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  • 1.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Reinvent.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Ferlander, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Reinvent.
    Heber, Anita
    Stockholms universitet.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Lindström, Jonas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Reinvent.
    Politiskt färgad undersökning med dålig representativitet: Replik DN Debatt 19/22019In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Berggren, Emmelie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Björksten, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Sociala bestämningsfaktorer för alkoholvanor och alkoholrelaterade problem bland Stockholms ungdomar2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Bergman, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    FoU Södertörn.
    Sandahl, Christina
    FoU Södertörn.
    Mellberg, Carina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Engwall, Kristina
    FoU Södertörn.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Bedömningsstöd för familjehemsplacerade barns umgänge: En utvärdering ur socialarbetares perspektiv2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport presenteras resultaten av en utvärdering av ett bedömningsstöd för familjehemsplacerade barns umgänge med föräldrar, syskon, andra anhöriga och närstående. Bedömningsstödet har utvecklats av FoU Södertörn i samarbete med barn- och familjehemssekreterare från nio Södertörnskommuner. Stödet utgår från erfarenhetskunskap hos personal inom familjehemsvården. Erfarenheter från placerade barn har också funnits med som en grund. Utvärderingen har genomförts av FoU Södertörn och Södertörns högskola på uppdrag av Socialstyrelsen. Utvärderingen bygger på en enkätundersökning och på fokusgruppsintervjuer med barn- och familjehemssekreterare som under en avgränsad period har prövat att använda bedömningsstödet i sitt arbete med att göra bedömningar av barnets bästa i umgängesfrågan.

  • 4.
    Carlson, Per
    Stockholms Universitet.
    An Unhealthy Decade: A sociological study of the state of public health in Russia 1990-19992000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Binge drinking in adolescence: Social stratification and the collectivity of drinking cultures2018In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 74-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research investigating what shapes young people’s drinking habits is of great importance. This study aimed to analyse the relation between close social networks and adolescents’ drinking habits and the extent to which close social networks may explain differences in binge drinking among social groups. Data from the ‘Stockholm Survey 2012’ were analysed. The Stockholm Survey was a census survey administered to students in academic years 9 and 11, with a response rate of 76%. Ordered logit models were used to estimate relations between the frequency of binge drinking and the independent variables. Parental educational level is associated with adolescent binge drinking, as students with more highly educated parents are more frequent binge drinkers. Parents’ willingness to offer their teenagers alcohol and peers’ drinking habits are also associated with adolescent binge drinking, with a more permissive parental attitude and a prevalence of drinking among peers increasing the risk. Both parents’ willingness to provide alcohol and peers’ drinking habits may statistically explain a large portion of the observed differences in adolescent drinking by parental education. Close social networks are an important factor influencing adolescent binge drinking, and they may explain a large portion of the differences between social groups.

  • 6.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Commentary on Dissing et al. (2013): How should we understand the links between alcohol consumption and health?2013In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 108, no 11, p. 1915-1915Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Carlson, Per
    Mid Sweden University.
    Commentary: Russia's mortality crisis, alcohol and social transformation2009In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 156-157Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Declining alcohol consumption among adolescents and schools in Stockholm, 2010–20162019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 344-356Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Carlson, Per
    Stockholms universitet.
    Educational differences in Self-Rated Health during the Russian Transition2000In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 51, no 9, p. 1363-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Nya böcker: Edling, Christofer & Rostami, Amir (red.) (2016) Våldets sociala dimensioner: individ, relation, organisation. 1. uppl.Lund: Studentlitteratur2018In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 87-89Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Relatively poor, absolutely ill?: A study of regional income inequality in Russia and its possible health consequences2005In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 389-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective: To investigate whether the income distribution in a Russian region has a "contextual" effect on individuals' self rated health, and whether the regional income distributions are related to regional health differences. Methods: The Russia longitudinal monitoring survey (RLMS) is a survey (n = 7696) that is representative of the Russian population. With multilevel regressions both individual as well as contextual effects on self rated health were estimated. Main results: The effect of income inequality is not negative on men's self rated health as long as the level of inequality is not very great. When inequality levels are high, however, there is a tendency for men's health to be negatively affected. Regional health differences among men are in part explained by regional income differences. On the other hand, women do not seem to be affected in the same way, and individual characteristics like age and educational level seem to be more important. Conclusions: It seems that a rise in income inequality has no negative effect on men's self rated health as long as the level of inequality is not very great. On the other hand, when inequality levels are higher a rise tends to affect men's health negatively. A curvilinear relation between self rated health and income distribution is an interesting hypothesis. It could help to explain the confusing results that arise when you look at countries with a high degree of income inequality (USA) and those with lower income inequality (for example, Japan and New Zealand).

