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  • 1. Bursztein Lipsicas, Cendrine
    et al.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Immigration and suicidality in the young.2010In: Canadian journal of psychiatry, ISSN 0706-7437, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 274-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Little research has focused on the relation of immigration and suicidal behaviour in youth. Nevertheless, the impact of migration on the mental health of youth is an issue of increasing societal importance. This review aimed to present studies on the prevalence of suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth in various countries and to provide possible explanations for suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth, especially regarding acculturation.

    METHODS: The review included a literature search to locate articles on the subject of suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth in the context of acculturation.

    RESULTS: Studies on suicidal behaviour in culturally diverse youth are few and most of the existing research does not differentiate ethnic minorities from immigrants. Studies on epidemiology and on specific risk factors were found regarding various immigrant youth including Hispanics in the United States, Asians in North America and Europe, as well as comparative studies between different immigrant groups in specific countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: The relation between immigration status and suicidal behaviours in youth appears to vary by ethnicity and country of settlement. Time spent in the new country as well as intergenerational communication and conflicts with parents have, in many of the studies, been related to suicidality in immigrant youth. Summing up, there is a clear and urgent need to further pursue the work in this field, to develop targeted public health interventions as well as psychosocial treatment for preventing suicide in these youth.

  • 2.
    Carlson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mäkinen, llkka
    Stockholms universitet.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Självmord, mord och kultur1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, p. 78-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ferlander, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Social capital, gender and self-rated health. Evidence from the Moscow Health Survey 20042009In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 69, no 9, p. 1323-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The state of public health in Russia is undoubtedly poor compared with other European countries. The health crisis that has characterised the transition period has been attributed to a number of factors, with an increasing interest being focused on the impact of social capital - or the lack of it. However, there have been relatively few studies of the relation between social capital and health in Russia, and especially in Moscow. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between social capital and self-rated health in Greater Moscow. The study draws on data from the Moscow Health Survey 2004, where 1190 Muscovites were interviewed. Our results indicate that among women, there is no relationship between any form of social capital and self-rated health. However, an association was detected between social capital outside the family and men’s self-rated health. Men who rarely or never visit friends and acquaintances are significantly more likely to report less than good health than those who visit more often. Likewise, men who are not members of any voluntary associations have significantly higher odds of reporting poorer health than those who are, while social capital in the family does not seem to be of importance at all. We suggest that these findings might be due to the different gender roles in Russia, and the different socializing patterns and values embedded in them. In addition, different forms of social capital provide access to different forms of resources, influence, and support. They also imply different obligations. These differences are highly relevant for health outcomes, both in Moscow and elsewhere.

  • 4.
    Ferlander, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Uppsala University.
    Social capital - a mixed blessing for women? A cross-sectional study of different forms of social relations and self-rated depression in Moscow2016In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a major health problem worldwide, especially among women. The condition has been related to a number of factors, such as alcohol consumption, economic situation and, more recently, to social capital. However, there have been relatively few studies about the social capital-depression relationship in Eastern Europe. This paper aims to fill this gap by examining the association between different forms of social capital and self-rated depression in Moscow. Differences between men and women will also be examined, with a special focus on women.

    METHODS: Data was obtained from the Moscow Health Survey, which was conducted in 2004 with 1190 Muscovites aged 18 years or above. For depression, a single-item self-reported measure was used. Social capital was operationalised through five questions about different forms of social relations. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to estimate the association between social capital and self-rated depression, separately for men and women.

    RESULTS: More women (48 %) than men (36 %) reported that they had felt depressed during the last year. An association was found between social capital and reported depression only among women. Women who were divorced or widowed or who had little contact with relatives had higher odds of reporting depression than those with more family contact. Women who regularly engaged with people from different age groups outside of their families were also more likely to report depression than those with less regular contact.

    CONCLUSIONS: Social capital can be a mixed blessing for women. Different forms of social relations can lead to different health outcomes, both positive and negative. Although the family is important for women's mental health in Moscow, extra-familial relations across age groups can be mentally distressing. This suggests that even though social capital can be a valuable resource for mental health, some of its forms can be mentally deleterious to maintain, especially for women. More research is needed on both sides to social capital. A special focus should be placed on bridging social relations among women in order to better understand the complex association between social capital and depression in Russia and elsewhere.

