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  • 1. Aareleid, Tiiu
    et al.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Rahu, Mati
    Baburin, Aleksei
    Lung cancer in Estonia in 1968-87: time trends and public health implications.1994In: European Journal of Cancer Prevention, ISSN 0959-8278, E-ISSN 1473-5709, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 419-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in lung cancer incidence and mortality in Estonia were studied for 20 years (1968-87). A steady upward trend was observed for men and women. The 1983-87/1968-72 age-standardized incidence rate ratio was 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.29) in men and 1.34 (95% CI 1.16-1.54) in women. The corresponding mortality rate ratio was 1.26 (95% CI 1.18-1.34) in men and 1.35 (95% CI 1.16-1.57) in women. The age-specific incidence and mortality rates increased clearly towards the younger birth cohorts. For men and women, the increase was most evident for the age group 45-64 years. In women there was a more rapid increase in incidence and mortality than in men. It may be a result of a substantial increase of tobacco smoking, particularly among women, after the World War II. The high and still rising occurrence of lung cancer is closely related to the high prevalence of smoking; in addition, high tar yields in domestic cigarettes could have been responsible for an elevated lung cancer risk during the past decades. There is not tobacco control programme in Estonia, and existing legislation and regulations do not defend the non-smoking population.

  • 2.
    Afshin, Ashkan
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Reitsma, Marissa B.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Sur, Patrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Estep, Kara
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lee, Alex
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Marczak, Laurie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Iran Univ Med Sci, Dept Community Med, Gastrointestinal & Liver Dis Res Ctr, Preventat Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Salama, Joseph S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Abate, Kalkidan H.
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Sapienza Univ Rome, Rome, Italy..
    Ahmed, Muktar B.
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, St Louis, MO 63130 USA..
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Dept Populat Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Joint Program Family & Community Med, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Bahir Dar Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.;Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Amberbir, Alemayehu
    Dignitas Int, Zomba, Malawi..
    Amegah, Adeladza K.
    Univ Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana..
    Amini, Erfan
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Urooncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Amrock, Stephen M.
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Anjana, Ranjit M.
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.;Dr Mohans Diabet Special Ctr, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Arnlov, Johan
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Sci, Falun, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Qom Univ Med Sci, Dept Emergency Med, Qom, Iran..
    Banerjee, Amitava
    UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England..
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Baye, Estifanos
    Wollo Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Dessie, Ethiopia.;Monash Univ, Sch Publ Hlth & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England..
    Beyene, Addisu S.
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu
    Independent Publ Hlth Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Biryukov, Stan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Bjertness, Espen
    Univ Oslo, Dept Community Med & Global Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Boneya, Dube J.
    Debre Markos Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.;Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cecilio, Pedro
    Univ Porto, Dept Ciencias Biol, Fac Farm, Oporto, Portugal..
    Cercy, Kelly
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Damtew, Solomon A.
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Wolaita Sodo Univ, Coll Hlth Sci & Med, Wolaita, Ethiopia..
    Dandona, Lalit
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Univ Peradeniya, Dept Community Med, Fac Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka..
    Duncan, Bruce B.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Eshrati, Babak
    Arak Univ Med Sci, Arak, Iran..
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Auckland Univ Technol, Natl Inst Stroke & Appl Neurosci, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Catholic Univ Portugal, Ctr Biotechnol & Fine Chem, Associate Lab, Fac Biotechnol, Oporto, Portugal..
    Furst, Thomas
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England.;Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland..
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye T.
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Gold, Audra
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Univ Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA USA..
    Goto, Atsushi
    Natl Canc Ctr, Div Epidemiol, Ctr Publ Hlth Sci, Tokyo, Japan..
    Habtewold, Tesfa D.
    Debre Berhan Univ, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia.;Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hadush, Kokeb T.
    Ambo Univ, Ambo, Ethiopia..
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Hay, Simon I.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Oxford, Oxford Big Data Inst, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford, England..
    Horino, Masako
    Bur Child Family & Community Wellness, Nevada Div Publ & Behav Hlth, Carson, CA USA..
    Islami, Farhad
    Amer Canc Soc, Surveillance & Hlth Serv Res, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA..
    Kamal, Ritul
    CSIR, Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Epidemiol Div, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Endrocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V.
    Univ Glasgow, MRC CSO Social & Publ Hlth Sci Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Kengne, Andre P.
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan N.
    CSIR, Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Epidemiol Div, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Khader, Yousef S.
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Community Med, Publ Hlth & Family Med, Irbid, Jordan..
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Dept Hlth Policy & Management, Seoul, South Korea.;Seoul Natl Univ, Med Ctr, Inst Hlth Policy & Management, Seoul, South Korea..
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Ball State Univ, Dept Nutr & Hlth Sci, Muncie, IN 47306 USA..
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kim, Yun J.
    Southern Univ Coll, Fac Chinese Med, Johor Baharu, Malaysia..
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Univ Canberra, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Natl Inst Hlth Res & Dev, Jakarta, Indonesia..
    Ku, Tiffany
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Univ Montreal, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Dept Demog, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Publ Hlth Res Inst, Sch Publ Hlth, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Liu, Patrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Lozano, Rafael
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Shiraz Univ Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran..
    Malta, Deborah C.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Key State Lab Mol Dev Biol, Inst Genet & Dev Biol, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    McAlinden, Colm
    Univ Hosp Bristol NHS Fdn Trust, Bristol, Avon, England.;Publ Hlth Wales, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    McGarvey, Stephen T.
    Brown Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Providence, RI 02912 USA..
    Mengistu, Desalegn T.
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Mensah, George A.
    NHLBI, NIH, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, Bldg 10, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Mensink, Gert B. M.
    Robert Koch Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Monitoring, Berlin, Germany..
    Mezgebe, Haftay B.
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Natl Ctr Cardiol & Internal Dis, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.;Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan..
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Noubiap, Jean J.
    Groote Schuur Hosp, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Obermeyer, Carla M.
    Amer Univ Beirut, Ctr Res Populat & Hlth, Fac Hlth Sci, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Ogbo, Felix A.
    Western Sydney Univ, Ctr Hlth Res, Sch Med, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Owolabi, Mayowa O.
    Univ Ibadan, Dept Med, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Blossom Specialist Med Ctr, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Patton, George C.
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Pediat, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Karaj, Iran..
    Rafay, Anwar
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rai, Rajesh K.
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, India..
    Ranabhat, Chhabi L.
    Yonsei Univ, Dept Preventat Med, Wonju Coll Med, Wonju, South Korea.;Hlth Sci Fdn & Study Ctr, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Reinig, Nikolas
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Safiri, Saeid
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Managerial Epidemiol Res Ctr, Dept Publ Hlth, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Maragheh, Iran..
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA USA..
    Sanabria, Juan R.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Comprehens Canc, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.;Marshall Univ, Joan C Edwards Sch Med, Huntington, WV USA..
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Sartorius, Benn
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ KwaZulu Natal, Publ Hlth Med, Sch Nursing & Publ Hlth, Durban, South Africa..
    Sawhney, Monika
    Marshall Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Huntington, WV USA..
    Schmidhuber, Josef
    Food & Agr Org, Global Perspect Studies Unit, Rome, Italy..
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.;North West Univ, Hypertens Africa Res Team, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schmidt, Maria I.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Shamsizadeh, Moretza
    Hamadan Univ Med Sci, Dept Med Surg Nursing, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Hamadan, Iran..
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Korea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Seoul, South Korea..
    Shiri, Rahman
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Shiue, Ivy
    Northumbria Univ, Fac Hlth & Life Sci, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England.;Univ Edinburgh, Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Res Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Roba, Hirbo S.
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Silva, Diego A. S.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Silverberg, Jonathan I.
    Feinberg Sch Med, Chicago, IL USA..
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Stranges, Saverio
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Dept Populat Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg.;Western Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Schulich Sch Med & Dent, London, ON, Canada..
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Indian Council Med Res, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Univ Valencia, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain..
    Tadese, Fentaw
    Wollo Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Dessie, Ethiopia..
    Tedla, Bemnet A.
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.;James Cook Univ, Cairns, Qld, Australia..
    Tegegne, Balewgizie S.
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia.;Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Terkawi, Abdullah S.
    King Fahad Med City, Dept Anesthesiol, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;Cleveland Clin, Outcomes Res Consortium, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.;Univ Virginia, Dept Anesthesiol, Charlottesville, VA USA..
    Thakur, J. S.
    Post Grad Inst Med Educ & Res, Sch Publ Hlth, Chandigarh, India..
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Univ Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ, Med Coll, Inst Publ Hlth, Fac Hlth Sci, Krakow, Poland.;Wroclaw Med Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Wroclaw, Poland..
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Univ Barcelona, CIBERSAM, Fundacio St Joan de Deu, Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain..
    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.
    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Nigeria..
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Ctr Appl Hlth Res & Delivery, Div Hlth Sci, Warwick Med Sch Coventry, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Inst Hlth Promot Res, Tampere, Finland..
    Vlassov, Vasiliy V.
    Natl Res Univ, Higher Sch Econ, Moscow, Russia..
    Vollset, Stein E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Bergen, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway..
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Canc Registry Norway, Inst Population Based Canc Res, Dept Res, Oslo, Norway.;Arctic Univ Norway, Univ Tromso, Tromso, Norway.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Helsinki, Finland..
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Wesana, Joshua
    Univ Ghent, Fac Biosci Engn, Ghent, Belgium..
    Westerman, Ronny
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA..
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Dept Biostat, Sch Publ Hlth, Kyoto, Japan..
    Yonga, Gerald
    Aga Khan Univ, East Africa, NCD Res Policy Unit, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Univ Hosp, Setif, Algeria..
    Zenebe, Zerihun M.
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Zipkin, Ben
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years2017In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 377, no 1, p. 13-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.)

  • 3. Aluoja, Anu
    et al.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, Department of Society and History, Sociology. Södertörn University, Department of Society and History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Shlik, Jakov
    Vasar, Veiko
    Luuk, Kersti
    Symptoms of depression in the Estonian population: prevalence, sociodemographic correlates and social adjustment2004In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 27-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Aluoja, Anu
    et al.
    Shlik, Jakov
    Vasar, Veiko
    Luuk, Kersti
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Development and psychometric properties of the Emotional State Questionnaire: a self-report questionnaire for depression and anxiety1999In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 443-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety and depression are dimensions of emotional state that can be validly assessed with self-report measures. This article introduces a new self-report questionnaire for depression and anxiety (Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q)) and presents data on its reliability and validity. The items of the EST-Q were derived from diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV and ICD-10. Thirty-three items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. The questionnaire was administered to 194 inpatients with depressive and anxiety disorders and to a population sample of 479 subjects. According to the results of factor analysis, five subscales were formed: Depression, Anxiety, Agoraphobia-Panic, Fatigue, and Insomnia. EST-Q and subscales showed acceptable internal consistency (alpha = 0.69-0.88). Significant differences in subscales between patients and population and across diagnostic groups confirmed the discriminant validity of the instrument. Depression, Anxiety, and Agoraphobia-Panic subscales distinguished corresponding diagnostic groups. Fatigue and Insomnia appeared to assess nonspecific psychopathology dimensions characteristic of several psychiatric disorders.

  • 5. Alvarez, J. L.
    et al.
    Kunst, A. E.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Bopp, M.
    Strand, B. H.
    Menvielle, G.
    Lundberg, O.
    Martikainen, P.
    Deboosere, P.
    Kalediene, R.
    Artnik, B.
    Mackenbach, J. P.
    Richardus, J. H.
    Educational inequalities in tuberculosis mortality in sixteen European populations2011In: The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, ISSN 1027-3719, E-ISSN 1815-7920, Vol. 15, no 11, p. 1461-1467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in tuberculosis (TB) mortality by level of education in male, female, urban and rural populations in several European countries. DESIGN: Data were obtained from the Eurothine Project, covering 16 populations between 1990 and 2003. Age- and sex-standardised mortality rates, the relative index of inequality and the slope index of inequality were used to assess educational inequalities. RESULTS: The number of TB deaths reported was 8530, with a death rate of 3 per 100000 per year, of which 73% were males. Educational inequalities in TB mortality were present in all European populations. Inequalities in TB mortality were greater than in total mortality. Relative and absolute inequalities were large in Eastern European and Baltic countries but relatively small in Southern European countries and in Norway, Finland and Sweden. Inequalities in mortality were observed among both men and women, and in both rural and urban populations. CONCLUSIONS: Socio-economic inequalities in TB mortality exist in all European countries. Firm political commitment is required to reduce inequalities in the social determinants of TB incidence. Targeted public health measures are called for to improve access to treatment of vulnerable groups and thereby reduce TB mortality.

  • 6.
    Baars, Adája E
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Rubio-Valverde, Jose R
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Hu, Yannan
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, and CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Madrid, Spain.
    White, Chris
    Office for National Statistics, London, United Kingdom.
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    National Institute of Public Health, Warsaw, Poland.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Nusselder, Wilma J
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Fruit and vegetable consumption and its contribution to inequalities in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy in ten European countries2019In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 861-872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess to what extent educational differences in total life expectancy (TLE) and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) could be reduced by improving fruit and vegetable consumption in ten European countries.

    METHODS: Data from national census or registries with mortality follow-up, EU-SILC, and ESS were used in two scenarios to calculate the impact: the upward levelling scenario (exposure in low educated equals exposure in high educated) and the elimination scenario (no exposure in both groups). Results are estimated for men and women between ages 35 and 79 years.

    RESULTS: Varying by country, upward levelling reduced inequalities in DFLE by 0.1-1.1 years (1-10%) in males, and by 0.0-1.3 years (0-18%) in females. Eliminating exposure reduced inequalities in DFLE between 0.6 and 1.7 years for males (6-15%), and between 0.1 years and 1.8 years for females (3-20%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Upward levelling of fruit and vegetable consumption would have a small, positive effect on both TLE and DFLE, and could potentially reduce inequalities in TLE and DFLE.

  • 7. Baburin, Aleksei
    et al.
    Gornoi, Kaja
    Rahu, Mati
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Eesti suremusatlas: Atlas of Mortality in Estonia1997Book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia / University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Lai, Taavi
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Centre for Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Avoidable mortality in Estonia: Exploring the differences in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in 2005-2007.2011In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 125, no 11, p. 754-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: A considerable increase in social inequalities in mortality was observed in Eastern Europe during the post-communist transition. This study evaluated the contribution of avoidable causes of death to the difference in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in Estonia.

    STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study.

    METHODS: Temporary life expectancy (TLE) was calculated for Estonian and non-Estonian men and women aged 0-74 years in 2005-2007. The ethnic TLE gap was decomposed by age and cause of death (classified as preventable or treatable).

    RESULTS: The TLE of non-Estonian men was 3.53 years less than that of Estonian men, and the TLE of non-Estonian women was 1.36 years less than that of Estonian women. Preventable causes of death contributed 2.19 years to the gap for men and 0.78 years to the gap for women, while treatable causes contributed 0.67 and 0.33 years, respectively. Cardiorespiratory conditions were the major treatable causes of death, with ischaemic heart disease alone contributing 0.29 and 0.08 years to the gap for men and women, respectively. Conditions related to alcohol and substance use represented the largest proportion of preventable causes of death.

    CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities in health behaviours underlie the ethnic TLE gap in Estonia, rather than inequalities in access to health care or the quality of health care. Public health interventions should prioritize primary prevention aimed at alcohol and substance use, and should be implemented in conjunction with wider social policy measures.

