter
    et al.
    Löfsten, Hans
    Academic versus corporate new technology-based firms in Swedish science parks: an analysis of performance, business networks and financing2005In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 31, no 3-4, p. 334-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is in the field of new technology-based firms and the role of Science Parks. The assessing of academic knowledge and expertise by businesses located on site is a key principle of Science Parks. Science Parks provide an important resource network for new technology-based firms (NTBFs). The independent new technology-based Science Park firms are analysed regarding their origin. The research proposition is empirically tested on the basis of 134 new technology-based firms in Sweden, NTBFs (University spin-offs; USOs) from the academy (74 firms) and NTBFs (Corporate spin-offs; CSOs) from the private sector (60 firms). These two categories of firms are assumed to need and acquire different types of resourses due to their different background. The importance of Science Parks for the decision to start the firm: 66.7 percent (USOs) and 52.9 percent (CSOs). They would never have been established without the Science Park. The two groups tended to exhibit differences between advice from managers in the parks (USOs). The study indicates that there is a direct relationship between Science Park importance for attracting external capital and financing issues (USOs). There is also some evidence that professional businesses benefit from a Science Park location. The general levels of advice (Advice related to park: Banking institutions and Chamber of Commerce) by those CSOs located on a Science Park was considerably high.

  • 10. Lindelöf, Peter
    et al.
    Löfsten, Hans
    Environmental hostility and firm behavior: An empirical examination of new technology-based firms on science parks2006In: Journal of small business management (Print), ISSN 0047-2778, E-ISSN 1540-627X, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 386-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms often respond to challenging environmental conditions, such as those in high-technology environments. Thus, in a hostile environment, the intensity of competition exerts more pressure on the firm and also a greater necessity for firm behavior. This study was conducted with empirical data collected in 1999 from 134 small firms on science parks in Sweden. The discussion in this paper is focused at the firm level. Analysis of firm behavior was conducted using a multivariate approach. The content of firm-level behavior is defined in terms of the firm's overall collection of business practices and competitive tactics. The investigation of customer preferences and competitors are the manifestations of the firm's more basic strategic direction and how the firm will reach the markets. Two different types of firms were analyzed: university spin-offs (USOs) and corporate spin-offs (CSOs). The importance of the science park was included in the study as a control variable. The variable showed whether the firms had received support from a science park. This study indicated that the relations between change of marketing activities and long-term forecasting are strongest for both USOs and CSOs. The long-term forecasting, technology-importance of science park, was another key factor. This is exemplified by the two samples used in this study.

  • 11. Lindelöf, Peter
    et al.
    Löfsten, Hans
    Growth, management and financing of new technology-based firms: assessing value-added contributions of firms located on and off Science Parks2002In: Omega: The International Journal of Management Science, ISSN 0305-0483, E-ISSN 1873-5274, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 143-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study distinguishes between new technology-based firms (NTBFs) on and off Science Parks in Sweden in an effort to identify any element of added value which the park provides for the NTBFs (273 firms). The paper reports the responses of NTBFs (on and off-Park) about the types of management problems encountered and the constraints inhibiting their growth (89 variables). This study showed some differences between the experience of firms on-Park and off-Park with respect to management and financial issues (Founders, management, advisers, investors and finance). The problem of obtaining finance is one of the major difficulties faced by all NTBFs. Self-financing is the dominant characteristic of funding in the small-firms sector. It is obvious that Science Parks firms have higher R&D intensity in terms of importance of R&D for a starting firm and postgraduate education.

  • 12. Lindelöf, Peter
    et al.
    Löfsten, Hans
    Importance of management accounting in new technology-based firms in Sweden: analysis of environmental and strategic variables2006In: International Journal of Business Environment, ISSN 1740-0589, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 137-161Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Lindelöf, Peter
    et al.
    Löfsten, Hans
    Science park effects in Sweden: dimensions critical for firm growth2006In: International Journal of Public Policy, ISSN 1740-0600, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 451-475Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Lindelöf, Peter
    et al.
    Löfsten, Hans
    Science Park Location and New Technology-Based Firms in Sweden: Implications for Strategy and Performance2006In: Technological entrepreneurship / [ed] Donald S. Siegel, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2006, p. 245-258Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15. Lindelöf, Peter
    et al.
    Löfsten, Hans
    Science Park location and new technology-based firms in Sweden: Implications for strategy and performance2003In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 245-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One logical way to assess the performance of Science Parks is to compare the performance of their firms to similar firms not located there. A total of 273 new technology-based firms (NTBFs) were surveyed, of which 134 were on a Science Park and 139 were not on a park. There were significant differences in the means of strategy dimensions between the on-Park and off-Park firms. It can be seen that the NTBFs who located in Science Parks showed significantly greater emphasis on firm characteristics as innovation ability, competitor- and market-orientation, sales and employment growth, high profits etc. The differences indicates a slight advantage for the Science Park firms. The off-Park sample reported proximity to other firms to be of higher importance than the on-Park sample in their choice of location. However, these differences do not show any clear pattern, making it difficult to understand if NTBFs who locate on Science Parks are systematically looking for something different in their location.

