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  • 1. Alonzo, Frederic
    et al.
    Hertel-Aas, T.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Gilbin, R.
    Oughton, D. H.
    Garnier-Laplace, J.
    Modelling the propagation of effects of chronic exposure to ionising radiation from individuals to populations2008In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 99, no 9, p. 1464-1473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the potential effect of ionising radiation on population growth using simple population models and parameter values derived from chronic exposure experiments in two invertebrate species with contrasting life-history strategies. In the earthworm Eisenia fetida, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing gamma dose rate (up to 0.6 generation times at 11 mGy h(-1)). Population extinction was predicted at 43 mGy h(-1). In the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing alpha dose rate (up to 0.8 generation times at 15.0 mGy h(-1)), only after two successive generations were exposed. The study examined population effects of changes in different individual endpoints (including survival, number of offspring produced and time to first reproduction). Models showed that the two species did not respond equally to equivalent levels of change, the fast growing daphnids being more susceptible to reduction in fecundity or delay in reproduction than the slow growing earthworms. This suggested that susceptibility of a population to ionising radiation cannot be considered independent of the species' life history.

  • 2.
    Björk, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl assimilation from water and algal food by the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)1999In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 765-771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel method was used to estimate assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of dissolved and food associated PCBs (IUPAC 31, 49, and 153) by the Baltic Sea blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). Mussels were exposed to radiolabeled PCBs in a series of shortterm toxicokinetic experiments at different algal food concentrations, both at apparent steady-state (ASS) and non-steady-state (NSS) conditions in respect to PCB partitioning between water and algae. The PCB AEs were calculated using a physiologically based bioaccumulation model where experimentally determined uptake and exposure rates at ASS and NSS conditions were combined into linear equation systems, which were solved for PCB AE from water and food. A positive relationship between PCB uptake and algae clearance by the mussels was observed for all three PCBs. The PCB AEs from both water and food increased with congener hydrophobicity (octanol/water partition coefficient [K-ow]), but AEs decreased with increases in water pumping and filtration rate of the mussels, respectively. The average contribution of food-associated PCB to the total uptake also increased with K-ow from approximately 30% for PCB 31 and PCB 49 to 50% for PCB 153, mainly as a consequence of increased sorption to the algal food.

  • 3.
    Björk, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University College, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Overview of Ecological RiskCharacterisation Methodologies: ERICA deliverable 4b2005Report (Other academic)
  • 4. Björk, Mikael
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Näf, Carin
    In situ determination of PCB biodeposition by Mytilus edulis in a Baltic coastal ecosystem2000In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 194, p. 193-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodeposits of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and pelagic and near-bed settling particulate matter were collected in situ over a 1 yr period in a coastal area of the Northern Baltic proper. The amounts of carbon and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in the collected biodeposits were compared to those in pelagic and near-bed settling material and rates of carbon and PCB biodeposition by mussels were estimated. The filter-feeding activity and subsequent release of faecal matter by the mussels increased gross sedimentation of carbon to benthos by 45 % if compared to areas with no mussels. By selectively feeding on particles rich in organic carbon the mussels also concentrated associated contaminants and thereby increased gross sedimentation of PCBs by 50 %. This suggests that mussel biodeposition will enhance the availability of PCBs to benthic deposit feeders living in or in the vicinity of mussel beds. Extrapolation of the experimental results to the total Swedish coastal zone of the Baltic proper indicates that mussel biodeposition is responsible for a significant part of PCB net sedimentation, i.e. 17 % or 96 kg yr(-1). Consequently, even when seen from a large geographical scale, mussels are important modifiers of PCB cycling by directing considerable amounts of PCBs towards the benthic food web and thereby influencing the retention time of these and probably many other contaminants in the coastal zone. It is also Likely that changes in mussel biomass, for example owing to shifts in primary production or salinity, will markedly affect the transport and fate of contaminants in the Baltic Sea.