  • 9.
    Barber, Ryan M.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Fullman, Nancy
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Sorensen, Reed J. D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Bollyky, Thomas
    Council Foreign Relat, Washington, DC USA..
    McKee, Martin
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Nolte, Ellen
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, European Observ Hlth Syst & Policies, London, England..
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy..
    Abbas, Kaja M.
    Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA USA..
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Cairo Univ, Dept Neurol, Cairo, Egypt..
    Abdulle, Abdishakur M.
    New York Univ Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Abdurahman, Ahmed Abdulahi
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Abera, Semaw Ferede
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Univ Hohenheim, Food Secur, Stuttgart, Germany.;Univ Hohenheim, Inst Biol Chem & Nutr, Stuttgart, Germany..
    Abraham, Biju
    NMSM Govt Coll Kalpetta, Kalpetta, Kerala, India..
    Abreha, Girmatsion Fisseha
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Adane, Kelemework
    Mekelle Univ, Dept Med Microbiol & Immunol, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Adelekan, Ademola Lukman
    Publ Hlth Promot Alliance, Osogbo, Nigeria.;Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Adetifa, Ifedayo Morayo O.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England.;KEMRI Wellcome Trust Res Programme, Kilifi, Kenya..
    Afshin, Ashkan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Agarwal, Arnav
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.;McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada.;CSIR, Inst Genom & Integrat Biol, Delhi, India.;Baylor Coll Med, Dept Internal Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Agarwal, Sunilkumar
    Natl Inst Occupat Hlth ICMR, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India..
    Agrawal, Anurag
    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Orthoped Clin Epidemiol Unit, Lund, Sweden..
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Kermanshah, Iran..
    Ahmed, Kedir Yimam
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
    Jimma Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Dept Epidemiol, ICT & E Learning, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
    Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Newcastle Univ, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Akinyemiju, Tomi F.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Akseer, Nadia
    Univ Toronto, Dalla Lana Sch Publ Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Washington Univ, St Louis, MO USA..
    Alam, Khurshid
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Alam, Noore
    Dept Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Alam, Sayed Saidul
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res ICDDR, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Alene, Kefyalew Addis
    Univ Gondar, Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Gondar, Ethiopia..
    Alexander, Lily
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ali, Raghib
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Ali, Syed Danish
    Univ London, London, England.;SIR Management Consultants, Oxford, England.;Inst & Fac Actuaries, Oxford, England..
    Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Sari, Iran..
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Alla, Francois
    Univ Lorraine, Sch Publ Hlth, Nancy, France..
    Allebeck, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Allen, Christine
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Minist Hlth, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Alsharif, Ubai
    Charite, Ctr Internal Med & Dermatol, Dept Psychosomat Med, Berlin, Germany..
    Altirkawi, Khalid A.
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Martin, Elena Alvarez
    Spanish Observ Drugs, Govt Delegat Natl Plan Drugs, Minist Hlth Social Policy & Equal, Madrid, Spain..
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Univ Cartagena, Cartagena De Indias, Colombia..
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adealaide, SA, Australia.;Bahir Dar Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.;Univ Salerno, Sch Med, Baronissi, Italy..
    Amini, Erfan
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Urooncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Urooncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Ammar, Walid
    Minist Publ Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Amo-Adjei, Joshu
    African Populat & Hlth Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya.;Univ Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana..
    Amoako, Yaw Ampem
    Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Dept Med, Kumasi, Ghana..
    Anderson, Benjamin O.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Androudi, Sofia
    Univ Thessaly, Larisa, Greece..
    Ansari, Hossein
    Zahedan Univ Med Sci, Hlth Promot Res Ctr, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Zahedan, Iran..
    Ansha, Mustafa Geleto
    West Hararghe Zonal Hlth Dept, Chiro, Ethiopia..
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Univ Philippines, Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Policy & Adm, Manila, Philippines..
    Aernloev, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Stockholm, Sweden.;Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden..
    Artaman, Al
    Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Qom Univ Med Sci, Sch Paramed, Dept Emergency Med, Qom, Iran..
    Assadi, Reza
    Mashhad Univ Med Sci, Mashhad, Iran..
    Astatkie, Ayalew
    Hawassa Univ, Hawassa, Ethiopia..
    Atey, Tesfay Mehari
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Atique, Suleman
    Taipei Med Univ, Coll Med Sci & Technol, Grad Inst Biomed Informat, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Atnafu, Niguse Tadele
    Tepi Univ, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia..
    Atre, Sachin R.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, BJ Med Coll, Clin Trials Unit, Pune, Maharashtra, India..
    Avila-Burgos, Leticia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur
    Inst Rech Clin Benin IRCB, Cotonou, Benin.;LERAS Afr, Parakou, Benin..
    Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala
    La Trobe Univ, Judith Lumley Ctr Mother Infant & Family Hlth Res, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Peruvian Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru..
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Sanjay Gandhi Postgrad Inst Med Sci, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Ayele, Nebiyu Negussu
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Azzopardi, Peter
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Wardliparingga Aboriginal Res Unit, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Burnet Inst, Ctr Int Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Saleem, Huda Omer Ba
    Aden Univ, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Aden, Yemen..
    Baernighausen, Till
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA USA.;Africa Hlth Res Inst, Mtubatuba, South Africa.;Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bacha, Umar
    Univ Management & Technol, Sch Hlth Sci, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Badawi, Alaa
    Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Nutr Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Banerjee, Amitava
    UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England..
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Barboza, Miguel A.
    CCSS, Hosp Dr Rafael Calderon Guardia, San Jose, Costa Rica.;Univ Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica..
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.
    Univ Auckland, Sch Psychol, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Barrero, Lope H.
    Pontificia Univ Javeriana, Sch Engn, Dept Ind Engn, Bogota, Colombia..
    Basu, Sanjay
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Baune, Bernhard T.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adealaide, SA, Australia.;Univ Salerno, Sch Med, Baronissi, Italy..
    Baye, Kaleab
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Bayou, Yibeltal Tebekaw
    Jhpiego Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
    Charles R Drew Univ Med & Sci, Coll Med, Los Angeles, CA 90059 USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Coll Publ Hlth & Trop Med, Jazan, Saudi Arabia..
    Beghi, Ettore
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Milan, Italy..
    Bejot, Yannick
    Univ Burgundy, Univ Hosp & Med Sch Dijon, Dijon, France..
    Bello, Aminu K.
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Berhane, Adugnaw
    Debre Berhan Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia..
    Bernabe, Eduardo
    Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Bernal, Oscar Alberto
    Univ Andes, Bogota, Colombia..
    Beyene, Addisu Shunu
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Beyene, Tariku Jibat
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Wageningen Univ, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Aga Khan Univ, Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu
    Independent Publ Hlth Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Bikbov, Boris
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy..
    Birlik, Sait Mentes
    GBS CIDP Int Fdn, Menemen, Turkey..
    Birungi, Charles
    UCL, London, England..
    Biryukov, Stan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Bisanzio, Donal
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England..
    Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos Town, Ethiopia..
    Bose, Dipan
    World Bank, Washington, DC 20433 USA..
    Brainin, Michael
    Danube Univ Krems, Krems, Austria..
    Brauer, Michael
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Brazinova, Alexandra
    Trnava Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Social Work, Dept Publ Hlth, Trnava, Slovakia.;Int Neurotrauma Res Org, Vienna, Austria..
    Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.
    Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Brenner, Hermann
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Al Shifa Trust Eye Hosp, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
    Cardenas, Rosario
    Metropolitan Autonomous Univ, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.;Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Car, Josip
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore, Singapore..
    Carrero, Juan Jesus
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Casey, Daniel
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Caso, Valeria
    Univ Perugia, Stroke Unit, Perugia, Italy..
    Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.
    Inst Nacl Salud, Colombian Natl Hlth Observ, Bogota, Colombia.;Univ Nacl Colombia, Dept Publ Hlth, Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Evaluat Grp, Bogota, Colombia..
    Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo
    Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica.;Univ Costa Rica, San Pedro, Montes De Oca, Costa Rica..
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Univ Valencia, INCLIVA Hlth Res Inst, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain.;CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain.;Ottawa Hosp Res Inst, Clin Epidemiol Program, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Cecilio, Pedro
    Cercy, Kelly
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Charlson, Fiona J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Chen, Alan Z.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Chew, Adrienne
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Chibalabala, Mirriam
    Crowd Watch Africa, Lusaka, Zambia..
    Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe
    Univ Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.;Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chitheer, Abdulaal A.
    Minist Hlth, Baghdad, Iraq..
    Chowdhury, Rajiv
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cambridge, England..
    Christensen, Hanne
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Univ Adelaide, Adealaide, SA, Australia..
    Cirillo, Massimo
    Univ Salerno, Baronissi, Italy..
    Coggeshall, Megan S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Cooper, Leslie Trumbull
    Mayo Clin, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA..
    Cortinovis, Monica
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy..
    Crump, John A.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin Sch Med, Ctr Int Hlth, Dunedin, New Zealand..
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, Ctr Injury Prevent & Safety Promot, Orebro, Sweden. Walden Univ, Minneapolis, MN USA..
    Dandona, Lalit
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Dargan, Paul I.
    Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, London, England..
    das Neves, Jose
    Univ Porto, Fac Med, I3S Inst Invest Inovacao Saude, Oporto, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Fac Med, INEB Inst Engn Biomed, Oporto, Portugal..
    Davey, Gail
    Wellcome Trust Brighton & Sussex Ctr Global Hlth, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Davitoiu, Dragos V.
    Univ Med & Pharm Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania..
    Davletov, Kairat
    Republican Inst Cardiol & Internal Dis, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.;Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan..
    De Leo, Diego
    Griffith Univ, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Del Gobbo, Liana C.
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    del Pozo-Cruz, Borja
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Dellavalle, Robert P.
    Univ Colorado, Sch Med, Aurora, CO USA.;Univ Colorado, Colorado Sch Publ Hlth, Aurora, CO USA..
    Deribe, Kebede
    Univ Addis Ababa, Sch Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Brighton & Sussex Med Sch, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Deribew, Amare
    KEMRI Wellcome Trust Res Programme, Kilifi, Kenya.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England..
    Jarlais, Don C. Des
    Mt Sinai Beth Israel, New York, NY USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Dey, Subhojit
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Indian Inst Publ Hlth Delhi, Gurgaon, India..
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Univ Peradeniya, Fac Med, Dept Community Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka..
    Dicker, Daniel
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ding, Eric L.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA..
    Dokova, Klara
    Med Univ Varna, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Social Med, Varna, Bulgaria..
    Dorsey, E. Ray
    Univ Rochester, Med Ctr, Rochester, NY 14642 USA..
    Doyle, Kerrie E.
    RMIT Univ, Bundoora, Vic, Australia.;Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Dubey, Manisha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Ehrenkranz, Rebecca
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ellingsen, Christian Lycke
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Elyazar, Iqbal
    Eijkman Oxford Clin Res Unit, Jakarta, Indonesia..
    Enayati, Ahmadali
    Sch Publ Hlth & Hlth Sci Res Ctr, Sari, Iran..
    Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Social & Econ Studies Populat, Moscow, Russia.;Minist Hlth Russian Federat, Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia..
    Eshrati, Babak
    Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Tehran, Iran.;Arak Univ Med Sci, Arak, Iran..
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Estep, Kara
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Fuerst, Thomas
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England.;Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland..
    Faghmous, Imad D. A.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Fanuel, Fanuel Belayneh Bekele
    Hawassa Univ, Hawassa, Ethiopia.;Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino
    Univ Philippines, Coll Publ Hlth, Manila, Philippines.;Dept Hlth, Manila, Philippines..
    Farid, Talha A.
    Univ Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 USA..
    Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa
    DGS Directorate Gen Hlth, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Aberta, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Faro, Andre
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil..
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Mongan Inst Hlth Policy, Harvard MGH Ctr Gen Vulnerable Populat & Hlth Dis, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Auckland Univ Technol, Natl Inst Stroke & Appl Neurosci, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Feigl, Andrea B.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA USA..
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc NVS, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fernandes, Jefferson G.
    German Hosp Oswaldo Cruz, Inst Educ & Sci, Sao Paulo, Brazil.;Catholic Univ Portugal, Fac Biotechnol, CBQF Ctr Biotechnol & Fine Chem, Associate Lab, Oporto, Portugal..
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa
    Wollega Univ, Nekemte, Ethiopia..
    Fischer, Florian
    Univ Bielefeld, Sch Publ Hlth, Bielefeld, Germany..
    Fitzmaurice, Christina
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Med, Div Hematol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98104 USA..
    Fleming, Thomas D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Foigt, Nataliya
    Acad Med Sci, Inst Gerontol, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Foreman, Kyle J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Seattle Genet, Seattle, WA USA..
    Franklin, Richard C.
    James Cook Univ, Townsville, Qld, Australia..
    Frostad, Joseph
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    hiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde G.
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Gambashidze, Ketevan
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.;Natl Ctr Dis Control Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Gamkrelidze, Amiran
    Gao, Wayne
    Natl Hlth Res Inst, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.
    Manhica Hlth Res Ctr, Manhica, Mozambique.;Barcelona Inst Global Hlth, Barcelona, Spain..
    Gebre, Teshome
    Task Force Global Hlth, Decatur, GA USA..
    Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia.;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Munich, Germany..
    Gebremichael, Mengistu Welday
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Gebru, Alemseged Aregay
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Kilte Awlaelo Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Gelaye, Amha Admasie
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Wageningen Univ, Div Human Nutr, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Genova-Maleras, Ricard
    Reg Hlth Council, Directorate Gen Publ Hlth, Madrid, Spain.;Natl Sch Publ Hlth, Madrid, Spain..
    Gibney, Katherine B.
    Univ Melbourne, Peter Doherty Inst Infect & Immun, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Royal Melbourne Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Giref, Ababi Zergaw
    UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England.;Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.;Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Kersa Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Giussani, Giorgia
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Milan, Italy..
    Godwin, William W.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Gold, Audra
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Goldberg, Ellen M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Univ Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA 02125 USA..
    Goodridge, Amador
    Inst Invest Cient & Serv Alta Tecnol INDICASAT AI, Cuidad Del Saber, Panama..
    Gopalani, Sameer Vali
    Govt Federated States Micronesia, Dept Hlth & Social Affairs, Palikir, Micronesia..
    Goto, Atsushi
    Natl Canc Ctr, Ctr Publ Hlth Sci, Div Epidemiol, Tokyo, Japan..
    Graetz, Nicholas
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Greaves, Felix
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.;Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    Griswold, Max
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Guban, Peter Imre
    Stockholm Cty Council Surveillance & Anal Ctr Epi, Solna, Sweden..
    Gugnani, Harish Chander
    St James Sch Med, Dept Microbiol, Quarter, Anguilla.;St James Sch Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Quarter, Anguilla..
    Gupta, Prakash C.
    Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Navi Mumbai, India..
    Gupta, Rahul
    West Virginia Bur Publ Hlth, Charleston, WV USA.;Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Gupta, Tanush
    Montefiore Med Ctr, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Gupta, Vipin
    Univ Delhi, Dept Anthropol, Delhi, India..
    Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie
    Debre Berhan Univ, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia.;Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Haile, Demewoz
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne
    Univ Addis Ababa, Sch Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway..
    Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Kilte Awlaelo Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Hakuzimana, Alex
    Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.;Euclid Univ, Banjul, Gambia..
    Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
    Arabian Gulf Univ, Manama, Bahrain..
    Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia..
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart Univ, Dubai, U Arab Emirates..
    Hammami, Mouhanad
    Wayne Cty Dept Hlth & Human Serv, Detroit, MI USA..
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Med & Pharmacol, Perth, WA, Australia.;Harry Perkins Inst Med Res, Nedlands, WA, Australia.;Western Australian Neurosci Res Inst, Nedlands, WA, Australia..
    Hao, Yuantao
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Harb, Hilda L.
    Minist Publ Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Hareri, Habtamu Abera
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Haro, Josep Maria
    CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Ctr Air Pollut Res, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Ctr Air Pollut Res Inst Environm Res, Tehran, Iran..
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hay, Roderick J.
    Univ Oxford, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford Big Data Inst, Oxford, England.;Kings Coll London, London, England.;Int Fdn Dermatol, London, England..
    Hay, Simon I.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Hendrie, Delia
    Curtin Univ, Ctr Populat Hlth Res, Bentley, WA, Australia..
    Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Hoek, Hans W.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands.;Columbia Univ, Mailman Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, New York, NY USA..
    Horino, Masako
    Nevada Div Publ & Behav Hlth, Dept Hlth & Human Serv, Carson City, NV USA..
    Horita, Nobuyuki
    Yokohama City Univ, Grad Sch Med, Dept Pulmonol, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Hosgood, H. Dean
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Minist Hlth, Int Relat Div, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar.;Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Hu, Guoqing
    Cent S Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Stat, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Huang, Hsiang
    Cambridge Hlth Alliance, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Huang, John J.
    Yale Univ, New Haven, CT USA..
    Huntley, Bethany M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Huynh, Chantal
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard
    Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania..
    Innos, Kaire
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Irenso, Asnake Ararsa
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Jahanmehr, Nader
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Tehran, Iran..
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.
    Univ Kragujevac, Fac Med Sci, Kragujevac, Serbia..
    James, Peter
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA..
    James, Spencer Lewis
    Univ Colorado, Denver Hlth, Denver, CO 80202 USA..
    Javanbakht, Mehdi
    Univ Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Jayaraman, Sudha P.
    Virginia Commonwealth Univ, Dept Surg, Richmond, VA USA..
    Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra
    Postgrad Inst Med, Colombo 07, Sri Lanka.;Inst Violence & Injury Prevent, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka..
    Jeemon, Panniyammakal
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Ctr Control Chron Condit, New Delhi, India.;Ctr Chron Dis Control, New Delhi, India.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Ctr Control Chron Condit, Guragon, India.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Ctr Control Chron Condit, Gurgaon, India..
    Jha, Vivekanand
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.;George Inst Global Hlth, New Delhi, India..
    John, Denny
    Int Ctr Res Women, New Delhi, India..
    Johnson, Catherine
    Johnson, Sarah C.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Mannheim, Germany..
    Juel, Knud
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kabir, Zubair
    Univ Coll Cork, Cork, Ireland..
    Kalkonde, Yogeshwar
    Soc Educ Act & Res Community Hlth, Gadchiroli, India..
    Kamal, Ritul
    CSIR, Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Kan, Haidong
    Fudan Univ, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Karch, Andre
    Helmholtz Ctr Infect Res, Epidemiol & Stat Methods Res Grp, Braunschweig, Germany.;German Ctr Infect Res, Hannover Braunschweig Site, Braunschweig, Germany..
    Karema, Corine Kakizi
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland.;Qual & Equity Hlth Care, Kigali, Rwanda..
    Karimi, Seyed M.
    Univ Washington Tacoma, Tacoma, WA USA..
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Seattle Childrens Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Pain Med, Seattle, WA USA..
    Kastor, Anshul
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Kazanjan, Konstantin
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Inst Trop & Infect Dis, Nairobi, Kenya.;Sch Continuing & Distance Educ, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kemmer, Laura
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Kemp, Andrew Haddon
    Swansea Univ, Swansea, W Glam, Wales.;Univ Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia..
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Kerbo, Amene Abebe
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Kereselidze, Maia
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair
    CSIR, Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan..
    Khalil, Ibrahim
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Khan, Abdur Rahman
    Univ Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 USA..
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Hlth Serv Acad, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Khan, Gulfaraz
    United Arab Emirates Univ, Coll Med Hlth Sci, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Al Ain, U Arab Emirates..
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Khoja, Abdullah Tawfih Abdullah
    Mohammed Ibn Saudi Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Khonelidze, Irma
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Ball State Univ, Muncie, IN 47306 USA..
    Kibret, Getiye Dejenu
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kim, Pauline
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Southern Univ Coll, Skudai, Malaysia..
    Kimokoti, Ruth W.
    Simmons Coll, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Univ Canberra, Fac Hlth, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Kissoon, Niranjan
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Karolinska Inst, Aging Res Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Natl Cerebral & Cardiovasc Ctr, Dept Prevent Cardiol, Suita, Osaka, Japan..
    Kolk, Anneli
    Univ Tartu, Fac Med, Dept Pediat, Tartu, Estonia..
    Kolte, Dhaval
    Brown Univ, Div Cardiol, Providence, RI 02912 USA..
    Kopec, Jacek A.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Kosen, Soewarta
    NIHRD, Ctr Community Empowerment Hlth Policy & Humanitie, Jakarta, Indonesia..
    Koul, Parvaiz A.
    Sher Kashmir Inst Med Sci, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India..
    Koyanagi, Ai
    CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain..
    Kravchenko, Michael
    Res Ctr Neurol, Moscow, Russia..
    Krishnaswami, Sanjay
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Krohn, Kristopher J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Univ Montreal, Dept Demog, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Publ Hlth Res Inst, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Hacettepe Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey..
    Kuipers, Ernst J.
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Kulkarni, Veena S.
    Arkansas State Univ, State Univ, AR USA..
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Guragon, India..
    Kumsa, Fekede Asefa
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Kutz, Michael
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Kyu, Hmwe H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lager, Anton Carl Jonas
    Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Solna, Sweden..
    Lal, Aparna
    Australian Natl Univ, Natl Ctr Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Lal, Dharmesh Kumar
    Lalloo, Ratilal
    Univ Queensland, Sch Dent, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Lallukka, Tea
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth Work Org, Dept Publ Hlth,Work Disabil Program, Helsinki, Finland..
    Lan, Qing
    NCI, Rockville, MD USA..
    Langan, Sinead M.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Lansingh, Van C.
    Help Me See Inc, New York, NY USA.;Inst Mexicano Oftalmol, Queretaro, Mexico..
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Laryea, Dennis Odai
    Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Kumasi, Ghana..
    Latif, Asma Abdul
    Lahore Coll Women Univ, Dept Zool, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena Beatriz
    Inst Nacl Epidemiol Dr Juan H Jara, Mar Del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Leasher, Janet L.
    Nova Southeastern Univ, Coll Optometry, Ft Lauderdale, FL 33314 USA..
    Leigh, James
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallin, Estonia.
    Leshargie, Cheru Tesema
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Leung, Janni
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Leung, Ricky
    SUNY Albany, Albany, NY 12222 USA..
    Levi, Miriam
    Tuscany Reg Ctr Occupat Injuries & Dis, Florence, Italy..
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Lind, Margaret
    Linn, Shai
    Univ Haifa, Haifa, Israel..
    Lipshultz, Steven E.
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Detroit, MI USA.;Childrens Hosp Michigan, Detroit, MI 48201 USA..
    Liu, Patrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Liu, Yang
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Lo, Loon-Tzian
    UnionHealth Associates LLC, St Louis, MO USA.;Alton Mental Hlth Ctr, Alton, IL USA..
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    Univ Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Lorch, Scott A.
    Univ Penn, Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Lozano, Rafael
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Aintree Univ Hosp Natl Hlth Serv Fdn Trust, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.;Univ Liverpool, Sch Med, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Lyons, Ronan A.
    Swansea Univ, Farr Inst, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King
    Yale Univ, New Haven, CT USA..
    Mackay, Mark T.
    Royal Childrens Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd
    Mansoura Fac Med, Mansoura, Egypt..
    El Razek, Mohammed Magdy Abd
    Aswan Univ Hosp, Aswan Fac Med, Aswan, Egypt..
    Mahdavi, Mahdi
    Erasmus Univ, Inst Hlth Policy & Management, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Social Secur Org Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Mantovani, Lorenzo G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy..
    Manyazewal, Tsegahun
    Ethiopian Publ Hlth Assoc, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Mapoma, Chabila C.