  • 5.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Acceptance of suicide in Moscow2011In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 753-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attitudes concerning the acceptability of suicide have been emphasized as being important for understanding why levels of suicide mortality vary in different societies across the world. While Russian suicide mortality levels are among the highest in the world, not much is known about attitudes to suicide in Russia. This study aims to obtain a greater understanding about the levels and correlates of suicide acceptance in Russia. Data from a survey of 1,190 Muscovites were analysed using logistic regression techniques. Suicide acceptance was examined among respondents in relation to social, economic and demographic factors as well as in relation to attitudes towards other moral questions. The majority of interviewees (80%) expressed condemnatory attitudes towards suicide, although men were slightly less condemning. The young, the higher educated, and the non-religious were more accepting of suicide (OR > 2). However, the two first-mentioned effects disappeared when controlling for tolerance, while a positive effect of lower education on suicide acceptance appeared. When controlling for other independent variables, no significant effects were found on suicide attitudes by gender, one's current family situation, or by health-related or economic problems. The most important determinants of the respondents' attitudes towards suicide were their tolerance regarding other moral questions and their religiosity. More tolerant views, in general, also seemed to explain the more accepting views towards suicide among the young and the higher educated. Differences in suicide attitudes between the sexes seemed to be dependent on differences in other factors rather than on gender per se. Suicide attitudes also seemed to be more affected by one's earlier experiences in terms of upbringing and socialization than by events and processes later in life.

  • 6.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Suicide in Changing Societies2010In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. 3, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Ferlander, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Economic strain, social relations, gender, and binge drinking in Moscow2008In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 66, p. 663-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The harmful effects of alcohol consumption are not necessarily limited to the amounts consumed. Drinking in binges is a specific feature of Russian alcohol consumption that may be of importance even for explaining the current mortality crisis. Based on interviews conducted with a stratified random sample of 1190 Muscovites in 2004, this paper examines binge drinking in relation to the respondents’ economic situation and social relations. Consistent with prior research, this study provides further evidence for a negative relationship between educational level and binge drinking. Our results also indicate a strong but complex link between economic strain and binge drinking. The odds ratios for binge drinking of men experiencing manifold economic problems were almost twice as high compared to those for men with few economic problems. However, the opposite seemed to be true for women. Being married or cohabiting seemed to have a strong protective effect on binge drinking among women compared to being single, while it seemed to have no effect at all among men. Women having regular contact with friends also had more than twice the odds for binge drinking compared to those with little contact with friends, while again no effect was found among men. Gender roles and the behavioural differences embedded in these, may explain the difference. The different effects of economic hardship on binge drinking may also constitute an important factor when explaining the large mortality difference between men and women in Russia.

  • 8.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). niversity of Tokyo, Japan / European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition (ECOHOST), London, United Kingdom.
    The historical development of suicide mortality in Russia, 1870-20072015In: Archives of Suicide Research, ISSN 1381-1118, E-ISSN 1573-8159, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 117-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Russia has one of the highest suicide mortality rates in the world. This study investigates the development of Russian suicide mortality over a longer time period in order to provide a context within which the contemporary high level might be better understood. Annual sex- and age-specific suicide-mortality data for Russia for the period 1870-2007 were studied, where available. Russian suicide mortality increased 11-fold over the period. Trends in male and female suicide developed similarly, although male suicide rates were consistently much higher. From the 1990s suicide has increased in a relative sense among the young (15-34), while the high suicide mortality among middle-aged males has reduced. Changes in Russian suicide mortality over the study period may be attributable to modernisation processes.

  • 9.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Uppsala University.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Sparén, Pär
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Age, period and cohort effects on suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-20052017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Russian suicide mortality rates changed rapidly over the second half of the twentieth century. This study attempts to differentiate between underlying period and cohort effects in relation to the changes in suicide mortality in Russia between 1956 and 2005.

    METHODS: Sex- and age-specific suicide mortality data were analyzed using an age-period-cohort (APC) approach. Descriptive analyses and APC modeling with log-linear Poisson regression were performed.

    RESULTS: Strong period effects were observed for the years during and after Gorbachev's political reforms (including the anti-alcohol campaign) and for those following the break-up of the Soviet Union. After mutual adjustment, the cohort- and period-specific relative risk estimates for suicide revealed differing underlying processes. While the estimated period effects had an overall positive trend, cohort-specific developments indicated a positive trend for the male cohorts born between 1891 and 1931 and for the female cohorts born between 1891 and 1911, but a negative trend for subsequent cohorts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the specific life experiences of cohorts may be important for variations in suicide mortality across time, in addition to more immediate effects of changes in the social environment.