  • 5.
    Björnberg, Karin Edvardsson
    et al.
    KTH.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH.
    Climate and environmental science denial: A review of the scientific literature published in 1990–20152017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 167, p. 229-241Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Denial of scientific findings is neither a new nor an unexplored phenomenon. In the area of environmental science and policy though, the research on denial has not been systematically summarized and analyzed. This article reviews 161 scientific articles on environmental and climate science denial published in peer reviewed international journals in the last 25 years and aims to both identify research gaps and enable learning on the phenomenon. Such knowledge is needed for the increasingly important task to provide effective response to science denial, in order to put an end to its influence on environmental policy making. The review, which is based on articles found in the databases Web of Science, Scopus and Philosopher's Index, shows that denial by far is most studied in relation to climate change, with a focus on Anglo-American countries, where this form of denial is most common. Other environmental issues and other geographical areas have received much less scientific attention. While the actors behind climate science denial, their various motives and the characteristics of their operations have been thoroughly described, more comparative research between issues and countries is needed in order to draw reliable conclusions about the factors explaining the peculiarities of denial. This may in turn lay the ground for developing and actually testing the effectiveness and efficiency of strategies to counter environmental science denial. Irrespective of the ambitions of environmental goals, science-based policies are always preferable. The scientific community therefore needs to increase its efforts to dismantle false claims and to disclose the schemes of denialists.

  • 6.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Responsible procurement and complex product chains: the case of chemical risks in textiles2012In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Towards responsible procurement in relation to chemical risks in textiles?: Findings from an interview study2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we ask whether and how different organizations work with sustainable procurement and how this work relates to the complexity of the product chain. We have chosen to focus on chemical risks in relation to textiles – an issue that increasingly is becoming part of the public discourse and a target for journalists. In the case of textiles, the product chain from raw material to consumption often involves a great number of production steps, sub-contractors and users, often on a global scale. Sustainable management of the supply chain would improve health, quality of life, and labour conditions, for instance in the areas and factories in developing countries where production and processing often take place. However, such management faces great difficulties and challenges in terms of capabilities, knowledge, communication, and policy instruments. These difficulties are related to high uncertainties and other problems that in turn are related to the high complexity of global product chains. The objective of the present report is to gain insights into the opportunities and challenges that private and public organizations face regarding the development of responsible procurement in relation to a complex and uncertain issue. The report focuses on chemicals in textiles and uses a qualitative methodology with semi-structured interviews. Key elements of a pro-active, responsible procurement strategy are defined in the report and include criteria such as using a preventive, systematic, responsive, integrative, and reflective approach. The analysis includes the following topics: (i) priorities and knowledge, (ii) communicative strategies, (iii) policy instruments, (iv) monitoring and trust in relation to suppliers. The results show a fairly modest level of organizational responsibility, although it is possible to observe an initial positive development among the cases investigated. The report ends by suggesting a number of topics that require further investigation.

  • 8.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hedenström, Eva
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    How to achieve sustainable procurement for “peripheral” products with significant environmental impacts2015In: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, ISSN 1548-7733, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from previous theoretical and empirical studies on sustainable supply-chain management, we investigate organizational commitment (drivers and motivations) and capabilities (resources, structures, and policy instruments) in sustainable procurement of “noncore” products. By focusing on chemicals in textiles, the article explores the activi-ties of differently sized organizations and discusses the potentials and limitations of sustainable procurement measures. The study is based on a qualitative and comparative approach, with empirical findings from 26 case stud-ies of Swedish public and private procurement organizations. These organizations operate in the sectors of hotels/ conference venues, transport, cinema, interior design, and hospitals/daycare. While this work demonstrates major challenges for buyers to take into account peripheral items in sustainable procurement, it also identifies constructive measures for moving forward. A general sustainability/environmental focus can, as an effect, spill over to areas per-ceived as peripheral. © 2014 Boström et al.

  • 9.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Örebro universitet.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    IKEA and the Responsible Governance of Supply Chains: IKEA’s work on chemicals in textiles2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report focuses on IKEA’s management and communication surrounding sustainability in general and chemical risks specifically. IKEA’s work is analysed in relation to theoretical concepts around responsibility, supply chain, and governance . The report focuses on IKEA’s visions and organizational structures, its policy instruments to deal with chemical risks, supplier-relations and communication and learning. The study is based on previous scholarly literature, analyses of relevant documents, a field visit at a few of IKEA’s suppliers in southern India, as well as interviews with staff working at IKEA in Sweden. The report focuses on IKEA’s systems and processes for dealing with chemical risks, and not on the implementation of such measures in quantitative terms.