    Univ Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia..
    Marcenes, Wagner
    Kings Coll London, Dent Inst, Div Populat & Patient Hlth, London, England..
    Marks, Guy B.
    Univ Sydney, Woolcock Inst Med Res, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Woolcock Inst Med Res, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Marquez, Neal
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Martinez-Raga, Jose
    Hosp Univ Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain.;CEU Cardinal Herrera Univ, Moncada, Spain..
    Marzan, Melvin Barrientos
    Univ East Ramon, Magsaysay Mem Med Ctr, Quezon City, Philippines..
    Massano, Joao
    Univ Porto, Fac Med, Oporto, Portugal.;ULS Matosinhos, Hosp Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos, Portugal..
    Mathur, Manu Raj
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Maulik, Pallab K.
    George Inst Global Hlth India, New Delhi, India..
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Genet & Dev Biol, Key State Lab Mol Dev Biol, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    McAlinden, Colm
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Hosp Bristol NHS Fdn Trust, Bristol, Avon, England.;Publ Hlth Wales, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    McGrath, John J.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    McNellan, Claire
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Meaney, Peter A.
    Univ Penn, Perelman Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.;Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Mehari, Alem
    Howard Univ, Coll Med, Washington, DC USA..
    Mehndiratta, Man Mohan
    Janakpuri Superspecialty Hosp, New Delhi, India..
    Meier, Toni
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Halle, Saale, Germany..
    Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Saudi Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;Alfaisal Univ, Coll Med, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Mengesha, Melkamu Merid
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia..
    Mengiste, Desalegn Tadese
    Mekelle Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Mengistie, Mubarek Abera
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Menota, Bereket Gebremichael
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Mensah, George A.
    NHLBI, NIH, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Mereta, Seid Tiku
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Meretoja, Atte
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Ctr Comprehens Canc, Breast Surg Unit, Helsinki, Finland..
    Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Micha, Renata
    Tufts Univ, Friedman Sch Nutr Sci & Policy, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Millear, Anoushka
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mills, Edward J.
    Univ Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Minnig, Shawn
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mirarefin, Mojde
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Hunger Act Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.;Natl Ctr Cardiol & Internal Dis, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan..
    Mock, Charles N.
    Univ Washington, Harborview Injury Prevent & Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin
    Univ Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq..
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany.;Ahmadu Bello Univ, Hlth Syst & Policy Res Unit, Zaria, Nigeria..
    Mohanty, Sanjay K.
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mola, Glen Liddell D.
    Univ Papua New Guinea, Sch Med & Hlth Sci, Reprod Hlth & ObGyn, Boroko, Papua N Guinea..
    Molokhia, Mariam
    Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Montico, Marcella
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Iran Univ Med Sci, Preventat Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Gastrointestinal & Liver Dis Res Ctr GILDRC, Dept Community Med, Tehran, Iran..
    Moraga, Paula
    Queensland Univ Technol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Morawska, Lidia
    Queensland Univ Technol, Int Lab Air Qual & Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Mori, Rintaro
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Moses, Mark
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Murthy, Srinivas
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Univ Sci Malaysia, Sch Med Sci, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia..
    Nachega, Jean B.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Pittsburgh, PA USA.;Univ Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa.;Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Nagata, Chie
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Ulm Univ, Ulm, Germany..
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Naheed, Aliya
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res ICDDR, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Naldi, Luigi
    Azienda Osped Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy..
    Nangia, Vinay
    Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Nascimento, Bruno Ramos
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Hosp Clin, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.;Hosp Univ Ciencias Med, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Negoi, Ionut
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania..
    Neupane, Sudan Prasad
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Newton, Charles R.
    KEMRI Wellcome Trust, Kilifi, Kenya..
    Ng, Marie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak
    Minist Hlth & Social Welf, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Ngunjiri, Josephine Wanjiku
    Univ Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Nguyen, Grant
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini
    Taipei Med Univ, Coll Med Sci & Technol, Taipei, Taiwan.;Semarang State Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Semarang City, Indonesia..
    Nolte, Sandra
    Deakin Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Dev, Populat Hlth Strateg Res Ctr, Burwood, Vic, Australia.;Deakin Univ, Populat Hlth Strateg Res Ctr, Sch Hlth & Social Dev, Geelong, Vic, Australia..
    Nomura, Marika
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Saitama, Japan..
    Norheim, Ole F.
    Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway..
    Norrving, Bo
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Neurol, Lund, Sweden..
    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.
    Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.;Med Diagnost Ctr, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf
    Amer Univ Beirut, Fac Hlth Sci, Ctr Res Populat & Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Univ Western Sydney, Ctr Hlth Res, Penrith, NSW, Australia..
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Kyung Hee Univ, Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Okoro, Anselm
    Soc Family Hlth, Abuja, Nigeria..
    Oladimeji, Olanrewaju
    HSRC, Durban, South Africa.;Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa..
    Olagunju, Andrew Toyin
    Univ Adelaide, Adealaide, SA, Australia..
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Univ Autonoma Chile, Talca, Chile..
    Olsen, Helen E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
    Ctr Healthy Start Initiat, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
    Ctr Healthy Start Initiat, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Opio, John Nelson
    Lira Dist Local Govt, Lira Municipal Council, Lira, Uganda..
    Oren, Eyal
    Univ Arizona, Tucson, AZ USA..
    Ortiz, Alberto
    IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain..
    Osborne, Richard H.
    Deakin Univ, Geelong, Vic, Australia..
    Osman, Majdi
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA.;YBank, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Owolabi, Mayowa O.
    Dept Med, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Blossom Specialist Med Ctr, Ibadan, Nigeria. JSS Univ, JSS Med Coll, Mysore, Karnataka, India..
    Mahesh, P. A.
    Pain, Amanda W.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Pakhale, Smita
    Ottawa Hosp, Res Inst, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Castillo, Elizabeth Palomares
    Minist Hlth, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.;Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Pana, Adrian
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania..
    Papachristou, Christina
    Charite, Ctr Internal Med & Dermatol, Dept Psychosomat Med, Berlin, Germany..
    Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Patel, Tejas
    Mt Sinai Hlth Syst, New York, NY USA..
    Patton, George C.
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Paudel, Deepak
    UK Dept Int Dev, Lalitpur, Nepal..
    Paul, Vinod K.
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Pearce, Neil
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Pereira, David M.
    Univ Porto, Fac Farm, REQUIMTE LAQV, Lab Farmacognosia, Oporto, Portugal..
    Perez-Padilla, Rogelio
    Natl Inst Resp Dis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando
    Hop Univ Cruces, OSI EE Cruces, Baracaldo, Spain.;Biocruces Hlth Res Inst, Baracaldo, Spain..
    Perico, Norberto
    Pesudovs, Konrad
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Petzold, Max
    Univ Gothenburg, Hlth Metr Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Phillips, Michael Robert
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA.;Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Pigott, David M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Pillay, Julian David
    Durban Univ Technol, Durban, South Africa..
    Pinho, Christine
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Publ Hlth, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Pond, Constance D.
    Univ Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia..
    Prakash, V.
    Charotar Univ Sci & Technol, Anand, Gujarat, India..
    Purwar, Manorama
    Intergrowth 21st Study Res Ctr, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Karaj, Iran..
    Quistberg, D. Alex
    Univ Washington, Harborview Injury Prevent & Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Anesthesiol & Pain Med, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Radfar, Amir
    AT Still Univ, Kirksville, MO USA..
    Rafay, Anwar
    Contech Int Hlth Consultants, Lahore, Pakistan.;Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rahimi, Kazem
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.;BRAC, Res & Evaluat Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, India..
    Ram, Usha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Rana, Saleem M.
    Contech Int Hlth Consultants, Lahore, Pakistan.;Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rankin, Zane
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya
    Diabet Res Soc, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.;Diabet Res Ctr, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India..
    Rao, Puja C.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Rawaf, Salman
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Rego, Maria Albertina Santiago
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Fac Med, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Reitsma, Marissa
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Remuzzi, Giuseppe
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy.;Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy.;Univ Milan, Dept Biomed & Clin Sci L Sacco, Milan, Italy..
    Renzaho, Andre M. N. N.
    Univ Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW, Australia..
    Resnikoff, Serge
    Univ New South Wales, Brien Holden Vision Inst, Randwick, NSW, Australia.;Univ New South Wales, Sch Optometry & Vis Sci, Randwick, NSW, Australia..
    Rezaei, Satar
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Kermanshah, Iran.;Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Sari, Iran..
    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh
    Ribeiro, Antonio L.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Hosp Clin, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Roba, Hirbo Shore
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia..
    Rokni, Mohammad Bagher
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Ronfani, Luca
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Golestan Univ Med Sci, Golestan Res Ctr Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Gorgan, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Rothenbacher, Dietrich
    Ulm Univ, Inst Epidemiol & Med Biometry, Ulm, Germany..
    Roy, Nawal K.
    Holmusk, Singapore, Singapore.;Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Univ New South Wales, Randwick, NSW, Australia.;Prince Wales Hosp, Randwick, NSW, Australia..
    Sackey, Ben Benasco
    World Hlth Org, Accra, Ghana..
    Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya
    Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Safiri, Saeid
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Managerial Epidemiol Res Ctr, Maragheh, Iran..
    Sagar, Rajesh
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, MS Res Ctr, Neurosci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, MS Res Ctr, Neurosci Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad
    Dev Res & Projects Ctr, Abuja, Nigeria..
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA USA..
    Samy, Abdallah M.
    Erasmus MC, Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt..
    Sanabria, Juan Ramon
    Marshall Univ, J Edwards Sch Med, Huntington, WV USA.;Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores
    IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain..
    Sandar, Logan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Internal Med Dept, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Santos, Joao Vasco
    Univ Porto, Fac Med, Oporto, Portugal..
    Milicevic, Milena M. Santric
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Social Med, Belgrade, Serbia.;Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Ctr Sch Publ Hlth & Hlth Management, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo
    Univ Ciencias Aplicadas & Ambient, Bogota, Colombia..
    Sartorius, Benn
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Nursing & Publ Hlth, Publ Hlth Med, Durban, South Africa.;SAMRC, UKZN Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Savic, Miloje
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Sawhney, Monika
    Marshall Univ, Huntington, WV USA..
    Saylan, Mete I.
    Bayer Turkey, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Schoettker, Ben
    German Canc Res Ctr, Div Clin Epidemiol & Ageing Res, Heidelberg, Germany.;FOM Univ, Inst Hlth Care & Social Sci, Essen, Germany..
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    North West Univ, Hypertens Africa Res Team HART, Potchefstroom, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwebel, David C.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Seedat, Soraya
    Univ Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Seid, Abdulbasit Musa
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia..
    Seifu, Canaan Negash
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Serdar, Berrin
    Univ Colorado, Aurora, CO USA..
    Servan-Mori, Edson E.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Setegn, Tesfaye
    Bahir Dar Univ, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Shackelford, Katya Anne
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Shaheen, Amira
    Najah Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Nablus, Palestine..
    Shahraz, Saeid
    Tufts Med Ctr, Boston, MA USA..
    Shaikh, Masood Ali
    Shakh-Nazarova, Marina
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Shamsipour, Mansour
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Inst Environm Res, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Inst Environm Res, Tehran, Iran..
    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res ICDDR, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Sharma, Jayendra
    Minist Hlth, Thimphu, Bhutan..
    Sharma, Rajesh
    Indian Inst Technol Ropar, Rupnagar, India..
    She, Jun
    Fudan Univ, Zhongshan Hosp, Dept Pulm Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Inst, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Shen, Jiabin
    Ohio State Univ, Coll Med, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Nationwide Childrens Hosp, Res Inst, Columbus, OH USA..
    Shi, Peilin
    Tufts Univ, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Natl Inst Infect Dis, Tokyo, Japan.;Sandia Natl Labs, Albuquerque, NM 87185 USA..
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Korea Univ, Grad Sch, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Seoul, South Korea..
    Shiri, Rahman
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth Work Org, Dept Publ Hlth,Work Disabil Program, Helsinki, Finland..
    Shoman, Haitham
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Shrime, Mark G.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Sibamo, Ephrem Lejore Sibamo
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia..
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves
    Brasilia Univ, Brasilia, DF, Brazil..
    Sindi, Shireen
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Singh, Abhishek
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA.;Birmingham Vet Affairs Med Ctr, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Singh, Om Prakash
    Banaras Hindu Univ, Inst Med Sci, Dept Med, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Singh, Prashant Kumar
    Inst Human Dev, New Delhi, India..
    Singh, Virendra
    Asthma Bhawan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Sinke, Abiy Hiruye
    Ethiopian Med Assoc, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Sinshaw, Aklilu Endalamaw
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia..
    Skirbekk, Vegard
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.;Columbia Univ, New York, NY USA..
    Sliwa, Karen
    Univ Cape Town, Fac Hlth Sci, Hatter Inst Cardiovasc Res Africa, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Smith, Alison
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Sobngwi, Eugene
    Univ Yaounde, Yaounde, Cameroon.;Yaounde Cent Hosp, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Soneji, Samir
    Dartmouth Coll, Hanover, NH 03755 USA..
    Soriano, Joan B.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Inst Invest Hosp Univ Princesa, Madrid, Spain..
    Sousa, Tatiane Cristina Moraes
    Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Natl Sch Publ Hlth, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Sposato, Luciano A.
    Western Univ, Dept Clin Neurol Sci, London, ON, Canada..
    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.
    Int Med Univ, Dept Community Med, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Stathopoulou, Vasiliki
    Attikon Univ Hosp, Athens, Greece..
    Steel, Nicholas
    Publ Hlth England, London, England.;Univ East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, England..
    Steiner, Caitlyn
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Steinke, Sabine
    Univ Hosp Muenster, Dept Dermatol, Munster, Germany..
    Stokes, Mark Andrew
    Deakin Univ, Burwood, Vic, Australia..
    Stranges, Saverio
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Strong, Mark
    Univ Sheffield, Sch Hlth & Related Res, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England..
    Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos
    Alexandra Gen Hosp Athens, Athens, Greece.;Ctr Hosp Publ Cotentin, Cherbourg, France..
    Sturua, Lela
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia..
    Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale
    Ahmadu Bello Univ, Zaria, Nigeria..
    Suliankatchi, Rizwan Abdulkader
    Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Sun, Jiandong
    Queensland Univ Technol, Sch Publ Hlth & Social Work, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Inst Resilient Regions, Springfield, Qld, Australia..
    Sur, Patrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Indian Council Med Res, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Sykes, Bryan L.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Sociol, Irvine, CA USA.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Publ Hlth, Irvine, CA USA..
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Univ Valencia, INCLIVA Hlth Res Inst, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain.;CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain..
    Tabb, Karen M.
    Univ Illinois, Sch Social Work, Champaign, IL USA..
    Taffere, Getachew Redae
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Talongwa, Roberto Tchio
    Minist Hlth, MINSANTE, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Tarajia, Musharaf
    Inst Conmemorativo Gorgas Estudios Salud, Panama City, Panama..
    Tavakkoli, Mohammad
    New York Med Ctr, Valhalla, NY USA..
    Taveira, Nuno
    Inst Super Ciencias Saude Egas Moniz, Almada, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, Faulty Pharm, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Teeple, Stephanie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Prevent Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Tekelab, Tesfalidet
    Wollega Univ, Nekemte, Ethiopia.;Univ Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia..
    Tekle, Dejen Yemane
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Shifa, Girma Temam
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Arba Minch Univ, Arba Minch, Ethiopia..
    Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman
    Univ Virginia, Dept Anesthesiol, Charlottesville, VA USA.;King Fahad Med City, Dept Anesthesiol, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;Cleveland Clin, Outcomes Res Consortium, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Thakur, J. S.
    Post Grad Inst Med Educ & Res, Sch Publ Hlth, Chandigarh, India..
    Thomson, Alan J.
    Adapt Knowledge Management, Victoria, BC, Canada..
    Tillmann, Taavi
    UCL, Inst Epidemiol & Hlth, London, England..
    Tiruye, Tenaw Yimer
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Tokyo, Japan..
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Univ Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Med Coll, Inst Publ Hlth, Krakow, Poland..
    Tortajada, Miguel
    Hosp Univ Dr Peset, Valencia, Spain..
    Troeger, Christopher
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Truelsen, Thomas
    Univ Copenhagen, Rigshosp, Dept Neurol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Tura, Abera Kenay
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Uchendu, Uche S.
    Washington DC, Dept Vet Affairs, Washington, DC USA..
    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.
    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Nigeria..
    Undurraga, Eduardo A.
    Brandeis Univ, Waltham, MA USA..
    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse
    Ebonyi State Univ, Abakaliki, Nigeria..
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Med Sch, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    van Boven, Job F. M.
    Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Van Dingenen, Rita
    Joint Res Ctr, European Commiss, Ispra, Italy..
    Varughese, Santosh
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Inst Hlth Promot Res, Tampere, Finland..
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Raffles Hosp, Raffles Neurosci Ctr, Singapore, Singapore..
    Violante, Francesco S.
    Univ Bologna, Bologna, Italy..
    Vladimirov, Sergey K.
    Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia..
    Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich
    Natl Res Univ Higher Sch Econ, Moscow, Russia..
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Dis Burden, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway..
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Wagner, Joseph A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Wakayo, Tolassa
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Waller, Stephen G.
    Uniformed Serv Univ Hlth Sci, Bethesda, MD 20814 USA..
    Walson, Judd L.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Nat Hist Museum, London, England..
    Wang, Haidong
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Wang, Yuan-Pang
    Univ Sao Paulo, Med Sch, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Watkins, David A.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Canc Registry Norway, Inst Populat Based Canc Res, Dept Res, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Tromso, Arctic Univ Norway, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Community Med, Tromso, Norway.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Helsinki, Finland..
    Weintraub, Robert G.
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Royal Childrens Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Wen, Chi-Pang
    Natl Hlth Res Inst, Hlth Policy, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Competence Ctr Mortality Follow Up German Natl Co, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Wesana, Joshua
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.;Mt Moon Univ, Ft Portal, Uganda..
    Westerman, Ronny
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany.;German Natl Cohort Consortium, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Whiteford, Harvey A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Wilkinson, James D.
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Detroit, MI USA..
    Wiysonge, Charles Shey
    Univ Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa.;Cochrane South Africa, South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Woldeyes, Belete Getahun
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Wolfe, Charles D. A.
    Kings Coll London, Div Hlth & Social Care Res, London, England.;Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, Comprehens Biomed Res Ctr, Natl Inst Hlth Res, London, England.;Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Won, Sungho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Seoul, South Korea..
    Workicho, Abdulhalik
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia.;Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium..
    Workie, Shimelash Bitew
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia. St Pauls Hosp, Millenium Med Coll, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Addis Continental Inst Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Wubshet, Mamo
    Xavier, Denis
    St Johns Med Coll & Res Inst, Bangalore, Karnataka, India..
    Xu, Gelin
    Nanjing Univ, Jinling Hosp, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yadav, Ajit Kumar
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Yaghoubi, Mohsen
    Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada..
    Yakob, Bereket
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Nursing & Publ Hlth, Discipline Publ Hlth Med, Durban, South Africa..
    Yan, Lijing L.
    Duke Kunshan Univ, Global Hlth Res Ctr, Kunshan, Peoples R China..
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA..
    Yaseri, Mehdi
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Ophthalm Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Yimam, Hassen Hamid
    Tepi Univ, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia..
    Yip, Paul
    Univ Hong Kong, Social Work & Social Adm Dept, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.;Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong Jockey Club Ctr Suicide Res & Prevent, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Kyoto, Japan..
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Korea Univ, Coll Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Younis, Mustafa Z.
    Jackson State Univ, Jackson, MS USA..
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;Wuhan Univ, Global Hlth Inst, Wuhan, Peoples R China..
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Univ Hosp, Setif, Algeria..
    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
    Mansoura Univ, Fac Med, Mansoura, Egypt..
    Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos
    EcoHlth Alliance, New York, NY USA.;Inst Ecol Bolivia, La Paz, Bolivia..
    Zapata, Tomas
    World Hlth Org, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Indian Inst Publ Hlth Delhi, Gurgaon, India..
    Zoeckler, Leo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna
    Red Cross War Mem Childrens Hosp, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, 2301 5th Ave,Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2015: a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10091, p. 231-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Methods We mapped the most widely used list of causes amenable to personal health care developed by Nolte and McKee to 32 GBD causes. We accounted for variations in cause of death certification and misclassifications through the extensive data standardisation processes and redistribution algorithms developed for GBD. To isolate the effects of personal health-care access and quality, we risk-standardised cause-specific mortality rates for each geography-year by removing the joint effects of local environmental and behavioural risks, and adding back the global levels of risk exposure as estimated for GBD 2015. We employed principal component analysis to create a single, interpretable summary measure-the Healthcare Quality and Access (HAQ) Index-on a scale of 0 to 100. The HAQ Index showed strong convergence validity as compared with other health-system indicators, including health expenditure per capita (r= 0.88), an index of 11 universal health coverage interventions (r= 0.83), and human resources for health per 1000 (r= 0.77). We used free disposal hull analysis with bootstrapping to produce a frontier based on the relationship between the HAQ Index and the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a measure of overall development consisting of income per capita, average years of education, and total fertility rates. This frontier allowed us to better quantify the maximum levels of personal health-care access and quality achieved across the development spectrum, and pinpoint geographies where gaps between observed and potential levels have narrowed or widened over time. Findings Between 1990 and 2015, nearly all countries and territories saw their HAQ Index values improve; nonetheless, the difference between the highest and lowest observed HAQ Index was larger in 2015 than in 1990, ranging from 28.6 to 94.6. Of 195 geographies, 167 had statistically significant increases in HAQ Index levels since 1990, with South Korea, Turkey, Peru, China, and the Maldives recording among the largest gains by 2015. Performance on the HAQ Index and individual causes showed distinct patterns by region and level of development, yet substantial heterogeneities emerged for several causes, including cancers in highest-SDI countries; chronic kidney disease, diabetes, diarrhoeal diseases, and lower respiratory infections among middle-SDI countries; and measles and tetanus among lowest-SDI countries. While the global HAQ Index average rose from 40.7 (95% uncertainty interval, 39.0-42.8) in 1990 to 53.7 (52.2-55.4) in 2015, far less progress occurred in narrowing the gap between observed HAQ Index values and maximum levels achieved; at the global level, the difference between the observed and frontier HAQ Index only decreased from 21.2 in 1990 to 20.1 in 2015. If every country and territory had achieved the highest observed HAQ Index by their corresponding level of SDI, the global average would have been 73.8 in 2015. Several countries, particularly in eastern and western sub-Saharan Africa, reached HAQ Index values similar to or beyond their development levels, whereas others, namely in southern sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and south Asia, lagged behind what geographies of similar development attained between 1990 and 2015. Interpretation This novel extension of the GBD Study shows the untapped potential for personal health-care access and quality improvement across the development spectrum. Amid substantive advances in personal health care at the national level, heterogeneous patterns for individual causes in given countries or territories suggest that few places have consistently achieved optimal health-care access and quality across health-system functions and therapeutic areas. This is especially evident in middle-SDI countries, many of which have recently undergone or are currently experiencing epidemiological transitions. The HAQ Index, if paired with other measures of health-systemcharacteristics such as intervention coverage, could provide a robust avenue for tracking progress on universal health coverage and identifying local priorities for strengthening personal health-care quality and access throughout the world.