  • 12.
    Carlson, Per
    Stockholms universitet.
    Risk behaviours and self-rated health in Russia 19982001In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 55, no 11, p. 806-817Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Carlson, Per
    Stockholms universitet.
    Self-perceived health in east and west Europe: Another European health divide1998In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 46, p. 1355-1366Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Carlson, Per
    Stockholms universitet.
    Self-rated health in East and West Europe: Another European health divide?2000In: Self-rated health in a European perspective / [ed] Nilsson P, Orth-Gomér K, Stockholm: Forskningsrådsnämnden , 2000, p. 77-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Carlson, Per
    Stockholms universitet.
    Självskattad hälsa och vådliga beteenden i transitionens Ryssland2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 150-179Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Carlson, Per
    Statens Folkhälsoinstitut.
    Socialt kapital och psykisk hälsa2007Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    The European health divide: a matter of financial or social capital?2004In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 59, no 9, p. 1985-1992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 'European east-west health divide' has been documented both for mortality and for self-rated health. The reason for this divide, however, remains to be explained. The aim of this study is, firstly, to investigate whether in 1995-97 differences in self-rated health persisted between countries in central and eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and western Europe. A further aim is to try to explain these differences with reference to people's financial status and social capital. This study found substantial differences in self-rated health between countries in western Europe, in central and eastern Europe, and in the former Soviet Union (where self-rated health seems to be poorest in general). There were also substantial differences between areas in terms of economic and social capital, with western Europe doing better in all the analysed circumstances. In economic terms people in the former Soviet Union seemed to be more dissatisfied than those living in central and eastern Europe. When one looks at differences in social capital between the two post-communist areas the picture is more mixed. Economic satisfaction was demonstrated to have a strong and significant effect on people's self-rated health, with a higher satisfaction reducing the odds of 'poor' health. When this factor was controlled for the area, differences in self-rated health were reduced dramatically, for both men and women. Organisational activity (men only), trust in people, and confidence in the legal system also reduced the odds of 'less than good health', but were not as important in explaining the health differences between areas. One can conclude that economic factors as well as some aspects of social capital play a role for area differences in self-rated health. Of these it would appear that economic factors are the more important.

  • 18.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Trust and health in Eastern Europe: Conceptions of a new society2016In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Ungas alkoholvanor påverkas av relationer och allmänna attityder2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Carlson, Per
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Centre for Health Equity Studies - Stockholm university/Karolinska institutet.
    Are area-level effects just a proxy for school-level effects?: Socioeconomic differences in alcohol consumption patterns among Swedish adolescents.2016In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 166, p. 243-248Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Carlson, Per
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Berggren, Emmelie
    Individ- och familjeomsorgsförvaltningen, Sandvikens kommun.
    Skolor måste engagera sig mot alkoholmissbruket2019In: Dagens Samhälle, ISSN 1652-6511, no no 16 AprilArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Carlson, Per
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Leifman, Håkan
    Center for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs.
    Swedish crime trends and control policy2000In: Statistics on Alcohol, Drugs and Crime in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Leifman H, Henrichson N, Helsinki: NAD , 2000, p. 244-256Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Carlson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mäkinen, llkka
    Stockholms universitet.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Självmord, mord och kultur1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, p. 78-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Carlson, Per
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Stockholms universitet.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Stockholms universitet.
    The social pattern of heavy drinking in Russia during transition: Evidence from Taganrog 19931998In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 280-285Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Ferlander, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Uppsala University.
    Social capital - a mixed blessing for women? A cross-sectional study of different forms of social relations and self-rated depression in Moscow2016In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a major health problem worldwide, especially among women. The condition has been related to a number of factors, such as alcohol consumption, economic situation and, more recently, to social capital. However, there have been relatively few studies about the social capital-depression relationship in Eastern Europe. This paper aims to fill this gap by examining the association between different forms of social capital and self-rated depression in Moscow. Differences between men and women will also be examined, with a special focus on women.

    METHODS: Data was obtained from the Moscow Health Survey, which was conducted in 2004 with 1190 Muscovites aged 18 years or above. For depression, a single-item self-reported measure was used. Social capital was operationalised through five questions about different forms of social relations. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to estimate the association between social capital and self-rated depression, separately for men and women.

    RESULTS: More women (48 %) than men (36 %) reported that they had felt depressed during the last year. An association was found between social capital and reported depression only among women. Women who were divorced or widowed or who had little contact with relatives had higher odds of reporting depression than those with more family contact. Women who regularly engaged with people from different age groups outside of their families were also more likely to report depression than those with less regular contact.

    CONCLUSIONS: Social capital can be a mixed blessing for women. Different forms of social relations can lead to different health outcomes, both positive and negative. Although the family is important for women's mental health in Moscow, extra-familial relations across age groups can be mentally distressing. This suggests that even though social capital can be a valuable resource for mental health, some of its forms can be mentally deleterious to maintain, especially for women. More research is needed on both sides to social capital. A special focus should be placed on bridging social relations among women in order to better understand the complex association between social capital and depression in Russia and elsewhere.