  • 10.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Sparén, Pär
    Karolinska institutet.
    Age, period and cohort effects on suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-2007Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Lipsicas, C. B.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Uppsala University.
    Wasserman, D.
    Karolinska Institute / Collaborating Centre of Mental Health Problems and Suicide Across Europe, Stockholm.
    Apter, A.
    Schneider Children Medical Center, Petah-Tikva, Israel .
    Kerkhof, A.
    Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Michel, K.
    University Psychiatric Services, Bern, Switzerland .
    Renberg, E. S.
    Umeå University.
    Van Heeringen, K.
    University Hospital, Gent, Belgium .
    Värnik, A.
    Estonian-Swedish Mental Health and Suicidology Institute,Tallinn, Estonia / Tallinn University,Tallinn, Estonia .
    Schmidtke, A.
    University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany .
    Repetition of attempted suicide among immigrants in Europe2014In: Canadian journal of psychiatry, ISSN 0706-7437, Vol. 59, no 10, p. 539-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To compare frequencies of suicide attempt repetition in immigrants and local European populations, and the timing of repetition in these groups. Method: Data from 7 European countries, comprising 10 574 local and 3032 immigrant subjects, were taken from the World Health Organization European Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and the ensuing Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe (commonly referred to as MONSUE) project. The relation between immigrant status and repetition of suicide attempt within 12-months following first registered attempt was analyzed with binary logistic regression, controlling for sex, age, and method of attempt. Timing of repetition was controlled for sex, age, and the recommended type of aftercare. Results: Lower odds of repeating a suicide attempt were found in Eastern European (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.61, P < 0.001) and non-European immigrants (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.90, P < 0.05), compared with the locals. Similar patterns were identified in the sex-specific analysis. Eastern European immigrants tended to repeat their attempt much later than locals (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.93, P < 0.05). In general, 32% of all repetition occurred within 30 days. Repetition tended to decrease with age and was more likely in females using harder methods in their index attempt (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.54, P < 0.01). Large variations in the general repetition frequency were identified between the collecting centres, thus influencing the results. Conclusions: The lower repetition frequencies in non-Western immigrants, compared with locals, in Europe stands in contrast to their markedly higher tendency to attempt suicide in general, possibly pointing to situational stress factors related to their suicidal crisis that are less persistent over time. Our findings also raise the possibility that suicide attempters and repeaters constitute only partially overlapping populations.

  • 12. Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein
    et al.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Apter, Alan
    De Leo, Diego
    Kerkhof, Ad
    Lönnqvist, Jouko
    Michel, Konrad
    Renberg, Ellinor Salander
    Sayil, Isik
    Schmidtke, Armin
    van Heeringen, Cornelis
    Vaernik, Airi
    Wasserman, Danuta
    Attempted suicide among immigrants in European countries: an international perspective2012In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 241-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the frequencies of attempted suicide among immigrants and their hosts, between different immigrant groups, and between immigrants and their countries of origin. The material, 27,048 persons, including 4,160 immigrants, was obtained from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, the largest available European database, and was collected in a standardised manner from 11 European centres in 1989-2003. Person-based suicide-attempt rates (SARs) were calculated for each group. The larger immigrant groups were studied at each centre and compared across centres. Completed-suicide rates of their countries of origin were compared to the SARs of the immigrant groups using rank correlations. 27 of 56 immigrant groups studied showed significantly higher, and only four groups significantly lower SARs than their hosts. Immigrant groups tended to have similar rates across different centres. Moreover, positive correlation between the immigrant SAR and the country-of-origin suicide rate was found. However, Chileans, Iranians, Moroccans, and Turks displayed high SARs as immigrants despite low suicide rates in the home countries. The similarity of most immigrant groups' SARs across centres, and the correlation with suicidality in the countries of origin suggest a strong continuity that can be interpreted in either cultural or genetic terms. However, the generally higher rates among immigrants compared to host populations and the similarity of the rates of foreign-born and those immigrants who retained the citizenship of their country of origin point to difficulties in the acculturation and integration process. The positive correlation found between attempted and completed suicide rates suggests that the two are related, a fact with strong implications for suicide prevention.

  • 13. Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein
    et al.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Wasserman, Danuta
    Apter, Alan
    Bobes, Julio
    Kerkhof, Ad
    Michel, Konrad
    Renberg, Ellinor Salander
    van Heeringen, Kees
    Vaernik, Airi
    Schmidtke, Armin
    Immigration and recommended care after a suicide attempt in Europe: equity or bias?2014In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 63-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the investigation of care recommendations in the medical system across European countries to immigrants who attempted suicide. Data from seven European countries with 8865 local and 2921 immigrant person-cases were derived from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and ensuing MONSUE (Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe) project. The relationship between immigrant status and type of aftercare recommended was analysed with binary logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, method of attempt and the Centre collecting the data. Clear disparities were identified in the care recommendation practices toward immigrants, compared with hosts, over and above differing policies by the European Centres.