  • 10. Espelt, A.
    et al.
    Borrell, Carme
    Roskam, Albert-Jan
    Rodríguez-Sanz, M
    Stirbu, Irina
    Dalmau-Bueno, A
    Regidor, Enrique
    Bopp, Matthias
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Artnik, Barbara
    Rychtarikova, Jitka
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Dzurova, D
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in diabetes mellitus across Europe at the beginning of the 21st century2008In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 1971-1979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, educational attainment and diabetes are inversely related, in terms of both morbidity and mortality rates. This underlines the importance of targeting interventions towards low SEP groups. Access and use of healthcare services by people with diabetes also need to be improved.

  • 11. Ezendam, Nicole P M
    et al.
    Stirbu, Irina
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Lundberg, Olle
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Educational inequalities in cancer mortality differ greatly between countries around the Baltic Sea2008In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 454-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries of the Baltic Sea region differ strongly with regard to the magnitude and pattern of the educational inequalities in cancer mortality.

  • 12.
    Gadeyne, S
    et al.
    Vrij Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium / Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Menvielle, G
    Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
    Kulhanova, I
    rasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, M
    University of Zürich, Switzerland.
    Deboosere, P
    Vrij Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Eikemo, T A
    Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands / Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Hoffmann, R
    Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kovács, K
    Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, P
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Regidor, E
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Rychtarikova, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Spadea, T
    Local Health Authority TO3 of Piedmont Region, Italy.
    Strand, B H
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Trewin, C
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Wojtyniak, B
    National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.
    Mackenbach, J P
    Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    The turn of the gradient? Educational differences in breast cancer mortality in 18 European populations during the 2000s2017In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 141, no 1, p. 33-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the association between educational level and breast cancer mortality in Europe in the 2000s. Unlike most other causes of death, breast cancer mortality tends to be positively related to education, with higher educated women showing higher mortality rates. Research has however shown that the association is changing from being positive over non-existent to negative in some countries. To investigate these patterns, data from national mortality registers and censuses were collected and harmonized for 18 European populations. The study population included all women aged 30-74. Age-standardized mortality rates, mortality rate ratios, and slope and relative indexes of inequality were computed by education. The population was stratified according to age (women aged 30-49 and women aged 50-74). The relation between educational level and breast cancer mortality was predominantly negative in women aged 30-49, mortality rates being lower among highly educated women and higher among low educated women, although few outcomes were statistically significant. Among women aged 50-74, the association was mostly positive and statistically significant in some populations. A comparison with earlier research in the 1990s revealed a changing pattern of breast cancer mortality. Positive educational differences that used to be significant in the 1990s were no longer significant in the 2000s, indicating that inequalities have decreased or disappeared. This evolution is in line with the "fundamental causes" theory which stipulates that whenever medical insights and treatment become available to combat a disease, a negative association with socio-economic position will arise, independently of the underlying risk factors.