  • 26.
    Rojas, Yerko
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    The stratification of social capital and its consequences for self-rated health in Taganrog, Russia2006In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 62, no 11, p. 2732-2741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Russian public health and its social determinants have been the theme of several recent studies. In one of these, Rose [(2000). How much does social capital add to individual health? A survey study of Russians. Social Science & Medicine, 51(9), 1421-1435] puts forward a composite model as a way of getting away from two traditions: one that postulates that social capital influences health independently of human capital attributes (education, social class, income, etc.) and one that postulates that human capital is the main determinant of health, while social capital is more or less irrelevant. In this study, we investigate the composite model, conceptualising social capital as a type of capital, on the basis of Bourdieu. By doing this, not only do the relations between social capital and other types of capital become relevant, but also whether the effect of social capital on health differs depending on the possession of other types of capital. We used the Taganrog survey of 1998 which used structured interviews with the family members of 1009 households and the response rate was 81%. We found that social capital is stratified by education, and also that its effect on health varies depending on the volume of educational capital possessed. It also seems to be extremely important to specify different types of social capital, in order to get a better overview of possible mechanisms by means of which different types of capital might affect health.

  • 27.
    Rojas, Yerko
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Mid Sweden University.
    Too poor to binge?: An examination of economic hardship and its relation to alcohol consumption patterns in Taganrog, Russia2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 330-333Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Alcohol and homicide in early 20th-century Russia2005In: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 501-525Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Mid Sweden University.
    Factors associated with non-lethal violent victimization in Sweden in 2004-20072010In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 404-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To examine which factors were associated with non-lethal violent ictimization in Sweden in the period 2004 to 2007. Methods: Data come rom the Swedish National Public Health Surveys, undertaken annually etween 2004 and 2007. A total of 29,923 randomly selected respondents ged 16 to 84 from across Sweden responded to a mailed questionnaire. ogistic regression analyses were used to examine which independent ariables were associated with having experienced violence in the revious 12 months. Results: Male and female respondents who were ounger, single, lacking in social capital and who engaged in harmful lcohol consumption were significantly more likely to have been subject o violence. Furthermore, men who were in the lower income groups or who ere Nordic, and women who were of a non-European origin, were also ignificantly more likely to have been victimized. Conclusions: The risk f non-lethal violent victimization is not spread equally throughout wedish society. Specifically, those who are socially and/or conomically disadvantaged are much more likely to experience violence. his highlights the importance of working to reverse the growing nequality that has occurred in Sweden in recent years that continues to e linked to the risk of being a victim of non-lethal violence.

  • 30.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Mid Sweden University.
    The social and economic determinants of smoking in Moscow, Russia2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 632-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite a high prevalence of smoking for decades, recent research has documented an increase in the rates of both male and female smoking in post-Soviet Russia. As yet, however, little research has taken place on smoking at the subnational level. The current study addresses this deficit by examining smoking in Moscow - the city that has been at the forefront of the entry into the Russian market of transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) in the transition period. Methods: Data were obtained from the Moscow Health Survey 2004 - a stratified random sample of 1190 people representative of Moscow's larger population. Information was obtained about subjects' smoking habits and age of smoking initiation. Results: The prevalence of smoking was high among both men (55.5%) and women (26.9%), with significantly higher rates in the younger age groups. There was also a high prevalence of smoking initiation before age 15 years, especially in the youngest women ( 18 - 30 years). Logistic regression analysis showed that respondents' age, binge drinking, locus of control and economic situation were important determinants of smoking. Conclusions: Although lifestyle factors seem to underpin the generally high levels of smoking, other things, such as its high prevalence in the younger generations and the factors associated with smoking ( locus of control), nevertheless suggest that the TTCs may have played an important role in the spread of smoking in transitional Russia's changing social environment.

  • 31.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Ferlander, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Institutional Trust in Contemporary Moscow2009In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 779-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of institutional trust in Russia are amongst the lowest in the world. As yet, however, little research has focused on this phenomenon at the sub-national level. The current study examines trust in social and political institutions among citizens in Moscow in 2004. Results showed that levels of institutional trust are extremely low and that there were only three institutions (the church, president and hospitals) that were more trusted than distrusted. Moreover, although the effects of some demographic and other independent variables on trust stretched across institutions, several variables had a unique impact in terms of trust in the president.

  • 32.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). CHESS, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation .
    Ferlander, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Migranova, Ludmila
    Carlson, Per
    Mid Sweden University.
    Rimachevskaya, Natalia
    Moscow Health Survey 2004: social surveying under difficult circumstances2008In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 171-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to present the Moscow Health Survey 2004, which was designed to examine health inequalities in Moscow. In particular we want to discuss social survey problems, such as non-response, in Moscow and Russia. Methods: Interviews, covering social and economic circumstances, health and social trust, of a stratified random sample of the greater Moscow population, aged 18+. Reasons for nonresponse were noted down with great care. Odds ratios (ORs) for self-rated health by gender and by six social dimensions were estimated separately for districts with low and high response rates. Bias due to non-response is discussed. Results and conclusions: About one in two (53.1 %) of approached individuals could not be interviewed, resulting in 1190 completed interviews. Non-response in most Russian surveys, but perhaps particularly in Moscow, is large, partly due to fear of strangers and distrust of authorities. ORs for poor health vary significantly by gender, occupational class, education and economic hardship. We find no significant differences in these ORs when comparing districts with low and high response rates. Non-response may be a problem when estimating prevalence rates or population means, but much less so when estimating odds ratios in multivariate analyses.

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