  • 14. Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein
    et al.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Wasserman, Danuta
    Apter, Alan
    Kerkhof, Ad
    Michel, Konrad
    Renberg, Ellinor Salander
    van Heeringen, Kees
    Varnik, Airi
    Schmidtke, Armin
    Gender distribution of suicide attempts among immigrant groups in European countries-an international perspective2013In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 279-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies report high rates of suicide attempts for female immigrants. This study assesses variations in the distribution of suicide attempts across gender in immigrant and non-immigrant groups in Europe. Method: Data on 64 native and immigrant groups, including 17 662 local and 3755 immigrant person-cases collected, between 1989 and 2003, in 24 million person-years were derived from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour. Female-to-male ratios of suicide attempt rates (SARs) were calculated for all groups. Results: The cases were combined into four major categories: hosts; European and other Western immigrants; non-European immigrants; and Russian immigrants. The non-European immigrants included higher female SARs than the Europeans, both hosts and immigrants. Unlike the other groups, the majority of suicide attempters among the Russian immigrants in Estonia and Estonian hosts were male. This was also true for immigrants from Curacao, Iran, Libya and Sri Lanka. When the single groups with a male majority were excluded, the correlation between female and male SARs was relatively high among the European immigrants (r = 0.74, P < 0.0005) and lower among the non-European immigrants (r = 0.55, P < 0.03). Generalized estimating equation analysis yielded a highly significant difference (P < 0.0005) in gender ratios of suicide attempts between hosts (ratio 1.52) and both non-European immigrants (ratio 2.32) and Russian immigrants (0.68), but not the European immigrants. Conclusions: The higher suicide attempt rates in non-European immigrant females compared with males may be indicative of difficulties in the acculturation processes in Europe. Further understanding of factors underlying suicidal behaviour in immigrant and minority groups is necessary for planning effective prevention strategies.

  • 15. Magnusson, Sara
    et al.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Sweden: Income and suicide2010In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 157-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous publications have reported two conflicting patterns describing the relationship between income and suicide in Sweden; positive and negative. Methodologically the studies have differed, and the analysis has been limited to a few areas. To better understand the relationship, a nationwide, cross-sectional, ecological study of the 290 municipalities in Sweden was planned. OLS regression analyses showed the overall and female suicide rates were negatively related to income, while the effect on male suicide rates was not statistically significant. The results confirm earlier findings of a negative relationship between income and suicide.

  • 16.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University College, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Akceptacja samobójstwa oraz jej korelaty w Europie Wschodniej i Zachodniej w okresie przemian ustrojowych2006In: Suicydologia, ISSN 1895-3786, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [pl]

    Wstęp. Celem niniejszej pracy było zbadanie akceptacji samobójstwa i jej związku z umieralnością z powodu samobójstw oraz czynników, od których zależy ocena samobójstwa w Europie. Dane dotyczące postaw: 33 221 wywiadów przeprowadzonych w 25 krajach europejskich (Światowe Badania Wartości, World Values Study, 1990–1991). Dane dotyczące umieralności z powodu samobójstwa: statystyki WHO. Materiał i metody. Obliczono korelację rangową między wskaźnikami samobójstw wśród kobiet i mężczyzn z różnych grup wiekowych a postawami wobec samobójstwa. Czynniki determinujące postawę badano z użyciem analizy regresji zarówno logistycznej, jak i liniowej. Aby opisać różne struktury postaw, przeprowadzono analizę czynnikową. Wyniki. Ogólnie samobójstwo oceniano negatywnie, lecz poszczególne kraje różniły się ze względu na wysokość i rozkład ocen. Statystycznie istotne dodatnie korelacje między umieralnością samobójczą a postawami wobec samobójstwa stwierdzono wśród kobiet w wieku 15-64 lat. Ostateczny model czynników determinujących na poziomie indywidualnym akceptację samobójstwa obejmował: wysoką pozycję Boga (korelat ujemny), religii (ujemny) i rodziny (ujemny) w hierarchii ważności, wiek (ujemny), nietolerancję wobec niezrównoważenia psychicznego (ujemny), dobre zdrowie subiektywne, myśli o śmierci oraz liberalny styl wychowywania dzieci. Ten model wyjaśniał 12,6% wariancji w Europie Zachodniej, ale tylko 2,6% we Wschodniej. Analiza czynnikowa wykazała, że miejsce samobójstwa wśród innych aktów również odróżniało Europę Wschodnią do Zachodniej. Wnioski. Kraje europejskie różnią się pod względem akceptacji samobójstwa. Dodatnie związki między postawami wobec samobójstwa a umieralnością samobójczą istnieją wśród kobiet. Osobista religijność jest najlepszym predyktorem akceptacji samobójstwa w Europie Zachodniej, lecz czynnik ten nie ma znaczenia w Europie Wschodniej, co wskazuje na ogólniejszą różnicę dotyczącą sensu samobójstwa.

  • 17. Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Are There Social Correlates to Suicide?1997In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 44, no 12, p. 1919-1929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A structural-sociological approach to suicide research holds that an aggregate-level cause of suicide should correlate with the suicide rates in a population. In 1980, Sainsbury, Jenkins, and Levey published the article “The Social Correlates of Suicide in Europe” which related the suicide rates in 1961–1963 and the changes in them in the following 11 years to 15 social variables in 18 European countries. Its main findings were that the changes in suicide rates could be attributed to specific changes in the social environment. Complementary discriminant analyses showed that it was possible accurately to divide the countries into low- and high-change suicide rate groups on the basis of a combination of the social variables.