  • 10.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Knowledge challenges for responsible supply chain management of chemicals in textiles - as experienced by procuring organisations2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, p. 130-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A great number of chemicals - many of which are hazardous to human health and the environment - are used along the complex supply chains of textiles. These complexities and hazards make knowledge for understanding chemical properties and management practices at multiple nodes central to the responsible management of textile supply chains. This study investigates the knowledge requirements of, and the knowledge strategies used by, textile procuring organisations in response to both external stakeholders and internal pressure. Based on a qualitative study of small and medium-sized Swedish textile procuring organisations, the paper describes these knowledge challenges and analyses how efforts to meet them relate to expressed commitments and capabilities for responsible supply chain management (RSCM), as well as to organisational characteristics (i.e. whether the organisation is private or public, small or large, and whether textiles is a core or peripheral activity). It was found that several textile procuring organisations expressed commitment towards achieving RSCM. However, most organisations felt that they lacked capacity to rise to the challenge. There was a poor state of knowledge regarding many chemical substances and inherent difficulties in gaining knowledge of chemical risks and how to manage these. Moreover, the input of knowledge was limited and based on only a few key sources. Such factors proved to be obstacles for procuring organisations when attempting to facilitate responsible management upstream in complex supply chains.

  • 11. Castillo, Luisa Eugenia
    et al.
    Martinez, Eduardo
    Ruepert, Clemens
    Savage, Candida
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Pinnock, Margareth
    Solis, Efrain
    Water quality and macroinvertebrate community response following pesticide applications in a banana plantation, Limon, Costa Rica2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, no 1, p. 418-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pesticides used in banana production may enter watercourses and pose ecological risks for aquatic ecosystems. The occurrence and effects of pesticides in a stream draining a banana plantation was evaluated using chemical characterization, toxicity testing and macrobenthic community composition. All nematicides studied were detected in the surface waters of the banana plantation during application periods, with peak concentrations following applications. Toxicity tests were limited to the carbofuran application and no toxicity was observed with the acute tests used. However, since pesticide concentrations were generally below the lowest LC50 value for crustaceans but above calculated aquatic quality criteria, there remains a risk of chronic toxicity. Accurate ecological assessments of pesticide use in banana plantations are currently limited by the lack of local short-term chronic toxicity tests and tests using sensitive native species. Relatively constant levels of four pesticides (imazalil, thiabendazole, chlorpyrifos and propiconazole), which had toxic effects according to the 96h hydra and 21d daphnia chronic test, were recorded in the effluent of the packing plant throughout the study, indicating that the solid waste trap used in this facility was not effective in eliminating toxic chemicals. Certain taxa, such as Heterelmis sp. (Elmidae), Heteragrion sp. (Megapodagrionidae, Odonata), Caenis sp. (Caenidae, Ephemerotera), and Smicridea sp. (Hidropsychidae, Trichoptera), were more abundant at reference sites than in the banana farm waters, and may be good candidates for toxicity testing. Multivariate analyses of the macroinvertebrate communities clearly showed that the banana plantation sites were significantly different from the reference sites. Moreover, following the pesticide applications, all the banana plantation sites showed significant changes in community composition, with the same genera being affected at all sites and for all pesticides (terbufas, cadusafos and carbofuran). Consequently, the results presented here show that multivariate analysis of community composition was more sensitive in distinguishing pesticide effects than the toxicity tests and richness and composition measures used. We conclude that monitoring macroinvertebrate communities can be a powerful tool in the assessment of ecological effects of banana production.

