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  • 1.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Stockholm University.
    Golz, A. -L
    Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson, Kerstin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Coastal ecosystem effects of increased summer temperature and contamination by the flame retardant HBCDD2017In: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, E-ISSN 2077-1312, Vol. 5, no 2, p. -20, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combined effects of ocean warming and contaminants on marine ecosystems are poorly understood. In this study, we exposed model ecosystems comprising typical shallow coastal Baltic Sea communities to elevated temperature (+5 °C) and the flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), both singly and in combination, for 13 days. Higher temperatures caused the release of PO4 from the sediment, which in turn stimulated the growth of the cyanobacteria Dolichospermum sp. This in turn led to an increase in the copepod Acartia bifilosa and other indirect effects in the plankton, interpreted as being caused by changes in predation, grazing, and competition. Elevated temperatures also stimulated benthic primary production and increased production of benthic mollusk larvae. Although increased temperature was the dominant driver of effects in these systems, HBCDD also appeared to have some effects, mainly in the zooplankton (both direct and indirect effects) and benthic meiofauna (an interactive effect with temperature). Although the study used model ecosystems, which are an approximation of field conditions, it highlights that interactive ecosystem effects between two stressors are possible and demonstrates the ecological and temporal complexity of such responses. Such unpredictable responses to warming and contaminants are a major challenge for ecosystem management to deal with multistressor situations in the Baltic Sea. 

  • 2.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Stockholm University.
    Näslund, J.
    AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm.
    Hansen, J.
    AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm / Stockholm University.
    Kozlowsky-Suzuki, B.
    Universidade Federal Do Estado Do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Sundström, B.
    Gustafsson, Kerstin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Hexabromocyclododecane affects benthic-pelagic coupling in an experimental ecosystem2015In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 206, p. 306-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is an additive brominated flame retardant and a recognized PBT chemical. However, little is known about its effects on coastal species, and even less on ecosystem effects. We investigated the dose-response effects of HBCDD over 8 months in 1000 L experimental mesocosms assembled from coastal Baltic Sea ecosystem components. HBCDD was added via spiked plankton material and a range of structural and functional endpoints were measured during the experiment. Increasing HBCDD concentration decreased the biomass of large Macoma balthica, resulting in a decreased recirculation of nutrients to the water. Changes in plankton communities were also observed, either due to direct toxic HBCDD effects or indirect via changes in benthic-pelagic coupling of nutrients. Such complex ecosystem responses can only be quantified and understood by using realistic experimental set-ups, and including knowledge of system-specific ecological interactions. This is the first study of HBCDD effects on ecosystem level.