  • 13.
    Griswold, Max G.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Fullman, Nancy
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Hawley, Caitlin
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Arian, Nicholas
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Zimsen, Stephanie R. M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Tymeson, Hayley D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Venkateswaran, Vidhya
    Harvard Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA..
    Tapp, Austin Douglas
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Seattle Genet, Seattle, WA USA..
    Salama, Joseph S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Jimma Univ, Dept Populat & Family Hlth, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Abate, Degu
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Abay, Solomon M.
    Addis Ababa Univ, Dept Pharmacol & Clin Pharm, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dept Law Philosophy & Econ Studies, Rome, Italy..
    Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi
    Minist Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Abebe, Zegeye
    Univ Gondar, Human Nutr, Gondar, Ethiopia..
    Aboyans, Victor
    Dupuytren Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Limoges, France.;Univ Limoges, Inst Epidemiol, Limoges, France..
    Abrar, Mohammed Mehdi
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Acharya, Pawan
    Nepal Dev Soc, Chitwan, Nepal..
    Adetokunboh, Olatunji O.
    Stellenbosch Univ, Dept Global Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council, Cochrane South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Adhikari, Tara Ballav
    Ctr Social Sci & Publ Hlth Res Nepal, Nepal Hlth Res Environm, Kathmandu, Nepal.;Univ Southern Denmark, Unit Hlth Promot Res, Odense, Denmark..
    Adsuar, Jose C.
    Univ Extremadura, Fac Sport Sci, Badajoz, Spain..
    Afarideh, Mohsen
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Agardh, Emilie Elisabet
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Agarwal, Gina
    McMaster Univ, Dept Family Med, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Aghayan, Sargis Aghasi
    Yerevan State Univ, Chair Zool, Yerevan, Armenia.;Sci Ctr Zool & Hydroecol, Res Grp Mol Parasitol, Yerevan, Armenia..
    Agrawal, Sutapa
    PHFI, Gurugram, India.;Vital Strategies, Gurugram, India..
    Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
    Jimma Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Akibu, Mohammed
    Dept Midwifery, Lexington, KY USA..
    Akinyemiju, Tomi
    Univ Kentucky, Dept Epidemiol, Lexington, KY 40506 USA..
    Akseer, Nadia
    Univ Toronto, Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Al Asfoor, Deena H.
    Minist Hlth, Off Undersecretary Hlth Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Washington Univ, Dept Internal Med, St Louis, MO USA.;Dept Vet Affairs, VA St Louis Hlth Care Syst, Clin Epidemiol Ctr, St Louis, MO USA..
    Alahdab, Fares
    Mayo Clin Fdn Med Educ & Res, Evidence Based Pract Ctr, Rochester, MN USA.;Syrian Amer Med Soc, Res Comm Educ Comm & Avicenna Journal Med Editor, Washington, DC USA..
    Alam, Khurshid
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Albujeer, Ammar
    Naba Al Hayat Fdn Med Sci & Hlth Care, Najaf, Iraq..
    Alene, Kefyalew Addis
    Univ Gondar, Inst Publ Hlth, Gondar, Ethiopia.;Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Populat Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Ali, Raghib
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England.;New York Univ Abu Dhabi, Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Ali, Syed Danish
    Univ London, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Alijanzadeh, Mehran
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Qazvin, Iran..
    Aljunid, Syed Mohamed
    Kuwait Univ, Dept Hlth Policy & Management, Kuwait, Kuwait.;Natl Univ Malaysia, Int Ctr Casemix & Clin Coding, Bandar Tun Razak, Malaysia..
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Dept Populat Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Allebeck, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Res Council Hlth Working Life & Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Univ Cartagena, Res Grp Hlth Econ, Cartagena, Colombia.;Univ Coast, Res Grp Hosp Management & Hlth Pol, Barranquilla, Colombia..
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Univ South Australia, Sansom Inst, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Bahir Dar Univ, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Aminde, Leopold N.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Ammar, Walid
    Fed Minist Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon.;Amer Univ Beirut, Fac Hlth Sci, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Amoako, Yaw Ampem
    Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Kumasi, Ghana..
    Amul, Gianna Gayle Herrera
    Natl Univ Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew Sch Publ Pol, Singapore, Singapore..
    Andrei, Catalina Liliana
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Bucharest, Romania..
    Angus, Colin
    Univ Sheffield, Sch Hlth & Related Res, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England..
    Ansha, Mustafa Geleto
    Dept Publ Hlth, Lexington, KY USA. Debre Berhan Univ, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia..
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Univ Philippines Manila, Dept Hlth Policy & Adm, Manila, Philippines..
    Aremu, Olatunde
    Birmingham City Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, Birmingham, W Midlands, England..
    Arnlov, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden..
    Artaman, Al
    Univ Manitoba, Dept Community Hlth Sci, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Aryal, Krishna K.
    ABT Associates Nepal, Monitoring Evaluat & Operat Res Project, DFID Nepal Hlth Sect Programme 3, Lalitpur, Nepal..
    Assadi, Reza
    Mashhad Univ Med Sci, Educ Dev Ctr, Mashhad, Iran..
    Ausloos, Marcel
    Univ Leicester, Sch Business, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Avila-Burgos, Leticia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Hlth Syst Res, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Avokpaho, Euripide F. G. A.
    Benin Clin Res Inst IRCB, Project Deworm3, Calavi, Benin.;Lab Studies & Res Act Hlth LERAS, Control Infect Dis Project, Porto Novo, Benin..
    Awasthi, Ashish
    PHFI, Gurugram, India.;Indian Inst Publ Hlth, Gandhinagar, India..
    Ayele, Henok Tadesse
    McGill Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Occupational Hlth, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Dilla Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Dilla, Ethiopia..
    Ayer, Rakesh
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Community & Global Hlth, Tokyo, Japan..
    Ayuk, Tambe B.
    Inst Med Res & Plant Med Studies, Ctr Food & Nutr Res, Yaounde, Cameroon.;Univ South Africa, Dept Hlth Studies, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Azzopardi, Peter S.
    South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Wardliparingga Aboriginal Res Unit, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Burnet Inst, Discipline Int Dev, Maternal & Child Hlth Program, Global Adolescent Hlth Grp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Badali, Hamid
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Dept Med Mycol, Invas Fungi Res Ctr, Sari, Iran..
    Badawi, Alaa
    Univ Toronto, Hosp Sick Children, Fac Med, Nutr Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Publ Hlth Risk Sci Div, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Banach, Maciej
    Med Univ Lodz, Dept Hypertens, Lodz, Poland.;PMMHRI, Lodz, Poland..
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn
    Univ Auckland, Sch Psychol, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Barrero, Lope H.
    Pontificia Univ Javeriana, Dept Ind Engn, Bogota, Colombia..
    Basaleem, Huda
    Univ Aden, Aden, Yemen..
    Baye, Estifanos
    Wollo Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Dessie, Ethiopia..
    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
    Charles R Drew Univ Med & Sci, Dept Psychiat, 1621 E 120th St, Los Angeles, CA 90059 USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Psychiat & Biobehav Sci, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA..
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Gandhi Med Coll Bhopal, Dept Community Med, Bhopal, India.;Jazan Univ, Jizan, Saudi Arabia..
    Bejot, Yannick
    Univ Hosp Dijon, Dept Neurol, Dijon, France.;Univ Burgundy, Fac Hlth Sci, Dijon Stroke Registry, Dijon, France..
    Belachew, Abate Bekele
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Belay, Saba Abraham
    Dr Tewelde Legesse Hlth Sci Coll, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England..
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Internal Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Bernabe, Eduardo
    Kings Coll London, Dent Inst, London, England..
    Bernstein, Robert S.
    Emory Univ, Hubert Dept Global Hlth, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA.;Univ S Florida, Dept Global Hlth, Tampa, FL USA..
    Beyene, Addisu Shunu
    Haramaya Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Harar, Ethiopia.;Univ Newcastle, Sch Publ Hlth & Med, Newcastle, NSW, Australia..
    Beyranvand, Tina
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Bhaumik, Soumyadeeep
    George Inst Global Hlth, New Delhi, India..
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Univ Toronto, Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Aga Khan Univ, Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Biadgo, Belete
    Univ Gondar, Dept Clin Chem, Gondar, Ethiopia..
    Bijani, Ali
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Babol Sar, Iran.;Babol Univ Med Sci, Hlth Res Inst, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Bililign, Nigus
    Woldia Univ, Woldia, Ethiopia..
    Birlik, Sait Mentes
    Univ Bologna, Bologna, Italy.;GBS CIDP Fdn Int, Conshohocken, PA USA..
    Birungi, Charles
    UCL, UCL Ctr Global Hlth Econ, London, England.;United Nations Programme HIV AIDS UNAIDS, Fast Track Implementat Dept, Gaborone, Botswana..
    Bizuneh, Hailemichael
    St Pauls Hosp, Publ Hlth, Millennium Med Coll, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Bjerregaard, Peter
    Univ Southern Denmark, Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Odense, Denmark..
    Bjorge, Tone
    Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway.;Canc Registry Norway, Oslo, Norway..
    Borges, Guilherme
    Natl Inst Psychiat Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Dept Epidemiol & Psychosocial Res, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Bosetti, Cristina
    IRCCS, Dept Oncol, Mario Negri Inst Pharmacol Res, Milan, Italy..
    Boufous, Soufiane
    Univ New South Wales, Transport & Rd Safety TARS Res, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi
    Univ Genoa, Genoa, Italy..
    Brenner, Hermann
    German Canc Res Ctr, Div Clin Epidemiol & Aging Res, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Univ British Columbia, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada.;Al Shifa Trust Eye Hosp, Al Shifa Sch Publ Hlth, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
    Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Hlth Syst Res, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Calabria, Bianca
    Australian Natl Univ, Natl Ctr Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia.;Univ New South Wales, Natl Drug & Alcohol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Campuzano Rincon, Julio Cesar
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.;Univ Valley Cuernavaca, Sch Med, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Carreras, Giulia
    Inst Canc Res Prevent & Clin Network ISPRO, Florence, Italy..
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Carvalho, Felix
    Univ Porto, Appl Mol Biosci Unit, Porto, Portugal..
    Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.
    Natl Inst Hlth, Colombian Natl Hlth Observ, Bogota, Colombia.;Univ Nacl Colombia, Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Evaluat Grp, Bogota, Colombia..
    Castillo Rivas, Jacqueline
    Costa Rican Dept Social Secur, San Jose, Costa Rica.;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Dent, San Pedro, Costa Rica..
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Inst Hlth Carlos III, Natl Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Planning & Econ, Madrid, Spain..
    Chang, Jung-Chen
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Coll Med, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Charlson, Fiona J.
    Univ Washington, Dept Global Hlth, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Chattopadhyay, Aparajita
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Dept Dev Studies, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Chaturvedi, Pankaj
    Tata Mem Hosp, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Chowdhury, Rajiv
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cambridge, England..
    Christopher, Devasahayam J.
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp CMC, Dept Pulm Med, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Chung, Sheng-Chia
    UCL, Dept Hlth Informat, London, England.;Hlth Data Res UK, London, England..
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Claro, Rafael M.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Dept Nutr, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Conti, Sara
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Med & Surg, Monza, Italy..
    Cousin, Ewerton
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Postgrad Program Epidemiol, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Criqui, Michael H.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Dachew, Berihun Assefa
    Univ Gondar, Inst Publ Hlth, Gondar, Ethiopia.;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Dargan, Paul, I
    Kings Coll London, Fac Life Sci & Med, London, England.;Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, Clin Toxicol Serv, London, England..
    Daryani, Ahmad
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Toxoplasmosis Res Ctr, Sari, Iran..
    Das Neves, Jose
    Univ Porto, Inst Biomed Engn INEB, Porto, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Inst Res & Innovat Hlth I3s, Porto, Portugal..
    Davletov, Kairat
    Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan..
    De Castro, Filipa
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    De Courten, Barbora
    Monash Univ, Monash Ctr Hlth Res & Implementat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    De Neve, Jan-Walter
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Degenhardt, Louisa
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ New South Wales, Natl Drug & Alcohol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Aksum Univ, Dept Clin Pharm, Aksum, Ethiopia..
    Des Jarlais, Don C.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Psychiat, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Dey, Subhojit
    Disha Fdn, Gurgaon, India..
    Dhaliwal, Rupinder Singh
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Peradeniya, Dept Community Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka..
    Dhimal, Meghnath
    Nepal Hlth Res Council, Hlth Res Sect, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Doku, David Teye
    Univ Cape Coast, Dept Populat & Hlth, Cape Coast, Ghana.;Univ Tampere, Sch Hlth Sci, Tampere, Finland..
    Doyle, Kerrie E.
    RMIT Univ, Sch Hlth & Biomed Sci, Royal Melbourne Inst Technol, Bundoora, Vic, Australia..
    Dubey, Manisha
    United Nations World Food Programme, New Delhi, India..
    Dubljanin, Eleonora
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Duncan, Bruce B.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Postgrad Program Epidemiol, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Ebrahimi, Hedyeh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Edessa, Dumessa
    Haramaya Univ, Sch Pharm, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
    Mansoura Univ, Dept Clin Pathol, Mansoura, Egypt..
    Ermakov, Sergei Petrovich
    Russian Acad Sci, Lab Socioecon Issues Human Dev & Qual Life, Moscow, Russia.;Minist Hlth FRIHOI, Dept Med Stat & Documentary, Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia..
    Erskine, Holly E.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Farioli, Andrea
    Univ Bologna, Dept Med & Surg Sci, Bologna, Italy..
    Faro, Andre
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Dept Psychol, Sao Cristovao, Brazil..
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA USA..
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommun Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Auckland Univ Technol, Natl Inst Stroke & Appl Neurosci, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Dept Maternal & Child Nursing & Publ Hlth, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Fernandes, Eduarda
    Univ Porto, Dept Chem, Porto, Portugal..
    Ferrari, Alize J.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Ferri, Cleusa P.
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Fijabi, Daniel Obadare
    Brandeis Univ, Heller Sch Social Policy & Management, Waltham, MA USA.;Univ Memphis, Sch Publ Hlth, Memphis, TN 38152 USA..
    Filip, Irina
    Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, CA USA.;AT Still Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Mesa, AZ USA..
    Finger, Jonas David
    Robert Koch Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Monitoring, Berlin, Germany..
    Fischer, Florian
    Bielefeld Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Med, Bielefeld, Germany..
    Flaxman, Abraham D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Franklin, Richard Charles
    James Cook Univ, Coll Publ Hlth Med & Vet Sci, Townsville, Qld, Australia..
    Futran, Neal D.
    Univ Washington, Sch Med, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Gallus, Silvano
    IRCCS, Dept Environm Hlth Sci, Mario Negri Inst Pharmacol Res, Milan, Italy..
    Ganji, Morsaleh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho
    Lab Studies & Res Act Hlth LERAS, Noncommun Dis Dept, Porto Novo, Benin.;Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah Univ, Neurosurg Dept, Fes, Morocco..
    Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
    Jimma Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Div Human Nutr & Hlth, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Ghadimi, Reza
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Hlth Res Inst, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Ghandour, Lilian A.
    Amer Univ Beirut, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Ghimire, Mamata
    Univ Tsukuba, Dept Hlth Care Policy & Management, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan..
    Gill, Paramjit Singh
    Univ Warwick, Unit Acad Primary Care, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed
    Univ Hail, Dept Family & Community Med, Hail, Saudi Arabia..
    Giref, Ababi Zergaw Z.
    Addis Ababa Univ, Dept Reprod Hlth & Hlth Serv Management, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Univ Massachusetts, Coll Nursing & Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02125 USA..
    Gopalani, Sameer Vali
    Univ Oklahoma, Dept Biostat & Epidemiol, Oklahoma City, OK USA.;Govt Federated States Micronesia, Dept Hlth & Social Affairs, Palikir, Micronesia..
    Gotay, Carolyn C.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Goulart, Alessandra C.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Ctr Clin & Epidemiol Res, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Greaves, Felix
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England.;Publ Hlth England, Hlth Improvement Directorate, London, England..
    Grosso, Giuseppe
    Univ Hosp Polyclin Vittorio Emanuele, Integrated Tumor Registry, Catania, Italy..
    Guo, Yuming
    Monash Univ, Sch Publ Hlth & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Gupta, Rahul
    West Virginia Bur Publ Hlth, Commissioner Publ Hlth, Charleston, WV USA.;West Virginia Univ, Dept Hlth Policy Management & Leadership, Morgantown, WV USA.;Rajasthan Univ Hlth Sci, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.;Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Dept Prevent Cardiol, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Gupta, Rajeev
    West Virginia Bur Publ Hlth, Commissioner Publ Hlth, Charleston, WV USA.;West Virginia Univ, Dept Hlth Policy Management & Leadership, Morgantown, WV USA.;Rajasthan Univ Hlth Sci, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.;Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Dept Prevent Cardiol, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Gupta, Vipin
    Univ Delhi, Dept Anthropol, Delhi, India..
    Alma Gutierrez, Reyna
    Natl Inst Psychiat Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Dept Epidemiol & Psychosocial Res, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Gvs, Murthy
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Indian Inst Publ Hlth, Hyderabad, India..
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sch Med, Tehran, Iran.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Radiol, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Hagos, Tekleberhan Beyene
    Mekelle Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Inst Biomed Sci, Dept Anat & Embryol, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Med, Biomed Sci Div, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Hamadeh, Randah R.
    Arabian Gulf Univ, Dept Family & Community Med, Manama, Bahrain..
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart Univ, Sch Hlth & Environm Studies, Dubai, U Arab Emirates..
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Univ Western Australia, Med Sch, Perth, WA, Australia.;Sir Charles Gairdner Hosp, Neurol Dept, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Harb, Hilda L.
    Minist Publ Hlth, Dept Vital & Hlth Stat, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Cardiol Dept, Trivandrum, Kerala, India..
    Maria Haro, Josep
    Parc Sanit St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, St Boi De Llobregat, Spain.;Univ Barcelona, Dept Med, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hassen, Hamid Yimam
    Mizan Tepi Univ, Publ Hlth Dept, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia.;Univ Hosp Antwerp, Unit Epidemiol & Social Med, Antwerp, Belgium..
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hay, Simon, I
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Heibati, Behzad
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Air Pollut Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Henok, Andualem
    Mizan Tepi Univ, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia..
    Heredia-Pi, Ileana
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Hlth Syst Res, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Francisco Hernandez-Llanes, Norberto
    Natl Commission Against Addict, Secretary Hlth, Subdirectorate Regulat Guidelines & Tech Procedur, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Herteliu, Claudiu
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Dept Stat & Econometr, Bucharest, Romania..
    Hibstu, Desalegn Ts Tsegaw
    Hawassa Univ, Dept Reprod Hlth, Hawassa, Ethiopia..
    Hoogar, Praveen
    Manipal Univ, Transdisciplinary Ctr Qualitat Methods, Manipal, Karnataka, India..
    Horita, Nobuyuki
    Yokohama City Univ, Dept Pulmonol, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.;NHGRI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Hosgood, H. Dean
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Hosseini, Mostafa
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Hostiuc, Mihaela
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Dept Legal Med & Bioeth, Bucharest, Romania.;Emergency Hosp Bucharest, Dept Internal Med, Bucharest, Romania..
    Hu, Guoqing
    Cent S Univ, Xiangya Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Stat, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Huang, Hsiang
    Cambridge Hlth Alliance, Dept Psychiat, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Husseini, Abdullatif
    Birzeit Univ, Inst Community & Publ Hlth, Birzeit, Palestine.;Qatar Univ, Doha, Qatar..
    Idrisov, Bulat
    Bashkir State Med Univ, Infect Dis Dept, Ufa, Russia..
    Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania..
    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen
    Univ Liberia, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Monrovia, Liberia..
    Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Res Inst Endocrine Sci, Tehran, Iran.;Med Res Council South Africa, Noncommun Dis Res Unit, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
    Deakin Univ, Inst Phys Act & Nutr, Waurn Ponds, Vic, Australia..
    Jackson, Maria D.
    Univ West Indies, Dept Community Hlth & Psychiat, Jamaica, NY USA..
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Kragujevac, Fac Med Sci, Kragujevac, Serbia..
    Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra
    Univ Colombo, Fac Grad Studies, Colombo, Sri Lanka.;Univ Colombo, Postgrad Inst Med, Colombo, Sri Lanka..
    Jha, Ravi Prakash
    Banaras Hindu Univ, Inst Med Sci, Dept Community Med, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Heidelberg, Germany.;Capital Med Univ, Beijing Inst Ophthalmol, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy
    Czestochowa Tech Univ, Inst Hlth & Nutr Sci, Czestochowa, Poland.;Univ Opole, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Opole, Poland..
    Kabir, Zubair
    Univ Coll Cork, Sch Publ Hlth, Cork, Ireland..
    Kadel, Rajendra
    London Sch Econ & Polit Sci, Dept Hlth Policy, Personal Social Serv Res Unit, London, England..
    Kahsay, Amaha
    Mekelle Univ, Nutr & Dietet, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Kapil, Umesh
    ACS Med Coll & Hosp, New Delhi, India..
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Malignancies Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Kassa, Tesfaye D. Dessale
    Mekelle Univ, Clin Pharm Unit, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
    Univ Glasgow, MRC CSO Social & Publ Hlth Sci Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Kawakami, Norito
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Mental Hlth, Tokyo, Japan..
    Kebede, Seifu
    Salale Univ, Midwifery Program, Fiche, Ethiopia..
    Kefale, Adane Teshome
    Mizan Tepi Univ, Pharm Dept, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia..
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Univ Nairobi, Odel Campus, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    Med Res Council South Africa, Noncommun Dis Res Unit, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Dept Med, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Khader, Yousef
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Alramtha, Jordan..
    Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif
    Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Ahwaz, Iran..
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Khan, Md Nuruzzaman
    Univ Newcastle, Sch Publ Hlth & Med, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.;Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam Univ, Dept Populat Sci, Mymensingh, Bangladesh..
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Inst Hlth Policy & Management, SNU Med Res Ctr, Seoul, South Korea.;Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Hlth Policy & Management, Seoul, South Korea..
    Khater, Mona M.
    Cairo Univ, Dept Med Parasitol, Cairo, Egypt..
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Ball State Univ, Dept Nutr & Hlth Sci, Muncie, IN 47306 USA..
    Kim, Cho-Il
    Korea Hlth Ind Dev Inst, Cheongju, South Korea..
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Xiamen Univ Malaysia, Sch Med, Sepang, Malaysia..
    Kimokoti, Ruth W.
    Simmons Coll, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kisa, Adnan
    Univ Oslo, Dept Hlth Management & Hlth Econ, Oslo, Norway.;Tulane Univ, Dept Global Community Hlth & Behav Sci, New Orleans, LA 70118 USA..
    Kivimaki, Mika
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Kochhar, Sonali
    Univ Washington, Dept Global Hlth, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Erasmus Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Koul, Parvaiz A.
    Sher Ashmir Inst Med Sci, Dept Internal & Pulm Med, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India..
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanit St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, St Boi De Llobregat, Spain..
    Krishan, Kewal
    Panjab Univ, Dept Anthropol, Chandigarh, India..
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Univ Montreal, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Dept Demog, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Yuksek Ihtisas Univ, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey.;Hacettepe Univ, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey..
    Kulkarni, Veena S.
    Arkansas State Univ, State Univ, AR 72467 USA..
    Kumar, Pushpendra
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Lafranconi, Alessandra
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Med & Surg, Monza, Italy..
    Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana
    Rajiv Gandhi Univ Hlth Sci, Bangalore, Karnataka, India..
    Lalloo, Ratilal
    Univ Queensland, Sch Dent, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Lallukka, Tea
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Populat & Work Abil Program, Helsinki, Finland..
    Lam, Hilton
    Natl Inst Hlth, Inst Hlth Policy & Dev Studies, Manila, Philippines..
    Lami, Faris Hasan
    Acad Med Sci, Dept Community & Family Med, Baghdad, Iraq..
    Lan, Qing
    NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Rockville, MD USA..
    Lang, Justin J.
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Hlth Promot & Chron Dis Prevent Branch, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Lansky, Sonia
    Municipal Hlth Dept Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte City Hall, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Larsson, Anders O.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Akad Sjukhuset, Dept Clin Chem & Pharmacol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Latifi, Arman
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth, Maragheh, Iran..
    Leasher, Janet L.
    Nova Southeastern Univ, Coll Optometry, Ft Lauderdale, FL 33314 USA..
    Lee, Paul H.
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Sch Nursing, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Leigh, James
    Univ Sydney, Asbestos Dis Res Inst, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leung, Janni
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Levi, Miriam
    Tuscany Ctr, CERIMP, Local Hlth Unit, Florence, Italy.;Univ Florence, Dept Hlth Sci, Florence, Italy..
    Li, Yichong
    Shenzen Inst Cardiovasc Dis, Dept Clin & Epidemiol Res, Shenzhen, Peoples R China..
    Lim, Lee-Ling
    Univ Malaya, Dept Med, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.;Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Dept Med & Therapeut, Shatin, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Linn, Shai
    Univ Haifa, Sch Publ Hlth, Haifa, Israel..
    Liu, Shiwei
    Ctr Chron Dis Control, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lobato-Cordero, Andrea
    Natl Inst Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energies, Quito, Ecuador..
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Internal Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    King Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle
    Harvard Univ, Ariadne Labs, Boston, MA USA.;Univ Philippines Manila, Dev & Commun Studies, Manila, Philippines..
    Machado, Isis Eloah
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Sch Nursing, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Madotto, Fabiana
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Med & Surg, Monza, Italy..
    Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy
    Damietta Univ, Dumyat, Egypt..
    Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy
    Aswan Fac Med, Opthamol Dept, Aswan, Egypt..
    Majdan, Marek
    Trnava Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Trnava, Slovakia..
    Majdzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, KURC, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Community Based Participatory Res Ctr CBP, Tehran, Iran..
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Shiraz Univ Med Sci, Noncommun Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran..
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Dept Maternal & Child Nursing & Publ Hlth, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Mapoma, Chabila Christopher
    Univ Zambia, Dept Populat Studies, Lusaka, Zambia..
    Martinez-Raga, Jose
    Doctor Peset Univ Hosp, Psychiat Dept, Valencia, Spain.;Univ Valencia, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain..
    Maulik, Pallab K.
    George Inst Global Hlth, Res, New Delhi, India.;Univ New South Wales, Sch Med, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Mckee, Martin
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Hlth Serv Res & Policy, London, England..
    Mehta, Varshil
    Sevenhills Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Meier, Toni
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Agr & Nutr Sci, Halle, Germany.;Competence Cluster Nutr & Cardiovasc Hlth NUTRICA, Innovat Off Nutricard, Halle, Germany..
    Mekonen, Tesfa
    Bahir Dar Univ, Psychiat, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Melese, Addisu
    Debre Tabor Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Debre Tabor, Ethiopia..
    Memiah, Peter T. N.
    Univ West Florida, Dept Publ Hlth, Pensacola, FL USA..
    Mendoza, Walter
    United Nations Populat Fund UNFPA, Peru Country Off UNFPA, Lima, Peru..
    Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Med, Biomed Sci Div, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Mensah, George A.
    Univ Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hosp, Cape Town, South Africa.;NHLBI, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, Bldg 10, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Comprehens Canc Ctr, Breast Surg Unit, Helsinki, Finland..
    Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane
    Ethiopian Acad Med Sci, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Miazgowski, Tomasz
    Pomeranian Med Univ, Dept Hypertens & Internal Med, Szczecin, Poland..
    Miller, Ted R.
    Pacific Inst Res & Evaluat, Calverton, MD USA.;Curtin Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Mini, G. K.
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.;Amrita Inst Med Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Kochi, Kerala, India..
    Mirica, Andreea
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Dept Stat & Econometr, Bucharest, Romania.;Natl Inst Stat Romania, Presidents Off, Bucharest, Romania..
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.;Natl Ctr Cardiol & Internal Dis, Dept Atherosclerosis & Coronary Heart Dis, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan..
    Moazen, Babak
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany.;Frankfurt Univ Appl Sci, Inst Addict Res ISFF, Dept Hlth & Social Work, Frankfurt, Germany..
    Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin
    Salahaddin Univ, Dept Biol, Erbil, Iraq..
    Mohammadifard, Noushin
    Isfahan Univ Med Sci, Isfahan Cardiovasc Res Inst, Nutr & Cohort Studies Dept, Esfahan, Iran..
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany.;Ahmadu Bello Univ, Hlth Syst & Policy Res Unit, Zaria, Nigeria..
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Clin Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Res Unit, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Moraga, Paula
    Univ Lancaster, Lancaster, England..
    Morawska, Lidia
    Queensland Univ Technol, Sci & Engn Fac, Int Lab Air Qual & Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Jalu, Moti Tolera
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia.;St Pauls Hosp, Millennium Med Coll, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Dept Hlth Management & Econ, Sch Publ Hlth, Tehran, Iran..
    Mukhopadhyay, Satinath
    Inst Postgrad Med Educ & Res, Dept Endocrinol & Metab, Kolkata, India..
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Univ Sains Malaysia, Sch Med Sci, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia..
    Naheed, Aliya
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Initiat Non Commun Dis, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Naik, Gurudatta
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Najafi, Farid
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Epidemiol Dept, Kermanshah, Iran..
    Nangia, Vinay
    Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Nansseu, Jobert Richie
    Minist Publ Hlth, Dept Dis Epidem & Pandem Control, Lebanon, NH USA.;Univ Yaounde, Fac Med & Biomed Sci, Dept Publ Heath, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Nayak, Mudavath Siva Durga Prasad
    Rajiv Gandhi Univ Hlth Sci, Dept Community Med, Bangalore, Karnataka, India..
    Nejjari, Chakib
    Univ Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Fes, Morocco.;Mohammed Vi Univ Hlth Sci, Int Sch Publ Hlth, Casablanca, Morocco..
    Neupane, Subas
    Univ Tampere, Sch Hlth Sci, Tampere, Finland..
    Neupane, Sudan Prasad
    Univ Oslo, Norwegian Ctr Addict Res SERAF, Oslo, Norway.;Innlandet Hosp Trust, Norwegian Natl Advisory Unit Concurrent Subst Abu, Brumunddal, Norway..
    Ngunjiri, Josephine W.
    Univ Embu, Dept Biol Sci, Embu, Kenya..
    Nguyen, Cuong Tat
    Nguyen, Long Hoang
    Nguyen, Trang Huyen
    Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini
    Semarang State Univ, Publ Hlth Dept, Kota Semarang, Indonesia.;Taipei Med Univ, Grad Inst Biomed Informat, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Nirayo, Yirga Legesse
    Mekelle Univ, Clin Pharm Unit, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Noubiap, Jean Jacques
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Med, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Ofori-Asenso, Richard
    Monash Univ, Ctr Cardiovasc Res & Educ Therapeut, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Monash Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Hlth Policy Consult, Res Unit, Accra, Ghana..
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Western Sydney Univ, Penrith, NSW, Australia..
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Kyung Hee Univ, Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Oladimeji, Olanrewaju
    HSRC, HIV AIDS STIs & TB HAST Programme, Durban, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Fac Hlth Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Osakhati, Namibia..
    Olagunju, Andrew T.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Univ Lagos, Dept Psychiat, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Autonomous Univ Chile, Providencia, Chile..
    Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
    Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
    Ctr Hlth Start Initiat, Ikoyi, Nigeria..
    Oommen, Anu Mary
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp CMC, Dept Community Hlth, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Oren, Eyal
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;San Diego State Univ, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, San Diego, CA 92182 USA..
    Orpana, Heather M.
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Appl Res Div, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Ottawa, Sch Psychol, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Ortega-Altamirano, Doris D., V
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Hlth Syst Res, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Ortiz, Justin R.
    Univ Washington, Dept Global Hlth, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Maryland, Ctr Vaccine Dev, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Ota, Erika
    St Lukes Int Univ, Global Hlth Nursing, Chuo Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo
    Univ Ibadan, Coll Med, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel
    North West Univ, Agr Econ Grp, Mafikeng, South Africa..
    Mahesh, P. A.
    Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara Univ, Dept TB & Resp Med, Mysore, Karnataka, India..
    Pana, Adrian
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Dept Stat & Econometr, Bucharest, Romania.;Ctr Hlth Outcomes & Evaluat, Bucharest, Romania..
    Park, Eun-Kee
    Kosin Univ, Dept Med Humanities & Social Med, Busan, South Korea..
    Parry, Charles D. H.
    Stellenbosch Univ, Dept Psychiat, Cape Town, South Africa.;Med Res Council South Africa, Alcohol Tobacco & Other Drug Use Res Unit, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Parsian, Hadi
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Dept Clin Biochem, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Patle, Ajay
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India.;Int Inst Hlth Management Res, New Delhi, India..
    Patton, George C.
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Populat Hlth Grp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Paudel, Deepak
    Save Children, Hlth Nutr & HIV AIDS Program, Kathmandu, Nepal.;Ludwigs Maximillians Univ, Ctr Int Hlth, Munich, Germany..
    Petzold, Max
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Publ Hlth, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Phillips, Michael R.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Shanghai Mental Hlth Ctr, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Pillay, Julian David
    Durban Univ Technol, Basic Med Sci Dept, Durban, South Africa..
    Postma, Maarten J.
    Univ Groningen, Dept Econ & Business, Groningen, Netherlands.;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Univ British Columbia, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
    PHFI, Gurugram, India.;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Noncommun Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Noncommun Dis Res Ctr, Karaj, Iran..
    Radfar, Amir
    AT Still Univ, Mesa, AZ USA.;Medichem, St Joan Despi, Spain..
    Rafay, Anwar
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rafiei, Alireza
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Mol & Cell Biol Res Ctr, Sari, Iran.;Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Dept Immunol, Sari, Iran..
    Rahim, Fakher
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.;Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Thalassemia & Hemoglobinopathy Res Ctr, Hlth Res Inst, Ahwaz, Iran..
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, INCAS, Tehran, Iran..
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Deakin Univ, Natl Ctr Farmer Hlth, Sch Med, Waurn Ponds, Vic, Australia.;BRAC, Res & Evaluat Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh.;La Trobe Univ, Austin Clin Sch Nursing, Heidelberg, Vic, Australia..
    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz
    Deakin Univ, Natl Ctr Farmer Hlth, Sch Med, Waurn Ponds, Vic, Australia.;BRAC, Res & Evaluat Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh.;La Trobe Univ, Austin Clin Sch Nursing, Heidelberg, Vic, Australia..
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, India.;Univ Gottingen, Dept Econ, Gottingen, Germany..
    Rajsic, Sasa
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Raju, Sree Bhushan
    Nizams Inst Med Sci, Dept Nephrol, Hyderabad, India..
    Ram, Usha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Dept Publ Hlth & Mortal Studies, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Rana, Saleem M.
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan.;Univ Hlth Sci, Publ Hlth Dept, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal
    Yonsei Univ, Inst Poverty Alleviat & Int Dev, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Rawaf, David Laith
    Imperial Coll London, WHO Collaborating Ctr Publ Hlth Educ & Training, London, England.;Univ Coll London Hosp, London, England..
    Rawaf, Salman
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England.;Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    Reiner, Robert C.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Reis, Cesar
    Loma Linda Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Prevent Med & Occupat Med, Loma Linda, CA USA..
    Renzaho, Andre M. N.
    Western Sydney Univ, Sch Social Sci, Penrith, NSW, Australia.;Western Sydney Univ, Psychol Dept, Penrith, NSW, Australia..
    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Dept Pediat, Sari, Iran..
    Roever, Leonardo
    Univ Uberlandia, Dept Clin Res, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil..
    Ronfani, Luca
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Clin Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Res Unit, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Room, Robin
    La Trobe Univ, Ctr Alcohol Policy Res, Heidelberg, Vic, Australia.;Stockholm Univ, Ctr Social Res Alcohol & Drugs, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Golestan Univ Med Sci, Golestan Res Ctr Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Gorgan, Iran..
    Rostami, Ali
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Hlth Res Inst, Babol Sar, Iran.;Babol Univ Med Sci, Infect Dis & Trop Med Res Ctr, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Roy, Ambuj
    AIIMS, Dept Cardiol, New Delhi, India..
    Sabde, Yogesh Damodar
    Indian Council Med Res, Natl Inst Res Environm Hlth, Bhopal, India..
    Saddik, Basema
    Univ Sharjah, Coll Med, Sharjah, U Arab Emirates..
    Safiri, Saeid
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Managerial Epidemiol Res Ctr, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Dept Publ Hlth, Maragheh, Iran..
    Sahebkar, Amirhossein
    Mashhad Univ Med Ci, Dept Med Biotechnol, Mashhad, Iran..
    Saleem, Zikria
    Panjab Univ, Coll Pharm, Chandigarh, India..
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Stanford Univ, Ctr Hlth Policy, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, Ctr Primary Care & Outcomes Res, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Salvi, Sundeep Santosh
    Chest Res Fdn, Clin Res Div, Pune, Maharashtra, India..
    Sanabria, Juan
    Marshall Univ, Dept Surg, Huntington, WV USA.;Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Nutr & Prevent Med, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria
    Nephrol Grp, LIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain..
    Santomauro, Damian Francesco
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Policy & Epidemiol Grp, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Internal Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Milicevic, Milena M. M. Santric
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Ctr Sch Publ Hlth & Hlth Management, Inst Social Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Hlth Econ & Financing Res Grp, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo
    Univ Appl & Environm Sci, Fac Med, Dept Hlth & Soc, Bogota, Colombia..
    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
    Univ British Columbia, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada.;Isfahan Univ Med Sci, Cardiovasc Res Inst, Esfahan, Iran..
    Sartorius, Benn
    Univ Kwazulu Natal, Dept Publ Hlth Med, Howard Coll Campus, Durban, South Africa..
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Utkal Univ, UGC Ctr Adv Study Psychol, Bhubaneswar, India.;Udyam Global Assoc Sustainable Dev, Bhubaneswar, India..
    Sawhney, Monika
    Univ North Carolina Charlotte, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Charlotte, NC USA..
    Saxena, Sonia
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Saylan, Mete
    Bayer, Market Access, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Schaub, Michael P.
    Univ Zurich, Swiss Res Inst Publ Hlth & Addict, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Schmidt, Maria Ines
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Postgrad Program Epidemiol, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Schneider, Ione J. C.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Hlth Sci Dept, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Schoettker, Ben
    German Canc Res Ctr, Div Clin Epidemiol & Aging Res, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth
    South African Med Res Council, Unit Hypertens & Cardiovasc Dis, Cape Town, South Africa.;North West Univ, HART, Mafikeng, South Africa..
    Schwendicke, Falk
    Char Univ Med Ctr Berlin, Dept Operat & Prevent Dent, Berlin, Germany..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Shiraz Univ Med Sci, Noncommun Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran..
    Shaikh, Masood A. Ali
    Sharif, Mehdi
    Islamic Azad Univ, Dept Lab Sci, Sari, Iran.;Islamic Azad Univ, Dept Basic Sci, Sari, Iran..
    She, Jun
    Fudan Univ, Dept Pulm Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Sheikh, Aziz
    Harvard Univ, BWH Div Gen Internal Med & Primary Care, Boston, MA USA.;Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Shen, Jiabin
    Nationwide Children sHosp, Res Inst, Columbus, OH USA..
    Shiferaw, Mekonnen Sisay
    Haramaya Univ, Sch Pharm, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Natl Inst Infect Dis, Tokyo, Japan..
    Shiri, Rahman
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Shishani, Kawkab
    Washington State Univ, Pullman, WA 99164 USA..
    Shiue, Ivy
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Epidemiol Biostat & Informat, Halle, Germany..
    Shukla, Sharvari Rahul
    Symbiosis Int Univ, Symbiosis Inst Hlth Sci, Pune, Maharashtra, India..
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Reykjavik Univ, Dept Psychol, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Columbia Univ, Dept Hlth & Behav Studies, New York, NY USA..
    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Hlth Sci Dept, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Da Silva, Natacha Torres
    Portuguese Inst Sport & Youth, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele
    Fed Minist Hlth, Dept Hlth Ind Complex & Innovat Hlth, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.;Brasilia Univ, Brasilia, DF, Brazil..
    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain Narain
    Sch Prevent Oncol, Patna, Bihar, India.;Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Sitas, Freddy
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Publ Hlth & Community Med, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Sch Publ Hlth, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Soares Filho, Adauto Martins
    Fed Minist Hlth, Dept Dis & Noncommun Dis & Hlth Promot, Brasilia, DF, Brazil..
    Soofi, Moslem
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Res Ctr Environm Determinants Hlth, Kermanshah, Iran..
    Sorensen, Reed J. D.
    Univ Washington, Dept Global Hlth, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Soriano, Joan B.
    Univ Hosp Princess IISP, Pneumol Serv, Res Inst, Madrid, Spain.;Autonomous Univ Madrid, Pneumol Serv, Madrid, Spain..
    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.
    Int Med Univ, Div Community Med, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Steckling, Nadine
    Univ Hosp Munich, Inst & Outpatient Clin Occupat Social & Environm, Munich, Germany.;Univ Hlth Sci Med Informat & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth, Hlth Serv Res & Hlth Technol Assessment, Hall In Tirol, Austria..
    Stein, Dan J.
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale
    Ahmadu Bello Univ, Dept Community Med, Zaria, Nigeria..
    Sur, Patrick J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Sykes, Bryan L.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Criminol Law & Soc, Irvine, CA USA..
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Univ Valencia, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain.;Carlos III Hlth Inst, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain..
    Tabuchi, Takahiro
    Osaka Int Canc Inst, Canc Control Ctr, Osaka, Japan..
    Tavakkoli, Mohammad
    New York Med Coll, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Valhalla, NY 10595 USA..
    Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Community Med Dept, Tehran, Iran.;Iran Univ Med Sci, Prevent Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Tekle, Merhawi Gebremedhin
    Haramaya Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Thapa, Subash
    Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Publ Hlth, Odense, Denmark..
    Thomas, Nihal
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp CMC, Dept Endocrinol, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ Med Coll, Inst Publ Hlth, Krakow, Poland..
    Topouzis, Fotis
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Med Sch, Dept Ophthalmol, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Hanoi Univ, Dept Hlth Econ, Hanoi, Vietnam..
    Troeger, Christopher E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Truelsen, Thomas Clement
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Neurol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Tsilimparis, Nikolaos
    Univ Heart Ctr Hamburg, Dept Vasc Med, Hamburg, Germany..
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Parc Sanit St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, St Boi De Llobregat, Spain.;Univ Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain..
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Nigeria..
    Ullah, Irfan
    Gomal Univ, Gomal Ctr Biochem & Biotechnol, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.;Mufti Mehmood Mem Teaching Hosp, Programmat Management Drug Resistant TB Unit, TB Culture Lab, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan..
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Univ Warwick, Div Hlth Sci, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Valdez, Pascual R.
    Argentine Soc Med, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Hosp Velez Sarsfield, Intens Care Unit, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Van Boven, Job F. M.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Vasankari, Tommi Juhani
    UKK Inst, Tampere, Finland..
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Natl Univ Singapore, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Singapore, Singapore.;Raffles Hosp, Raffles Neurosci Ctr, Singapore, Singapore..
    Violante, Francesco S.
    Univ Bologna, Dept Med & Surg Sci, Bologna, Italy..
    Vladimirov, Sergey Konstantinovitch
    Minist Hlth FRIHOI, Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia.;Sechenov First Moscow State Med Univ, Dept Informat & Internet Technol, Moscow, Russia..
    Vlassov, Vasily
    Natl Res Univ Higher Sch Econ, Dept Hlth Care Adm & Econ, Moscow, Russia..
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Dis Burden, Bergen, Norway..
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Wagnew, Fasil Wagnew Shiferaw
    Debre Markos Univ, Dept Nursing, Debremarkos, Ethiopia..
    Waheed, Yasir
    Fdn Univ, Fdn Univ Med Coll, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
    Wang, Yuan-Pang
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Psychiat, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Canc Registry Norway, Dept Res, Oslo, Norway..
    Weldegebreal, Fitsum
    Haramaya Univ, Dept Med Lab Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Weldegwergs, Kidu Gidey
    Mekelle Univ, Clin Pharm Unit, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Demog Change & Ageing Res Area, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Westerman, Ronny
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Competence Ctr Mortal Follow Up, German Natl Cohort, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Whiteford, Harvey A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Widecka, Justyna
    Pomeranian Med Univ, Zdroje Hosp, Szczecin, Poland..
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Univ Melbourne, Australian Inst Muscular Skeletal Sci, Dept Med & Neurol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;La Trobe Univ, Dept Psychol & Counselling, Heidelberg, Vic, Australia..
    Wyper, Grant M. A.
    NHS Scotland, Informat Serv Div, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Strathclyde, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Xu, Gelin
    Nanjing Univ, Sch Med, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yamada, Tomohide
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Diabet & Metab Dis, Tokyo, Japan..
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Univ Mississippi, Med Ctr, Dept Prevent Med, Jackson, MS 39216 USA..
    Ye, Pengpeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Div Injury Prevent & Mental Hlth Provement, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yimer, Ebrahim M.
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Pharm, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Yip, Paul
    Univ Hong Kong, Ctr Suicide Res & Prevent, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn
    Univ South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Yisma, Engida
    Addis Ababa Univ, Sch Alaide Hlth Sci, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Kyoto, Japan..
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Korea Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Yotebieng, Marcel
    Ohio State Univ, Coll Publ Hlth, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Univ Kinshasa, Sch Publ Hlth, Kinshasa, DEM REP CONGO..
    Younis, Mustafa Z.
    Jackson State Univ, Dept Hlth Pol & Management, Jackson, MS USA.;Tsinghua Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zachariah, Geevar
    Mother Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Trichur, India..
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    ACS Med Coll & Hosp, New Delhi, India..
    Zamani, Mohammad
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Student Res Comm, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Zhang, Xueying
    Univ Texas Houston, Houston, TX USA..
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    PHFI, Indian Inst Publ Hlth, Gurugram, India..
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162018In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, no 10152, p. 1015-1035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older.