    Although criticized for its method, the study has been widely quoted and sometimes presented as the most definitive current study on the subject. In order to see whether its results held for similar data 16 years later it was replicated for 1977–1979 and the ensuing 11 years, with data and method as similar as possible to the original.

    The results agreed with those of the original study on only one point: the correlations between the levels of the social variables and those of the suicide rates were similar in both periods. However, changes in the suicide rates were unrelated to either the levels of the social variables or the changes in them: correlations found in the original study tended to change profoundly or disappear. Moreover, the results of the original discriminant analyses were a property of the method employed and thus independent of the data.

    Statistical artefacts or social processes such as changing expectations are unlikely to explain the suddenly changing or vanishing correlations. The original correlations seem to have been largely spurious and dependent on the fact that the more modern countries in Europe experienced a “suicide boom” in the 1960s. As the boom waned in these, it was beginning in the less modern countries: the correlations between the processes indicated by the social variables and the suicide rates were reversed or disappeared.

    The results call the existence of clear relations between these “suicidogenic” social circumstances and the suicide rates into question. Since many of the variables used are traditional “Durkheimian” indicators of the integration of society, a critique of this still-dominant view of the relationship between society and suicide mortality, or its common operationalization, is implied.

  • 18.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University, Avdelning 3, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Eastern European Transition and Suicide Mortality2000In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 51, no 9, p. 1405-1420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current paper seeks to systematize the discussion on the causes of the changes in Eastern European countries’ suicide mortality during the last 15 years by analyzing the changes in relation to some common causes: alcohol consumption, economic changes, “general pathogenic social stress”, political changes, and social disorganization. It is found that the developments in suicide have been very different in different countries, and that the same causes cannot apply to all of them. However, the relation between suicide mortality and social processes is obvious. A model consisting of the hypothetical general stress (as indicated by mortality/life expectancy), democratization, alcohol consumption, and social disorganization (with a period-dependent effect) predicted the percentual changes in the suicide rates in 16 out of the 28 Eastern Bloc countries in 1984–89 and 1989–94 fairly accurately, while it failed to do this for Albania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and the Caucasian and Central Asian newly independent states. Most interesting were the strong roles played by changes in life expectancy, the causes of which are discussed, and the fact that economic change seemed to lack explanatory power in multiple analyses. The data are subject to many potential sources of error, the small number of units and the large multicollinearity between the independent variables may distort the results. Nevertheless, the results indicate that the changes in Eastern European suicide mortality, both decreases and increases, may be explained with the same set of variables. However, more than one factor is needed, and the multicollinearity will continue to pose problems.

  • 19.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University, Avdelning 3, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Effect on Suicide Rate of Having Reduced Unemployment Is Uncertain1999In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 318, p. -941Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University, Avdelning 3, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    EG-varumärket1997In: Varumärkesrättens grunder / [ed] Marianne Levin, Richard Wessman, Stockholm: Juristförl , 1997Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet presenterar EG:s varumärkesförordning, och det EG-varumärke som den började reglera i april 1996. Förutom historiken behandlas förordningens verkställande, dess processrättsliga delar samt förhållandet mellan Förordningen och svensk lag.