  • 3.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Stockholm University.
    Strid, Anna
    Stockholm University.
    von Stedingk, Hans
    Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson, Kerstin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Effects of benthos, temperature and dose on the fate of HBCDD in experimental coastal ecosystems2015In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1246-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the fate of the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) added in a particulate suspension to experimental ecosystems assembled from brackish (Baltic Sea) coastal bays. Two experiments examined how A) benthic macrofauna (over 21 d), and B) increased temperature (14 d), affected HBCDD concentrations and fractionation of α, β and γ diastereomers in the water, sediment and biota. A third experiment (C) run over three seasons (231 d), studied the effect of HBCDD dose on the same endpoints. In all treatments of the three experiments, HBCDD partitioned mainly to the sediment, and this proportion increased with time. Presence of macrofauna tended to increase the HBCDD concentration in the sediment and decreased its concentration in the water. Increased temperature (+5 °C) decreased the amount of HBCDD in sediment and water but not in the filter- and deposit-feeding infaunal bivalves (Macoma balthica). The partitioning between water, sediment and biota was not concentration dependent. In all treatments, sediment became enriched in γ-HBCDD, M. balthica in α-HBCDD and water in α- and β-HBCDD. Bioaccumulation of HBCDD in M. balthica was high in all experiments (logBSAF > 1.25), the α diastereomer contributing the most (logBSAF 2.1 to 5.2). There is a risk of trophic transfer of HBCDD from benthic to pelagic food webs, and secondary poisoning of marine consumers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 4. Hedman, Jenny E.
    et al.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Thorsson, Maria H.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Fate of contaminants in Baltic Sea sediments: role of bioturbation and settling organic matter2008In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 356, p. 25-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study examined the interactive effects of bioturbation and settling organic matter (OM) on the fate (burial and remobilisation) of 2 surface-deposited contaminants in Baltic Sea sediment: the metal Cd and a hydrophobic organic pollutant, the flame retardant BDE-99. Three macrofaunal species with diverse feeding and bioturbation strategies were used: the amphipod Monoporeia affinis, the clam Macoma balthica and the polychaete Marenzelleria spp. Radiolabelled contaminants were added to the sediment surface in association with 3 different OM types: (1) phytoplankton, (2) terrestrial lignin and (3) Baltic sediment. Bioturbation by all species increased the retention of both contaminants in the sediment, most effectively M affinis and M balthica. A decoupled transport of Cd and BDE-99 by Marenzelleria was observed. Generally, Marenzelleria buried the highest amount of Cd into the sediment but also caused the highest remobilisation to the water, indicating an effective transport of (soluble) Cd over the sediment-water interface via bioirrigation. Lack of the highly hydrophobic and mainly particle-associated BDE-99 below the sediment surface suggests that Marenzelleria caused no significant particle mixing. The addition of various OM types significantly affected the distribution of Cd, but not of BDE-99. There was an interactive effect between bioturbation (species) and OM type, generally showing an increased burial and release of Cd when associated with phytoplankton in the presence of Marenzelleria. Our results emphasise the importance of understanding the complex interactions between ecological (e.g. infaunal feeding and bioturbation activities) and physiochemical processes (contaminant speciation and sorption kinetics) when assessing the fate of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

  • 5. Kumblad, Linda
    et al.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Bioaccurnulation of Cr-51, Ni-63 and C-14 in Baltic Sea benthos2005In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 134, no 1, p. 45-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is a species-poor, semi-enclosed, brackish sea, whose sediments contain a wide range of contaminants, including sediment-associated metals and radionuclides. In this study, we have examined and compared bioaccumulation kinetics and assimilation efficiencies of sediment-associated Cr-51 Ni-63 and C-14 in three key benthic invertebrates (the deposit-feeding Monoporeia affinis, the facultative deposit-feeding Macoma baltica, and the omnivorous Halicryptus spinulosus). Our results demonstrate that (i) all radionuclides were accumulated, (ii) the different radionuclides were accumulated to various extents, (iii) small changes in organic carbon concentration can influence the accumulation, and (iv) the degree of accumulation differed only slightly between species. These processes, together with sediment resuspension and bioturbation, may remobilise trace metals from the sediment to the water and to higher trophic levels, and therefore should be taken into account in exposure models and ERAs.

  • 6.
    Thorsson, Maria H.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Hedman, Jenny E.
    Stockholm University.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Effects of settling organic matter on the bioaccumulation of cadmium and BDE-99 by Baltic Sea benthic invertebrates2008In: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 264-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Settling organic matter (OM) is the major food source for heterotrophic benthic fauna. The high sorption affinity of many contaminants for OM implies that OM can influence both the distribution and bioavailability of contaminants. Here, we experimentally examine the role of settling OM of various nutritional qualities on the bioaccumulation of cadmium and the flame retardant BDE-99 by three benthic invertebrates; Macoma balthica, Monoporeia affinis and Marenzelleria sp. Contaminants were associated with three types of OM; a microalgae (Tetraselmis spp.), lignin and sediment. Bioaccumulation of Cd was proportional to OM nutritional quality for all three species, and was species-specific in the order Marenzelleria > M. balthica > M. affinis. BDE-99 bioaccumulation was highest in the treatment with the most nutritious OM (Tetraselmis). Consequently, both benthic species composition and the nutritive value of organic matter settling to the seafloor can have a substantial effect on the bioaccurnulation of both metals and organic contaminants.

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