    Methods: Using 694 data sources of individual and population-level alcohol consumption, along with 592 prospective and retrospective studies on the risk of alcohol use, we produced estimates of the prevalence of current drinking, abstention, the distribution of alcohol consumption among current drinkers in standard drinks daily (defined as 10 g of pure ethyl alcohol), and alcohol-attributable deaths and DALYs. We made several methodological improvements compared with previous estimates: first, we adjusted alcohol sales estimates to take into account tourist and unrecorded consumption; second, we did a new meta-analysis of relative risks for 23 health outcomes associated with alcohol use; and third, we developed a new method to quantify the level of alcohol consumption that minimises the overall risk to individual health.

    Findings: Globally, alcohol use was the seventh leading risk factor for both deaths and DALYs in 2016, accounting for 2.2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.5-3.0) of age-standardised female deaths and 6.8% (5.8-8.0) of age-standardised male deaths. Among the population aged 15-49 years, alcohol use was the leading risk factor globally in 2016, with 3.8% (95% UI 3.2-4-3) of female deaths and 12.2% (10.8-13-6) of male deaths attributable to alcohol use. For the population aged 15-49 years, female attributable DALYs were 2.3% (95% UI 2.0-2.6) and male attributable DALYs were 8.9% (7.8-9.9). The three leading causes of attributable deaths in this age group were tuberculosis (1.4% [95% UI 1. 0-1. 7] of total deaths), road injuries (1.2% [0.7-1.9]), and self-harm (1.1% [0.6-1.5]). For populations aged 50 years and older, cancers accounted for a large proportion of total alcohol-attributable deaths in 2016, constituting 27.1% (95% UI 21.2-33.3) of total alcohol-attributable female deaths and 18.9% (15.3-22.6) of male deaths. The level of alcohol consumption that minimised harm across health outcomes was zero (95% UI 0.0-0.8) standard drinks per week.