  • 21.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University College, Department of Society and History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kak byl napisan otjerk Sorokina o samoubiistve2003In: Sotsiologitjeskije Issledovanija, ISSN 0132-1625, Vol. 11, p. 123-131Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Några tankar om kultur och självmord samt den humanistiska suicidpreventionens sociologiska grundvalar2000In: Humanistisk suicidprevention / [ed] Jan Beskow och Arne Jarrick, Stockholm: Forskningsrådsnämnden (FRN) , 2000, p. 139-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23. Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    On Suicide in European Countries: Some Theoretical, Legal and Historical Views on Suicide Mortality and Its Concomitants1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Pitirim Sorokins ”Självmordet som samhällsfenomen” – en introduktion2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, no 3-4, p. 46-67Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University College, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Självmordens geografiska fördelning i Sverige2006In: Ymer, ISSN 0044-0477, p. 251-268Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Självmordsdödligheten varierar mellan olika geografiska områden: mellan kontinenter och enstaka länder, mellan län och landsdelar, mellan kommuner och mellan stadsdelar, t o m mellan husen i samma stadsdel. Den aktuella presentationen fokuserar på att beskriva självmordens geografiska fördelning i Sverige. Eftersom det finns stora skillnader i mäns och kvinnors självmordsdödlighet, samt dödligheten i olika åldrar och med olika metoder, behandlas dessa i viss mån separat. Den statistik som analyseras kommer från databanken hos Nationellt centrum för suicidforskning och –prevention (NASP) . Den omfattar åren 2000-2002 och de angivna talen avser medelvärden för dessa tre år, de senaste för vilka detaljerad statistik fanns tillgänglig. Hela Sverige hade under perioden i genomsnitt 16.6 självmord per 100000 invånare årligen. Detta tal var som högst i Gotlands län (24.4) och lägst i Västerbotten (12.0). Det var högre än genomsnittet i Östergötland, Kronobergs, Blekinge och Skåne län samt i Värmland, Dalarna och Gävleborgs län, medan Västkusten, Jönköpings län, Södermanland och Norrbotten hade lägre än genomsnittliga tal. I historisk jämförelse är dagens fördelning mycket intressant. Självmordens gamla geografiska fördelning, har ändrat sig påtagligt sedan 1965 efter att ha varit mycket stabil i mer än 100 år. Korrelationen mellan 1830- och 2000-talens siffror är nu mycket låg (r=0.09), och den med 1960-talets tal (r=0.33) är inte heller den statistiskt signifikant vilket tyder på att en rumslig omorganisation har ägt rum. Det finns även en viss kontinuitet. Sålunda ligger t ex Skåne, Dalarna och Gävleborgs län fortfarande över riksgenomsnittet i självmord, och Jönköpings, Kalmar, Västra Götalands, Västerbottens och Norrbottens län ligger under det. Självmorden i Kronobergs län och på Gotland har emellertid ökat betydligt i relativt hänseende samtidigt som de har minskat drastiskt i Stockholms och Södermanlands län så att Stockholm nu ligger under riksgenomsnittet. Vidare har skillnaderna mellan länen fortsatt att jämnas ut. På 1830-talet var självmordstalet i Stockholms län nio gånger högre än i Västerbotten, och på 1960-talet nästan tre gånger så högt som i Kronobergs län som då låg sist; 2000-2002 är de ledande gotländska siffrorna bara dubbelt så höga som de västerbottniska.

  • 26.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University, Avdelning 3, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Självmordsrelaterade brott i europeiska strafflagar1999In: Självmordsbeteende som språk / [ed] Jan Beskow, Bengt Erik Eriksson & Nina Nikku, Uppsala: Forskningsrådsnämnden (FRN) , 1999, p. 191-212Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Social Theories of Suicide2009In: Oxford Textbook of Suicidology and Suicide Prevention / [ed] Danuta Wasserman and Camilla Wasserman, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2009, p. 139-147Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University, Department of Society and History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Sorokin on Suicide: An Introduction to His Essay “Suicide as a Social Phenomenon"2002In: The unknown Sorokin: his life in Russia and the essay on suicide / [ed] Denny Vågerö, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2002, p. 32-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University College, Department of Society and History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Suicidalitet bland invandrare2002In: Tidig upptäckt och preventiv behandling av asylsökande i riskzonen för självmord / [ed] Solvig Ekblad, Danuta Wasserman, Stockholm: Institutet för psykosocial medicin (IPM) , 2002, p. 13-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University College, Department of Society and History, Sociology. Södertörn University College, Department of Society and History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Suicide2004In: Policy Pathways to Health in the Russian Federation / [ed] MacKellar Landis, Andriouchina Elena, Horlacher David, Wien: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis , 2004, p. 125-135Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University College, Department of Society and History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Suicide in the New Millennium: Some Sociological Speculations2002In: Crisis, ISSN 0227-5910, E-ISSN 2151-2396, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 91-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Suicide Mortality of Eastern European Regions before and after the Communist Period2006In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 307-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution of Eastern European suicide mortality both before and at the end of the Communist period, as well as the changes that occurred during this period.

    Regional data on suicide mortality were collected from Czarist “European Russia” in 1910 and from the corresponding area in 1989. The distribution of suicide mortality was mapped at both points in time. Regional continuity over time was further studied with the help of geographical units specially constructed for this purpose.

    In 1910, suicide mortality was found to be high in the northern Baltic provinces, in the urban parts of north and central Russia, the more urbanized parts of northern and western Poland, in east Ukraine, and in the northern Caucasus, while suicide rates were generally low in south Russia, Dagestan, and in southern Poland. In 1989, suicide mortality was highest in the Urals, the east Russian “ethnic” areas, and in southeast Russia. The rates were low in Poland, Moldavia, and in most of the northern Caucasus. The across-time analysis using specially constructed comparison units showed that the spatial distributions of suicide mortality in 1910 and 1989 were not correlated with each other. Additional analyses pointed to a short-term consistency of regional patterns both in the 1900s–1920s and the 1980s–1990s.

    The lack of regional continuity in suicide mortality in the area may imply an absence of strong and continuous regional cultures, or a strong influence of other factors, such as societal modernization, on suicide mortality. Suicide as an act changed its social nature during the Communist period, becoming more normal, and more equally distributed among social classes and geographical locations.