  • 12. Coppelstone, David
    et al.
    Björk, Mikael
    Södertörn University College, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University College, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Ecological Risk Characterisation: An Interim Method for the ERICA Integrated Approach: ERICA deliverable D4a2005Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political science.
    Gilek, MichaelSödertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.Rudén, Christina
    Regulating chemical risks: European and global challenges2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 14. Gardeström, Johanna
    et al.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    A multilevel approach to predict toxicity in copepod populations: Assessment of growth, genetics, and population structure2006In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the goals of environmental risk assessment (ERA) is to understand effects of toxicant exposure on individual organisms and populations. We hypothesized that toxicant exposure can reduce genetic diversity and alter genotype composition, which may ultimately lead to a reduction in the average fitness of the exposed population. To test this hypothesis, we exposed a copepod, Nitocra psammophila, to a toxic reference compound and assayed resulting alterations in genetic structure, i.e. expected heterozygosity and percent polymorphic loci, as well as other population- and fitness-related measures, i.e. population abundance, demographic structure and juvenile growth. The copepods were exposed to 0.11-1.1 mu g of the pentabromo-substituted diphenyl ether (BDE-47) mg(-1) freeze-dried algae for 24 days (i.e. > 1 generation). There was no significant decline in total population abundance. However, there were significant alterations in population structure, manifested as diminished proportion of nauplii and increased proportion of copepodites. In addition, individual RNA content in copepodites decreased significantly in exposed individuals, indicating declined growth. Finally, in the exposed populations, heterozygosity was lower and genotype composition was altered compared to the controls. These results therefore confirm the hypothesized reduction in overall genetic variability resulting from toxicant exposure. Multilevel approaches, such as the one used in the present study, may help unravel subtle effects on the population level, thus increasing the predictive capacity of future ERA.

  • 15. Garnier-Laplace, J.
    et al.
    Copplestone, D.
    Gilbin, R.
    Alonzo, F.
    Ciffroy, P.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Agueero, A.
    Björk, Mikael
    Oughton, D. H.
    Jaworska, A.
    Larsson, C. M.
    Hingston, J. L.
    Issues and practices in the use of effects data from FREDERICA in the ERICA Integrated Approach2008In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 99, no 9, p. 1474-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ERICA Integrated Approach requires that a risk assessment screening dose rate is defined for the risk characterisation within Tiers 1 and 2. At Tier 3, no numerical screening dose rate is used, and the risk characterisation is driven by methods that can evaluate the possible effects of ionising radiation on reproduction, mortality and morbidity. Species sensitivity distribution has been used to derive the ERICA risk assessment predicted no-effect dose rate (PNEDR). The method used was based on the mathematical processing of data from FRED (FASSET radiation effects database merged with the EPIC database to form FREDERICA) and resulted in a PNEDR of 10 mu Gy/h. This rate was assumed to ascribe sufficient protection of all ecosystems from detrimental effects on structure and function under chronic exposure. The value was weighed against a number of points of comparison: (i) PNEDR values obtained by application of the safety factor method, (ii) background levels, (iii) dose rates triggering effects on radioactively contaminated sites and (iv) former guidelines from literature reviews. In Tier 3, the effects analysis must be driven by the problem formulation and is thus highly case specific. Instead of specific recommendations on numeric values, guidance on the sorts of methods that may be applied for refined effect analysis is Provided and illustrated.

  • 16. Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockhom University.
    Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve
    Larsson, Carl-Magnus
    Assessing ecological effects of radionuclides: data gaps and extrapolation issues2004In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 24, no 4A, p. A139-A155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By inspection of the FASSET database on radiation effects on non-human biota, one of the major difficulties in the implementation of ecological risk assessments for radioactive pollutants is found to be the lack of data for chronic low-level exposure. A critical review is provided of a number of extrapolation issues that arise in undertaking an ecological risk assessment: acute versus chronic exposure regime; radiation quality including relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors; biological effects from an individual to a population level, including radiosensitivity and lifestyle variations throughout the life cycle; single radionuclide versus multi-contaminants. The specificities of the environmental situations of interest (mainly chronic low-level exposure regimes) emphasise the importance of reproductive parameters governing the demography of the population within a given ecosystem and, as a consequence, the structure and functioning of that ecosystem. As an operational conclusion to keep in mind for any site-specific risk assessment, the present state-of-the-art on extrapolation issues allows us to grade the magnitude of the uncertainties as follows: one species to another > acute to chronic = external to internal = mixture of stressors > individual to population > ecosystem structure to function.