    Interpretation: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for global disease burden and causes substantial health loss. We found that the risk of all-cause mortality, and of cancers specifically, rises with increasing levels of consumption, and the level of consumption that minimises health loss is zero. These results suggest that alcohol control policies might need to be revised worldwide, refocusing on efforts to lower overall population-level consumption.

  • 14.
    Habicht, Triin
    et al.
    Estonian Health Insurance Fund, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Part II: Country profiles of health system responses to the crisis. Estonia2015In: Economic crisis, health systems and health in Europe: Country experiences / [ed] Maresso A, Mladovsky P, Thomson S, Sagan A, Karanikolos M, Richardson E, Cylus J, Evetovits T, Jowett M, Figueras J, Kluge H., Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe / European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies , 2015, p. 371-374Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hu, Yannan
    et al.
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    van Lenthe, Frank J
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands .
    Borsboom, Gerard J
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands .
    Looman, Caspar W N
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands .
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland .
    Burström, Bo
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Dzúrová, Dagmar
    Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Ekholm, Ola
    University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Klumbiene, Jurate
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania .
    Lahelma, Eero
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain .
    Santana, Paula
    Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    de Gelder, Rianne
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands .
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands .
    Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in self-assessed health in 17 European countries between 1990 and 20102016In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 644-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Between the 1990s and 2000s, relative inequalities in all-cause mortality increased, whereas absolute inequalities decreased in many European countries. Whether similar trends can be observed for inequalities in other health outcomes is unknown. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of trends in socioeconomic inequalities in self-assessed health (SAH) in Europe between 1990 and 2010.

    METHODS: Data were obtained from nationally representative surveys from 17 European countries for the various years between 1990 and 2010. The age-standardised prevalence of less-than-good SAH was analysed by education and occupation among men and women aged 30-79 years. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured by means of absolute rate differences and relative rate ratios. Meta-analysis with random-effects models was used to examine the trends of inequalities.

    RESULTS: We observed declining trends in the prevalence of less-than-good SAH in many countries, particularly in Southern and Eastern Europe and the Baltic states. In all countries, less-than-good SAH was more prevalent in lower educational and manual groups. For all countries together, absolute inequalities in SAH were mostly constant, whereas relative inequalities increased. Almost no country consistently experienced a significant decline in either absolute or relative inequalities.

    CONCLUSIONS: Trends in inequalities in SAH in Europe were generally less favourable than those found for inequalities in mortality, and there was generally no correspondence between the two when we compared the trends within countries. In order to develop policies or interventions that effectively reduce inequalities in SAH, a better understanding of the causes of these inequalities is needed.

  • 16. Kaleta, Dorota
    et al.
    Usidame, Bukola
    Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta
    Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Prevalence and factors associated with hardcore smoking in Poland: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2009–2010)2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, p. 583-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Kulhánová, Ivana
    et al.
    Hoffmann, Rasmus
    Judge, Ken
    Looman, Caspar W N
    Eikemo, Terje A
    Bopp, Matthias
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Rychtaříková, Jitka
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Assessing the potential impact of increased participation in higher education on mortality: Evidence from 21 European populations2014In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 117, p. 142-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although higher education has been associated with lower mortality rates in many studies, the effect of potential improvements in educational distribution on future mortality levels is unknown. We therefore estimated the impact of projected increases in higher education on mortality in European populations. We used mortality and population data according to educational level from 21 European populations and developed counterfactual scenarios. The first scenario represented the improvement in the future distribution of educational attainment as expected on the basis of an assumption of cohort replacement. We estimated the effect of this counterfactual scenario on mortality with a 10-15-year time horizon among men and women aged 30-79 years using a specially developed tool based on population attributable fractions (PAF). We compared this with a second, upward levelling scenario in which everyone has obtained tertiary education. The reduction of mortality in the cohort replacement scenario ranged from 1.9 to 10.1% for men and from 1.7 to 9.0% for women. The reduction of mortality in the upward levelling scenario ranged from 22.0 to 57.0% for men and from 9.6 to 50.0% for women. The cohort replacement scenario was estimated to achieve only part (4-25% (men) and 10-31% (women)) of the potential mortality decrease seen in the upward levelling scenario. We concluded that the effect of on-going improvements in educational attainment on average mortality in the population differs across Europe, and can be substantial. Further investments in education may have important positive side-effects on population health.

  • 18.
    Kulhánová, Ivana
    et al.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands .
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Pierre Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health, Paris, France .
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland .
    Borrell, Carme
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain .
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium .
    Eikemo, Terje A
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands / Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Hoffmann, Rasmus
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands .
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain .
    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain .
    Rychtaříková, Jitka
    Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    National Institute of Public Health, National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland .
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands .
    Socioeconomic differences in the use of ill-defined causes of death in 16 European countries2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 1295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cause-of-death data linked to information on socioeconomic position form one of the most important sources of information about health inequalities in many countries. The proportion of deaths from ill-defined conditions is one of the indicators of the quality of cause-of-death data. We investigated educational differences in the use of ill-defined causes of death in official mortality statistics.

    METHODS: Using age-standardized mortality rates from 16 European countries, we calculated the proportion of all deaths in each educational group that were classified as due to "Symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions". We tested if this proportion differed across educational groups using Chi-square tests.

    RESULTS: The proportion of ill-defined causes of death was lower than 6.5% among men and 4.5% among women in all European countries, without any clear geographical pattern. This proportion statistically significantly differed by educational groups in several countries with in most cases a higher proportion among less than secondary educated people compared with tertiary educated people.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for educational differences in the distribution of ill-defined causes of death. However, the differences between educational groups were small suggesting that socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific mortality in Europe are not likely to be biased.

  • 19.
    Kulhánová, Ivana
    et al.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University Paris 06, Paris, France.
    Hoffmann, Rasmus
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Eikemo, Terje A
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands / Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Kulik, Margarete C
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Toch-Marquardt, Marlen
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands / Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallin, Estonia.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Stockholm University.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Looman, Caspar W N
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    The role of three lifestyle risk factors in reducing educational differences in ischaemic heart disease mortality in Europe2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with a higher risk of dying among people with a lower socioeconomic status. We investigated the potential for reducing educational differences in IHD mortality in 21 European populations based on two counterfactual scenarios-the upward levelling scenario and the more realistic best practice country scenario.

    METHODS: We used a method based on the population attributable fraction to estimate the impact of a modified educational distribution of smoking, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity on educational inequalities in IHD mortality among people aged 30-79. Risk factor prevalence was collected around the year 2000 and mortality data covered the early 2000s.

    RESULTS: The potential reduction of educational inequalities in IHD mortality differed by country, sex, risk factor and scenario. Smoking was the most important risk factor among men in Nordic and eastern European populations, whereas overweight and obesity was the most important risk factor among women in the South of Europe. The effect of physical inactivity on the reduction of inequalities in IHD mortality was smaller compared with smoking and overweight/obesity. Although the reduction in inequalities in IHD mortality may seem modest, substantial reduction in IHD mortality among the least educated can be achieved under the scenarios investigated.

    CONCLUSION: Population wide strategies to reduce the prevalence of risk factors such as smoking, and overweight/obesity targeted at the lower socioeconomic groups are likely to substantially contribute to the reduction of IHD mortality and inequalities in IHD mortality in Europe.

  • 20. Kulik, MC
    et al.
    Hoffmann, R
    Judge, K
    Looman, C
    Menvielle, G
    Kulhánová, I
    Toch, M
    Östergren, O
    Martikainen, P
    Borrell, C
    Rodríguez-Sanz, M
    Bopp, M
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn.
    Jasilionis, D
    Eikemo, TA
    Mackenbach, JP
    Smoking and the potential for reduction of inequalities in mortality in Europe2013In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 28, p. 959-971Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Kulik, MC
    et al.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Menvielle, G
    Epidemiology of Occupational and Social Determinants of Health, Villejuif, France / University of Versailles Saint Quentin, Versailles, France.
    Eikemo, TA
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, M
    University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Jasilionis, D
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    Kulhánová, I
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, P
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Östergren, O
    CHESS, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Mackenbach, JP
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Educational inequalities in three smoking-related causes of death in 18 European populations2014In: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 507-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Smoking is an important determinant of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in many countries. As the smoking epidemic progresses, updates on the development of mortality inequalities attributable to smoking are needed. We provide estimates of relative and absolute educational inequalities in mortality from lung cancer, aerodigestive cancers, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/asthma in Europe and assess the contribution of these smoking-related diseases to inequalities in all-cause mortality.

    Methods: We use data from 18 European populations covering the time period 1998–2007. We present age-adjusted mortality rates, relative indices of inequality, and slope indices of inequality. We also calculate the contribution of inequalities in smoking-related mortality to inequalities in overall mortality.

    Results: Among men, relative inequalities in mortality from the 3 smoking-related causes of death combined are largest in the Czech Republic and Hungary and smallest in Spain, Sweden, and Denmark. Among women, these inequalities are largest in Scotland and Norway and smallest in Italy and Spain. They are often larger among men and tend to be larger for COPD/asthma than for lung and aerodigestive cancers. Relative inequalities in mortality from these conditions are often larger in younger age groups, particularly among women, suggesting a possible further widening of inequalities in mortality in the coming decades. The combined contribution of these diseases to inequality in all-cause mortality varies between 13% and 32% among men and between −5% and 30% among women.

    Conclusion: Our results underline the continuing need for tobacco control policies, which take into account socioeconomic position.              

  • 22. Kunst, Anton E.
    et al.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Habicht, Jarno
    Kasmel, Anu
    Niglas, Katrin
    Social inequalities in health in Estonia: Technical document2002Report (Other academic)
  • 23. Kunst, Anton E.
    et al.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kasmel, Anu
    Habicht, Jarno
    Social inequalities in health in Estonia: Main report2002Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Lai, Taavi
    et al.
    Fourth View Consulting, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development in Tallinn, Estonia.
    Trends and inequalities in mortality of noncommunicable diseases. Case study for Estonia2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of trends and inequalities in mortality of noncommunicable diseases in Estonia over the first decade of the 2000s. Decomposition of life expectancy by causes and age groups, and calculation of age-standardized rates for total and cause-specific mortality were used to assess differences over time and across social groups. The findings of the analysis showed significant overall reduction in mortality and increasing life expectancy in Estonia during the 2000s. The considerable improvement in mortality was observed in all groups distinguished by gender, ethnicity, educational level or by place of residence resulting in narrowing absolute inequalities, although the relative inequalities by educational level and by place of residence slightly increased. Despite progress, mortality rates remained higher among non-Estonians, the lower educated and residents of Ida-Viru county. Circulatory diseases and external causes of death contributed the most to the overall life expectancy at birth improvement and to the larger mortality decline among non-Estonians, the lower educated and in Ida-Viru county, with the opposite effect seen for infectious diseases.

  • 25.
    Laidra, K.
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Rahu, K.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Tekkel, M.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Aluoja, A.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident2015In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 1753-1760Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Laidra, Kaia
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Rahu, Kaja
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Kalaus, Katri-Evelin
    Center of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy SENSUS, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Tekkel, Mare
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Mental disorders among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: A clinical assessment.2017In: Psychological Trauma, ISSN 1942-9681, E-ISSN 1942-969X, Vol. 9, no Suppl 1, p. 93-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls.

    METHOD: The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms.

    RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity.

    CONCLUSION: A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  • 27.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Social variation in self-rated health in Estonia: a cross-sectional study2002In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 847-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past 40 years Estonia has experienced similar developments in mortality to other former Soviet countries. The stagnation in overall mortality has been caused mainly by increasing adult mortality. However, less is known about the social variation in health. This study examines differences in self-rated health by eight main dimensions of the social structure on the basis of the Estonian Health Interview Survey, carried out in 1996/1997. A multistage random sample (n = 4711) of the Estonian population aged 15-79 was interviewed; the response rate was 78.3%. This study includes those respondents aged 25-79 (n = 4011) with analyses being performed separately for men and women. The study revealed that a low educational level, Russian nationality, low personal income and for men only, rural residence were the most influential factors underlying poor health. Education had the biggest independent effect on health ratings: for women with less than an upper secondary education the odds of having poor health were almost fourfold (OR = 3.88) when compared to those with a university education, and for men these odds were almost two and a half times (OR = 2.32). Material resources, in this study measured by personal income, were important factors in explaining some of the educational and ethnic differences (especially for Russian women) in poor self-rated health. Overall, we found no differences between men and women in their health ratings. On the contrary, when we controlled for physical health status, emotional distress and locus of control women reported better health than men. Health selection contributed to, but did not explain the differences by structural dimension. This study also showed a strong association of poor self-rated health with three correlates-physical health status, emotional distress and locus of control, although the influence of these correlates on poor health ratings was not seen equally in the different structural dimensions.

  • 28. Leinsalu, Mall
    Time trends in cause-specific mortality in Estonia from 1965 to 19891995In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 106-113Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Stockholms universitet.
    Troubled transitions: Social variation and long-term trends in health and mortality in Estonia2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about social variation and long-term trends in health and mortality in Estonia. After five decades of Soviet occupation Estonia’s independence was re-established in 1991 on the basis of the historical continuity of its statehood. Estonian independence changed political, economic and social realities; it was accompanied by a sharp decline in living standards. By 1994/1995 the socioeconomic and political situation had started to stabilize. Both transitions, the Sovietization and the return to independence, were particularly hard on the population. Life expectancy had improved little or not at all from the 1960s. At the beginning of the 1990s there was an unprecedented fall. From 1995, life expectancy started to rise again.

    Cause-specific mortality for 1965–2000 was examined in order to understand both the recent and the earlier long-term health crises in Estonia; educational and ethnic differences in cause-specific mortality were analysed for 1987–1990 and 1999–2000. Self-rated health was examined for 1996/1997. The cause-of-death data come from the national mortality database, and the self-rated health data come from the Estonian Health Interview Survey.

    Circulatory diseases, neoplasms, and injuries and poisonings account for over 80% of all deaths in Estonia. Circulatory disease mortality started to decline considerably later than in Western countries, is very high by international standards and was sensitive to sudden social changes in the 1980s and 1990s. Cancer mortality rates among men increased, mostly because of lung cancer mortality. Mortality from injuries and poisonings is extremely high, has increasingly been contributing to Estonia’s long-term mortality stagnation and was the major contributor to the decline in life expectancy in the 1990s. Educational and ethnic differences in mortality increased sharply in 1989–2000. In 2000, male graduates aged 25 could expect to live 13.1 years longer than corresponding men with the lowest education; among women the difference was 8.6 years. Estonian men could expect to live 6.1 years longer than Russian men in 2000; among women this difference was 3.5 years. Injuries and poisonings were mainly responsible for the lagging behind of the lower educated and of Russians; in terms of total mortality the ethnic differences were small and not significant in 1989.

    Generally low living standards (particularly a poor diet), and the increasing gap with Western countries, may have contributed to the long-term mortality stagnation from the mid-1960s. In the 1990s, the increasing differentiation of wealth and opportunity, as well as perceived social exclusion and poor adaptation to the social and economic changes, in particular among the low educated and among ethnic Russians, are important determinants of the growing mortality divide in Estonia. Alcohol consumption, in particular binge drinking, has to be seen as a main cause of increasing mortality among middle aged men from the mid-1960s, most evident in those causes of death that can be directly linked to alcohol. It accounts for a considerable part of circulatory disease mortality as well. Alcohol also contributes to educational and ethnic differences in mortality and their widening over the 1990s. Tobacco smoking, similarly, has contributed to long-term mortality stagnation and the widening of educational, but not ethnic, differences in mortality. Adverse living conditions in childhood may also have contributed to the educational and ethnic differences in mortality and to the long-term mortality development in Estonia. Estonia needs to think hard about policies to remedy this situation.

  • 30. Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Grintšak, Marina
    Noorkõiv, Rivo
    Estonian Health Interview Survey 1996: Tables1999Report (Other academic)
  • 31. Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Grintšak, Marina
    Noorkõiv, Rivo
    Silver, Brian
    Estonian Health Interview Survey 1996: Methodological report1998Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kaposvári, Csilla
    Kunst, Anton E
    Is income or employment a stronger predictor of smoking than education in economically less developed countries?: A cross-sectional study in Hungary2011In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, p. 97-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of inequalities in smoking in Hungary can be best understood in relation to two processes: the smoking epidemic, and the additional effects of poverty. Equity orientated tobacco control measures should target the low educated to prevent their smoking initiation, and the poor to improve their cessation rates.

  • 33. Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Rahu, Mati
    Time trends in cancer mortality in Estonia, 1965–19891993In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 914-918Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Reile, Rainer
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education. National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Economic fluctuations and long-term trends in depression: a repeated cross-sectional study in Estonia 2004-20162019In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, article id jech-2018-211939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In the 2000s, the Baltic countries experienced unprecedented credit-driven economic growth that was followed by a deep recession. This study examined the impact of profound macroeconomic changes on population mental health in Estonia in 2004-2016.

    METHODS: Data on 17 794 individuals in the 20-64 age group were obtained from seven nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of past 30-day depression was calculated for men and women further stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess whether these characteristics were associated with the yearly variation in depression.

    RESULTS: In 2006, the adjusted prevalence ratio for depression was 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93) for men and 0.85 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.97) for women as compared with 2004; in 2010, the prevalence ratio as compared with 2008 for both men and women was 1.22 (95% CIs 1.04 to 1.43 and 1.09 to 1.37, respectively). Among men, the increase in the prevalence of depression in 2008-2010 was statistically significant for 35-64 year olds, ethnic Estonians, those who were married, mid-educated or were employed, whereas among women, a significant increase was observed in 50-64 year olds, Estonians and non-Estonians, those who were not-married, were highly educated or mid-educated, in the mid-income group or were employed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Population mental health is responsive to macroeconomic changes. In less wealthy high-income countries, the greater impact of recession on depression among advantaged groups may relate to a higher debt burden coupled with job insecurity.

  • 35.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Reile, Rainer
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Vals, Kaire
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Petkeviciene, Janina
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Tekkel, Mare
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Macroeconomic changes and trends in dental care utilization in Estonia and Lithuania in 2004-2012: a repeated cross-sectional study2018In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess trends and inequalities in dental care utilization in Estonia and Lithuania in relation to large-scale macroeconomic changes in 2004-2012.

    METHODS: Data on 22,784 individuals in the 20-64 age group were retrieved from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence estimates of past 12-month dental visits were calculated for each study year, stratified by gender, age group, ethnicity, educational level and economic activity. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent effect of study year and socioeconomic status on dental visits.

    RESULTS: The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of dental visits in the past 12 months was 46-52% in Estonia and 61-67% in Lithuania. In 2004-2008, the prevalence of dental visits increased by 5.9 percentage points in both countries and fell in 2008-2010 by 3.8 percentage points in Estonia and 4.6 percentage points in Lithuania. In both countries the prevalence of dental care utilization had increased slightly by 2012, although the increase was statistically insignificant. Results from a logistic regression analysis showed that these differences between study years were not explained by differences in socioeconomic status or oral health conditions. Women, the main ethnic group (only in Estonia), and higher educated and employed persons had significantly higher odds of dental visits in both countries, but the odds were lower for 50-64 year olds in Lithuania.