  • 33. Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Suicide-Related Crimes in Contemporary European Criminal Laws1997In: Crisis, ISSN 0227-5910, E-ISSN 2151-2396, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 35-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Describes suicide-related penal legislation in contemporary Europe, and analyzes and relates the results to cultural attitudes toward suicide and to national suicide rates. Data were obtained from 42 legal entities. Of these, 34 have penal regulations which—according to definition—chiefly and directly deal with suicide. There are 3 main types of act: aiding suicide, abetting suicide, and driving to suicide. The laws vary considerably with regard to which acts are sanctioned, how severely they are punished, and whether any special circumstances (e.g., the motive) can make the crime more serious. Various ideologies have inspired legislation, including religions, the euthanasia movement, and suicide prevention. There are some cases in which neighboring legal systems have clearly influenced laws on the topic. However, the process seems mostly to have been a national affair, resulting in large discrepancies between European legal systems. The laws seem to reflect public opinions: countries which punish the crimes harder have significantly less permissive cultural attitudes toward suicide. The cultural and normative elements of society seem to be connected with its suicide mortality.

  • 34. Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    The decriminalization of suicide in swedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    The East is – Empty2013In: Baltic Rim Economies : Quarterly Review, ISSN 1459-9759, no 1, p. 41-42Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36. Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    The importance of culture for suicide morality: a discussion of Durkheim and ParsonsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Unga kvinnors självmord i Sverige: höga tal i jämförelse med övriga Europa2005In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 102, no 23, p. 1835-1836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel samlades in statistik om självmord bland unga (15-24 år) kvinnor från 28 europeiska länder under åren 1998-2002 . För att även kunna mäta den relativa (visavi unga män) förekomsten av självmord hade också den standardiserade andelen kvinnors självmord av alla självmord i ungdomsåldersgruppen uträknats.

    Det visade sig för det första, att även om självmordstalen för unga kvinnor i Sverige inte är höga i sig (5.2 per 100000, jämfört med ca 16 för hela befolkningen över 15 år), så är denna grupp problematisk dels eftersom den inte har haft samma klart sjunkande utveckling som andra grupper (med undantag av unga män), dels eftersom den i internationell jämförelse med samma grupper i andra länder visar sig vara i sämre position än den svenska befolkningen i stort. Dessa fakta ger båda för sig anledning att följa och analysera utveckligen och dess orsaker. En möjlig relaterad faktor är det att unga kvinnor leder statistiken över självmordsförsök. Man kan tänka sig att deras (relativt) ökande suicidalitet kunde egentligen ”bara” handla om att deras självmordsmetoder e d skulle ha ändrats så att deras suicidala beteende allt oftare skulle resultera i fullbordade självmord. Vi saknar dessvärre pålitlig historisk statistik över självmordsförsök för att kunna bedöma detta, och problemet, dödsfallen, försvinner inte heller med det.

  • 38.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University College, Department of Society and History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Beskow, Jan
    Jansson, Arne
    Odén, Birgitta
    Historical Perspectives on Suicide and Suicide Prevention in Sweden2002In: Archives of Suicide Research, ISSN 1381-1118, E-ISSN 1573-8159, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 269-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The suicide panorama is not static but continually changing with the development of society. In this article changes in suicide rates and attitudes towards suicide in Sweden from pre-modern to modern time are described, with suicidal murders as an interesting transitional form. The rates of homicide have decreased, while those of suicide have increased. Changes in attitudes towards suicide have reached different groups in society at different times, leading to very heterogeneous suicide patterns. With increasing social homogeneity there now seems to exist a tendency back towards larger homogeneity of suicide as well. In order to develop suicide prevention into a vital branch of public-health services humanistic, linguistic and social research in suicidology must be encouraged.

  • 39.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Reitan, Therese C.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Continuity and Change in Russian Alcohol Consumption from Tsars to Transition2006In: Social history (London), ISSN 0307-1022, E-ISSN 1470-1200, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 160-179Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Reitan, Therese C.
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Note on the Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition (SCOHOST)2006In: Social history (London), ISSN 0307-1022, E-ISSN 1470-1200, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 180-181Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Suicide Mortality and Agricultural Rationalization in Post-War Europe2006In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 429-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The relationship between agricultural rationalization and suicide mortality has been little researched. On the basis of the hypothesis that agricultural rationalization leads to more suicide, this study investigated whether a general relationship could be found between structural change in agriculture and suicide mortality in post-war Europe. Method Due to the expected small size of the effect, the data were deliberately collected so as to maximize the variation in the independent variable. Annual national-level data on suicide mortality, the percentage of the work force in agricultural employment, and the unemployment level were collected from those countries and 10-year periods where the structural changes (reductions in employment) in agriculture between 1950 and 1995 had been most and least pronounced. In order to avoid confounders, the annual changes in the variables’ values were correlated with each other, adding a control for the level of unemployment, and allowing for lagged effects. Results The annual changes in the levels of agricultural employment and those of suicide mortality did not covary at all. Controlling for unemployment levels did not change this, nor could any lagged effects be found. Conclusions At the most general level, no causal relation between agricultural rationalization and suicide mortality was detected. This lack of a universal relation does not, however, preclude the possibility of the relationship existing given certain socio-historical circumstances.