  • 16. Löfsten, Hans
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Determinants for an entrepreneurial milieu: Science Parks and business policy in growing firms2003In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 51-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to understand the "added value" of a Science Park location there is need for detailed research exploring the characteristics and performance of firms located on and off Science Parks. The analysis distinguishes between new technology-based firms on and off Science Parks (273 firms) in Sweden during 1996-1998 in an effort to identify any element of added value which the park provides for the new technology-based firms (NTBFs). The problem of obtaining finance is one of the major difficulties faced by NTBFs (Latent construction: Resources 1). Self-financing is the dominant characteristic of funding in the small-firms sector. The attitudes and motivation of the firm founders and managers is another key factor in the ability to raise funds and achieve high growth and profitability. Information on the location of customers shows whether firms are linked to local, national or international markets, and thus their potential for growth (Latent construction: market innovation). One significant variable is geographical markets (global market). NTBFs (on-Park) have much wider market distribution throughout Sweden and abroad than is typical for small firms.

  • 17. Löfsten, Hans
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Environmental hostility, strategic orientation and the importance of management accounting: an empirical analysis of new technology-based firms2005In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 725-738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports empirical analysis of two research propositions which arise from different variables from the contingency theory of management accounting. The approach uses data from a sample of 183 new technology-based firms (NTBFs) in Sweden. The contingency variables were considered under the headings of environmental hostility, and strategic orientation. While we might have expected to see here some evidence of correlations between variables of environmental hostility-management accounting and between strategic orientation-management accounting, only a few variables are apparent for the sample available. We note that the importance of standard methods in management accounting (general, costing, budgeting, investment calculation) does not seen to be precipitated by the contingencies such as environmental hostility and strategic orientation. Previous research has identified technology as one of the most important contingency factors. However, our technology variables will not seem to have an impact on the importance of management accounting practices in the NTBFs. We also conclude that the correlation analysis indicates that earlier work experience and different types of management problems in small high-tech firms is of importance for development of the cost management approach.

  • 18. Löfsten, Hans
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    R&D networks and product innovation patterns: academic and non-academic new technology-based firms on Science Parks2005In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 1025-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research has explored the R&D networks and product innovation patterns made by the NTBFs (University spin offs, USOs and corporate spin-offs, CSOs) located on Science Parks. It seems resonable to believe that firms established by those with an academic background might be expected both to perform differently and respond to different incentives from those founded by personnel from the industry. The two research propositions were empirically tested on the basis of 134 new technology-based firms (NTBFs) on Science Parks in Sweden, USOs from the academy (74 small firms) and CSOs from the private sector (60 small firms). There were no significant differences regarding growth (sales) and profitability (profit margin) between the two groups. In order to separate the performance due to the firms capability and the impact of the environment, a control variable was created. This paper, building on the resource-based theory and empirical evidence, argues that NTBFs have an interest in co-operation between the university and the Science Park firms. The survey makes it clear that the proportion of USOs and CSOs on Science Parks with links with universities is comparatively high. Seventy percent of USOs cooperates with universities and 59 percent of the CSOs. This is surprisingly high percentages of the CSOs. One finding from this research is that USOs are not able to channel investments into greater R&D outputs (Patents) than comparable firms.

  • 19. Löfsten, Hans
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Science Parks and the growth of new technology-based firms: academic-industry links, innovation and markets2002In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 859-876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis distinguishes between firms (273 firms) on and off Science Parks in Sweden (1996-1998), in an effort to identify any element of added value which the park provides for new technology-based firms (NTBFs). The study showed some differences between the experience of firms on- and off-park in respect to innovation and marketing issues. Firms located in Science Parks were significantly more likely to have a link with a local university than off-park firms. Performance is examined under three headings: employment growth, sales growth and profitability. Initiatives to promote NTBFs on Science Parks, will yield a higher rate of job creation than policies to help NTBFs in general.

  • 20. Löfsten, Hans
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Science parks in Sweden: industrial renewal and development?2001In: R &D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 309-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Science parks provide an important resource network for new technology-based firms (NTBFs). To ascertain the 'added value' of a science park location the innovativeness of independent technology-based science park firms are compared with the levels recorded by a comparable group of firms not located on a park. The hypotheses are empirically tested on the basis of 263 new technology-based firms in Sweden located both on and off-park. The survey endeavoured to cover joint-stock firms located on the nine target science parks (163 firms). The remainder of the NTBFs were drawn from off-park locations (100 firms). The findings on science parks performance suggest that the parks milieu appear to have a positive impact on their firms growth as measured in terms of sales and jobs. However, there was no evidence of a direct relationship between science park location and profitability. While this research provided several new insights into science parks in Sweden, numerous questions remain.

  • 21. Löfsten, Hans
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Teori och metoder för val av indikatorer för inkubatorer2005Report (Other academic)
  • 22. Löfsten, Hans
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Aaboen, Lise
    Inkubatorer i Sverige: analys av indikatordimensioner och nyttoeffektivitet2006Report (Other academic)
1 - 22 of 22
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