    CONCLUSIONS: In European Union countries with lower national wealth, the use of dental services is sensitive to macroeconomic changes regardless of the extent of public coverage, at the same time, higher public coverage may not relate to lower inequalities in dental care use.

  • 36.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Kunst, Anton E
    University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Reduced affordability of cigarettes and socio-economic inequalities in smoking continuation in Stakhanov, Ukraine, 20092015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 216-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of smoking in this environment in 2009. Low education (in women) and ownership of household assets (in men) were negatively associated with smoking continuation, whereas a positive association was found for personal monthly income. Our findings suggest that in a low-income setting where efficient cessation services are absent, reduced cigarette affordability may have only a limited effect in cutting down smoking.

  • 37.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands / National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Stirbu, Irina
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institute.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Kaunas University of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Demographic Research Institute, HCSO, Budapest, Hungary.
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.
    Wróblewska, Wiktoria
    Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland.
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Educational inequalities in mortality in four Eastern European countries: divergence in trends during the post-communist transition from 1990 to 20002009In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 38, p. 512-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Post-communist transition has had a huge impact on mortality in Eastern Europe. We examined how educational inequalities in mortality changed between 1990 and 2000 in Estonia, Lithuania, Poland and Hungary.

    METHODS:

    Cross-sectional data for the years around 1990 and 2000 were used. Age-standardized mortality rates and mortality rate ratios (for total mortality only) were calculated for men and women aged 35-64 in three educational categories, for five broad cause-of-death groups and for five (seven among women) specific causes of death.

    RESULTS:

    Educational inequalities in mortality increased in all four countries but in two completely different ways. In Poland and Hungary, mortality rates decreased or remained the same in all educational groups. In Estonia and Lithuania, mortality rates decreased among the highly educated, but increased among those of low education. In Estonia and Lithuania, for men and women combined, external causes and circulatory diseases contributed most to the increasing educational gap in total mortality.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Different trends were observed between the two former Soviet republics and the two Central Eastern European countries. This divergence can be related to differences in socioeconomic development during the 1990s and in particular, to the spread of poverty, deprivation and marginalization. Alcohol and psychosocial stress may also have been important mediating factors.

  • 38.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Tekkel, Mare
    Kunst, Anton E
    Social determinants of ever initiating smoking differ from those of quitting: a cross-sectional study in Estonia.2007In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 572-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While educational level was the strongest predictor of ever initiating regular smoking, smoking cessation was related more directly to aspects of social disadvantage originating in adult life. To be effective, tobacco control interventions should not only target lower educated, but also those in material disadvantage.

  • 39.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Sociology.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University, Department of Society and History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kunst, Anton E
    Estonia 1989-2000: enormous increase in mortality differences by education2003In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 1081-1087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social disruption and increasing inequalities in wealth can be considered main recent determinants; however, causal processes, shaped decades before recent reforms, also contribute to this widening gap.

  • 40.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, Sociology.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörn University, Department of Society and History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Södertörn University, Department of Society and History, Sociology.
    Kunst, Anton E
    Increasing ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia after the collapse of the Soviet Union2004In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 58, no 7, p. 583-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political and economic upheaval, increasing poverty, and alcohol consumption can be considered the main underlying causes of the widening ethnic mortality gap.

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    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
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    Tonelli, Marcello
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Topouzis, Fotis
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala
    Tura, Abera Kenay
    Tuzcu, Emin Murat
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Undurraga, Eduardo A
    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse
    Uthman, Olalekan A
    van Donkelaar, Aaron
    Varakin, Yuri Y
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales
    Veerman, J Lennert
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Verma, Raj Kumar
    Violante, Francesco S
    Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich
    Volkow, Patricia
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Wagner, Gregory R
    Wallin, Mitchell T
    Wang, Linhong
    Wanga, Valentine
    Watkins, David A
    Weichenthal, Scott
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Weintraub, Robert G
    Weiss, Daniel J
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Westerman, Ronny
    Whiteford, Harvey A
    Wilkinson, James D
    Wiysonge, Charles Shey
    Wolfe, Charles D A
    Wolfe, Ingrid
    Won, Sungho
    Woolf, Anthony D
    Workie, Shimelash Bitew
    Wubshet, Mamo
    Xu, Gelin
    Yadav, Ajit Kumar
    Yakob, Bereket
    Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene
    Yan, Lijing L
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Yaseri, Mehdi
    Ye, Pengpeng
    Yip, Paul
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Younis, Mustafa Z
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa
    Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos
    Zapata, Tomas
    Zegeye, Elias Asfaw
    Zhao, Yi
    Zhou, Maigeng
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    Zonies, David
    Murray, Christopher J L
    Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 388, no 10053, p. 1813-1850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundIn September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015).

  • 42. Lipand, A.
    et al.
    Kasmel, A.
    Tasa, E.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Uutela, A.
    Puska, P.
    Helakorpi, S.
    Eesti täiskasvanud elanikkonna terviseuuring, kevad 1994: [Health Behaviour among Estonian Adult Population, Spring 1994]1995Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Lorant, Vincent
    et al.
    Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    de Gelder, Rianne
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Kapadia, Dharmi
    University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Borrell, Carme
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Kovács, Katalin
    Demographic Research Institute of the Central Statistical Office, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Department of Sociology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    National Institute of Public Health, National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.
    Strand, Bjørn Heine
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in suicide in Europe: the widening gap2018In: British Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0007-1250, E-ISSN 1472-1465, Vol. 212, no 6, p. 356-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Suicide has been decreasing over the past decade. However, we do not know whether socioeconomic inequality in suicide has been decreasing as well.AimsWe assessed recent trends in socioeconomic inequalities in suicide in 15 European populations.

    METHOD: The DEMETRIQ study collected and harmonised register-based data on suicide mortality follow-up of population censuses, from 1991 and 2001, in European populations aged 35-79. Absolute and relative inequalities of suicide according to education were computed on more than 300 million person-years.

    RESULTS: In the 1990s, people in the lowest educational group had 1.82 times more suicides than those in the highest group. In the 2000s, this ratio increased to 2.12. Among men, absolute and relative inequalities were substantial in both periods and generally did not decrease over time, whereas among women inequalities were absent in the first period and emerged in the second.

    CONCLUSIONS: The World Health Organization (WHO) plan for 'Fair opportunity of mental wellbeing' is not likely to be met.Declaration of interestNone.

  • 44.
    Lozano, Rafael
    et al.
    University of Washington, US.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallin, Estonia.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    University of Washington, US / Christian Medical College & Hospital (CMCH) Vellore, India.
    Measuring progress from 1990 to 2017 and projecting attainment to 2030 of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 195 countries and territories: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172018In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, no 10159, p. 2091-2138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Efforts to establish the 2015 baseline and monitor early implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) highlight both great potential for and threats to improving health by 2030. To fully deliver on the SDG aim of "leaving no one behind", it is increasingly important to examine the health-related SDGs beyond national-level estimates. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017), we measured progress on 41 of 52 health -related SDG indicators and estimated the health-related SDG index for 195 countries and territories for the period 1990-2017, projected indicators to 2030, and analysed global attainment. 

    Methods We measured progress on 41 health-related S DG indicators from 1990 to 2017, an increase of four indicators since GBD 2016 (new indicators were health worker density, sexual violence by non-intimate partners, population census status, and prevalence of physical and sexual violence [reported separately]). We also improved the measurement of several previously reported indicators. We constructed national-level estimates and, for a subset of health-related SDGs, examined indicator-level differences by sex and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintile. We also did subnational assessments of performance for selected countries. To construct the health related SDG index, we transformed the value for each indicator on a scale of 0-100, with 0 as the 2.5th percentile and 100 as the 97.5th percentile of 1000 draws calculated from 1990 to 2030, and took the geometric mean of the scaled indicators by target. To generate projections through 2030, we used a forecasting framework that drew estimates from the broader GBD study and used weighted averages of indicator-specific and country-specific annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2017 to inform future estimates. We assessed attainment of indicators with defined targets in two ways: first, using mean values projected for 2030, and then using the probability of attainment in 2030 calculated from 1000 draws. We also did a global attainment analysis of the feasibility of attaining SDG targets on the basis of past trends. Using 2015 global averages of indicators with defined SDG targets, we calculated the global annualised rates of change required from 2015 to 2030 to meet these targets, and then identified in what percentiles the required global annualised rates of change fell in the distribution of country-level rates of change from 1990 to 2015. We took the mean of these global percentile values across indicators and applied the past rate of change at this mean global percentile to all health-related SDG indicators, irrespective of target definition, to estimate the equivalent 2030 global average value and percentage change from 2015 to 2030 for each indicator. 

    Findings The global median health-related SDG index in 2017 was 59.4 (IQR 35.4-67.3), ranging from a low of 11.6 (95% uncertainty interval 9.6-14.0) to a high of 84.9 (83.1-86.7). SDG index values in countries assessed at the subnational level varied substantially particularly in China and India, although scores in Japan and the UK were more homogeneous. Indicators also varied by SDI quintile and sex, with males having worse outcomes than females for non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality, alcohol use, and smoking, among others. Most countries were projected to have a higher health-related SDG index in 2030 than in 2017, while country-level probabilities of attainment by 2030 varied widely by indicator. Under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, maternal mortality ratio, and malaria indicators had the most countries with at least 95% probability of target attainment. Other indicators, including NCD mortality and suicide mortality, had no countries projected to meet corresponding SDG targets on the basis of projected mean values for 2030 but showed some probability of attaimnent by 2030. For some indicators, including child malnutrition, several infectious diseases, and most violence measures, the annualised rates of change required to meet SDG targets far exceeded the pace of progress achieved by any country in the recent past. We found that applying the mean global annualised rate of change to indicators without defined targets would equate to about 19% and 22% reductions in global smoking and alcohol consumption, respectively; a 47% decline in adolescent birth rates; and a more than 85% increase in health worker density per 1000 population by 2030.

    Interpretation The GBD study offers a unique, robust platform for monitoring the health -related SDGs across demographic and geographic dimensions. Our findings underscore the importance of increased collection and analysis of disaggregated data and highlight where more deliberate design or targeting of interventions could accelerate progress in attaining the SDGs. Current projections show that many health -related SDG indicators, NCDs, NCD-related risks, and violence -related indicators will require a concerted shift away from what might have driven past gains curative interventions in the case of NCDs towards multisectoral, prevention -oriented policy action and investments to achieve SDG aims. Notably, several targets, if they are to be met by 2030, demand a pace of progress that no country has achieved in the recent past. The future is fundamentally uncertain, and no model can fully predict what breakthroughs or events might alter the course of the S DGs. What is clear is that our actions or inaction today will ultimately dictate how close the world, collectively, can get to leaving no one behind by 2030. 

  • 45. Mackenbach, J. P.
    et al.
    Kulhánová, I.
    Bopp, M.
    Deboosere, P.
    Eikemo, T. A.
    Hoffmann, R.
    Kulik, M. C.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Martikainen, P.
    Menvielle, G.
    Regidor, E.
    Wojtyniak, B.
    Östergren, O.
    Lundberg, O.
    Variations in the relation between education and cause-specific mortality in 19 European populations: A test of the "fundamental causes" theory of social inequalities in health2015In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, no 127, p. 51-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Link and Phelan have proposed to explain the persistence of health inequalities from the fact that socioeconomic status is a "fundamental cause" which embodies an array of resources that can be used to avoid disease risks no matter what mechanisms are relevant at any given time. To test this theory we compared the magnitude of inequalities in mortality between more and less preventable causes of death in 19 European populations, and assessed whether inequalities in mortality from preventable causes are larger in countries with larger resource inequalities. We collected and harmonized mortality data by educational level on 19 national and regional populations from 16 European countries in the first decade of the 21st century. We calculated age-adjusted Relative Risks of mortality among men and women aged 30-79 for 24 causes of death, which were classified into four groups: amenable to behavior change, amenable to medical intervention, amenable to injury prevention, and non-preventable. Although an overwhelming majority of Relative Risks indicate higher mortality risks among the lower educated, the strength of the education-mortality relation is highly variable between causes of death and populations. Inequalities in mortality are generally larger for causes amenable to behavior change, medical intervention and injury prevention than for non-preventable causes. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is large for causes amenable to behavior change, but absent for causes amenable to injury prevention among women. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is larger in Central & Eastern Europe, where resource inequalities are substantial, than in the Nordic countries and continental Europe, where resource inequalities are relatively small, but they are absent or small in Southern Europe, where resource inequalities are also large. In conclusion, our results provide some further support for the theory of "fundamental causes". However, the absence of larger inequalities for preventable causes in Southern Europe and for injury mortality among women indicate that further empirical and theoretical analysis is necessary to understand when and why the additional resources that a higher socioeconomic status provides, do and do not protect against prevailing health risks.

  • 46.
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    et al.
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Demographic Research Institute of the Central Statistical Office, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, Paris, France.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    de Gelder, Rianne
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Determinants of the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality: A study of 17 European countries2017In: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 47, p. 44-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality differs importantly between countries, but these variations have not been satisfactorily explained. We explored the role of behavioral and structural determinants of these variations, by using a dataset covering 17 European countries in the period 1970–2010, and by conducting multilevel multivariate regression analyses. Our results suggest that between-country variations in inequalities in current mortality can partly be understood from variations in inequalities in smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and poverty. Also, countries with higher national income, higher quality of government, higher social transfers, higher health care expenditure and more self-expression values have smaller inequalities in mortality. Finally, trends in behavioral risk factors, particularly smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, appear to partly explain variations in inequalities in mortality trends. This study shows that analyses of variations in health inequalities between countries can help to identify entry-points for policy.

  • 47.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    et al.
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kulhánová, Ivana
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Borrell, Carme
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kovács, Katalin
    Hungarian Central Statistical Office, Budapest, Hungary.
    Looman, Caspar W N
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Mäkelä, Pia
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rychtaříková, Jitka
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    de Gelder, Rianne
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Inequalities in Alcohol-Related Mortality in 17 European Countries: A Retrospective Analysis of Mortality Registers.2015In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e1001909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol-related mortality have been documented in several European countries, but it is unknown whether the magnitude of these inequalities differs between countries and whether these inequalities increase or decrease over time.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected and harmonized data on mortality from four alcohol-related causes (alcoholic psychosis, dependence, and abuse; alcoholic cardiomyopathy; alcoholic liver cirrhosis; and accidental poisoning by alcohol) by age, sex, education level, and occupational class in 20 European populations from 17 different countries, both for a recent period and for previous points in time, using data from mortality registers. Mortality was age-standardized using the European Standard Population, and measures for both relative and absolute inequality between low and high socioeconomic groups (as measured by educational level and occupational class) were calculated. Rates of alcohol-related mortality are higher in lower educational and occupational groups in all countries. Both relative and absolute inequalities are largest in Eastern Europe, and Finland and Denmark also have very large absolute inequalities in alcohol-related mortality. For example, for educational inequality among Finnish men, the relative index of inequality is 3.6 (95% CI 3.3-4.0) and the slope index of inequality is 112.5 (95% CI 106.2-118.8) deaths per 100,000 person-years. Over time, the relative inequality in alcohol-related mortality has increased in many countries, but the main change is a strong rise of absolute inequality in several countries in Eastern Europe (Hungary, Lithuania, Estonia) and Northern Europe (Finland, Denmark) because of a rapid rise in alcohol-related mortality in lower socioeconomic groups. In some of these countries, alcohol-related causes now account for 10% or more of the socioeconomic inequality in total mortality. Because our study relies on routinely collected underlying causes of death, it is likely that our results underestimate the true extent of the problem.

    CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol-related conditions play an important role in generating inequalities in total mortality in many European countries. Countering increases in alcohol-related mortality in lower socioeconomic groups is essential for reducing inequalities in mortality. Studies of why such increases have not occurred in countries like France, Switzerland, Spain, and Italy can help in developing evidence-based policies in other European countries.

  • 48. Mackenbach, Johan P
    et al.
    Kulhánová, Ivana
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Bopp, Matthias
    Borrell, Carme
    Costa, Giuseppe
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Esnaola, Santiago
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Regidor, Enrique
    Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica
    Strand, Bjørn Heine
    Hoffmann, Rasmus
    Eikemo, Terje A
    Ostergren, Olof
    Lundberg, Olle
    Trends in inequalities in premature mortality: a study of 3.2 million deaths in 13 European countries.2015In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 69, p. 207-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Over the last decades of the 20th century, a widening of the gap in death rates between upper and lower socioeconomic groups has been reported for many European countries. For most countries, it is unknown whether this widening has continued into the first decade of the 21st century.

    METHODS: We collected and harmonised data on mortality by educational level among men and women aged 30-74 years in all countries with available data: Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, England and Wales, Belgium, France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Hungary, Lithuania and Estonia.

    RESULTS: Relative inequalities in premature mortality increased in most populations in the North, West and East of Europe, but not in the South. This was mostly due to smaller proportional reductions in mortality among the lower than the higher educated, but in the case of Lithuania and Estonia, mortality rose among the lower and declined among the higher educated. Mortality among the lower educated rose in many countries for conditions linked to smoking (lung cancer, women only) and excessive alcohol consumption (liver cirrhosis and external causes). In absolute terms, however, reductions in premature mortality were larger among the lower educated in many countries, mainly due to larger absolute reductions in mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer (men only). Despite rising levels of education, population-attributable fractions of lower education for mortality rose in many countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: Relative inequalities in premature mortality have continued to rise in most European countries, and since the 1990s, the contrast between the South (with smaller inequalities) and the East (with larger inequalities) has become stronger. While the population impact of these inequalities has further increased, there are also some encouraging signs of larger absolute reductions in mortality among the lower educated in many countries. Reducing inequalities in mortality critically depends upon speeding up mortality declines among the lower educated, and countering mortality increases from conditions linked to smoking and excessive alcohol consumption such as lung cancer, liver cirrhosis and external causes.

  • 49. Mackenbach, Johan P.
    et al.
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Groenhof, Feikje
    Borgan, Jens-Kristian
    Costa, Giuseppe
    Faggiano, Fabrizio
    Jozan, Peter
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 4, Sociology.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Rychtarikova, Jitka
    Valkonen, Tapani
    Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality among women and among men: an international study1999In: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 89, no 12, p. 1800-1806Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Mackenbach, Johan P
    et al.
    Stirbu, Irina
    Roskam, Albert-Jan R
    Schaap, Maartje M
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Kunst, Anton E
    Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries2008In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 358, no 23, p. 2468-2481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We observed variation across Europe in the magnitude of inequalities in health associated with socioeconomic status. These inequalities might be reduced by improving educational opportunities, income distribution, health-related behavior, or access to health care.

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