  • 42.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Wasserman, Danuta
    Labour Market, Work Environment and Suicide2009In: Oxford Textbook of Suicidology and Suicide Prevention / [ed] Danuta Wasserman and Camilla Wasserman, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2009, p. 221-229Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University College, Department of Society and History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Wasserman, Danuta
    Suicide Mortality among the Immigrant Finnish Swedes2003In: Archives of Suicide Research, ISSN 1381-1118, E-ISSN 1573-8159, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 93-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Having investigated suicide mortality among the 250,000 immigrant Finns in Sweden ("Finnish Swedes") 1982-1992, we have found it to be very high for both sexes. The mean overall rate was 48.2/100,000 a year--2.0 times the Swedish rate and 1.6 times the Finnish. Suicide mortality has, moreover, increased among women. A comparison of naturalized Finns (those who have become Swedish citizens) with those who have remained Finnish citizens does not demonstrate any conclusive relationship between naturalization and suicide for the group as a whole. In most male groups, those who had taken Swedish citizenship had clearly lower rates than those who had not. For most female groups, however, there was a reverse tendency. Further monitoring of the development of suicide mortality in the group is needed.

  • 44.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Wasserman, Danuta
    Suicide: Some Social Dimensions2001In: Suicide: an Unnecessary Death / [ed] Danuta Wasserman, London: Martin Dunitz , 2001, p. 101-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45. Petrova, Saska
    et al.
    Gentile, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Umeå University.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Bouzarovski, Stefan
    Perceptions of thermal comfort and housing quality: exploring the microgeographies of energy poverty in Stakhanov, Ukraine2013In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1240-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing recognition of the importance of indoor environments as 'active political-ecological spaces' has rarely been followed up by a systematic empirical engagement with the constituent dynamics and conceptual issues associated with infrastructural deprivation in this domain, particularly in non-Western contexts. Therefore, we investigate the relationship between self-reported perceptions of thermal comfort in the home, on the one hand, and a range of sociodemographic, housing, and health-related variables, on the other, via a quantitative analysis of a large-scale survey undertaken in the Eastern Ukrainian town of Stakhanov. Using the perceived level of thermal comfort as a starting point for its empirical explorations, we estimate the number and type of households who feel that they are receiving inadequate energy services in the home. Special attention is paid to the role of buildings in shaping the perceptions of thermal comfort.

  • 46. Pray, Leslie
    et al.
    Cohen, ClaraMäkinen, Ilkka HenrikSödertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).Värnik, AiriMacKellar, F. Landis
    Suicide in Eastern Europe, the CIS, and the Baltic Countries: Social and Public Health Determinants. A Foundation for Designing Interventions. Summary of a Conference2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Ferlander, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Institutional Trust in Contemporary Moscow2009In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 779-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of institutional trust in Russia are amongst the lowest in the world. As yet, however, little research has focused on this phenomenon at the sub-national level. The current study examines trust in social and political institutions among citizens in Moscow in 2004. Results showed that levels of institutional trust are extremely low and that there were only three institutions (the church, president and hospitals) that were more trusted than distrusted. Moreover, although the effects of some demographic and other independent variables on trust stretched across institutions, several variables had a unique impact in terms of trust in the president.

  • 48.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Homicide in the Russian Empire and Soviet Union2005In: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 647-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the collapse of Communism, statistics relating to previously ‘taboo’ phenomena such as homicide became available in the Soviet Union for the first time in over 50 years. The current study builds on several recent studies of homicide in Russia by extending both its time-frame and geographical coverage. Taking data from the end of the tsarist (1910) and Communist (1989) periods, the study maps the changes that occurred in the geographical distribution of homicide rates in ‘European Russia’ across the Soviet years. While non-Russian areas tended to remain or become less violent, Russia became more violent. These differences may have had a cultural component underlying them which was further exacerbated by the role of the state in the Soviet period.

  • 49.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Ferlander, Sara
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Unhealthy Societies?: Health Stagnation and Growing Health Inequalities Are Not Consistent with Sustainable Development2006In: Realizing a Common Vision for a Baltic Sea Eco-Region: Report from a Research Symposium on Sustainable Development Patterns 28-29 October 2005 / [ed] Lars Rydén, 2006, p. 39-46Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 49 of 49
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