  • 17.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Environmental Risk Governance of the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Final report : Deliverable 122012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea area is still unable to fully support implementation of the ecosystem approach to management. Hence, the aims of the international RISKGOV project were: 1) to improve our understanding of environmental risk governance and its challenges in the Baltic Sea; 2) to suggest possible avenues for improvement.

    These aims were addressed by integrating social and natural science approaches on five strategically selected environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges).

    The findings, recommendations and dissemination products of RISKGOV are described in detail in the Final report (http://www.sh.se/riskgov). Researchers from Södertörn University were involved in all case studies and cross-case comparisons. In summary, RISKGOV concludes that it is necessary to improve the robustness and responsiveness of governance practices to achieve sustainable ecosystem management. Specifically, RISKGOV recommends that: (i) Governance structures need to move towards more reflexive governance by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration, and interaction space for reflexivity. This is, for example, exemplified by increased interactions between HELCOM and the EU aiming at the combination of mandatory regulation and voluntary agreements; (ii) Assessment-management interactions require improvements e.g. relating to the regional and interdisciplinary knowledge-base, stakeholder participation and coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement; (iii) Stakeholder participation and communication require improvements in terms of a more integrated system of stakeholder input possibly via an expansion of HELCOM’s stakeholder involvement policy and enhanced efforts to communicate environmental issues to the general public. Implications of these general recommendations for specific actors and stakeholders were analysed and developed through thematic roundtable discussions.

  • 18.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Extrapolation issues2003In: Radiation Effects on Plants and Animals: FASSET deliverable 4 / [ed] Dennis Woodhead, Irene Zinger, European Commission , 2003, p. 163-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    RISKGOV – Environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Engkvist, Fanny
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Kern, Kristine
    The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan: challenges of implementing an innovative ecosystem approach2013In: Political State of the Region Report 2013: Trends and Directions in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Bernd Henningsen, Tobias Etzold and Anna-Lena Pohl, Copenhagen: Baltic Development Forum , 2013, p. 58-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jentoft, Svein
    Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, 900 Tromsø. Norway.
    Marine Environmental Governance in Europe: Problems and Opportunities2015In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, 1, p. 249-264Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hassler, BjörnSödertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.Jönsson, Anna MariaSödertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.Karlsson, MikaelSödertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    AMBIO Special Issue: Coping with Complexity in Baltic Sea Risk Governance2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Coping with complexity in baltic sea risk governance: Introduction2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 109-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Jones, Celia
    Allard, Ann Sofie
    Gunnarsson, Jonas
    Lenoir, Linette
    Persson, Tryggve
    Taylor, Astrid
    Yesilova, Håkan
    Metodik för miljöriskbedömning av förorenade områden2009Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Seeking Pathways Towards Improved Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, 1, p. 229-246Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governing marine environments is a highly complex and challenging enterprise. This applies particularly to the heavily exploited Baltic Sea for which despite extensive governance arrangements and a substantial scientific knowledge base, it is unlikely that the policy objective of ‘good environmental status’ is reached. Based on a review of governance arrangements linked to five large-scale environmental issues (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive alien species, chemical pollution and oil spills from shipping), this chapter aims to identify pathways and concrete ideas for institutional reform that may improve goal fulfilment. The results show that governance challenges differ substantially between environmental issues, implying a need for case-specific management reforms. For example, coping with extreme uncertainty is a key challenge in the chemical pollution case, whereas it seems more pertinent in the eutrophication case to address the complexity of nutrient pollution sources by adapting objectives and measures amongst sectoral policies to be in line with environmental ones. Furthermore, cross-case comparisons reveal a set of common vital functions (i.e. coordination, integration, interdisciplinarity, precaution, deliberation, communication and adaptability) that are needed in order to facilitate effective and efficient environmental governance in the long term. To promote these functions in Baltic Sea environmental governance, the chapter suggests pathways and institutional reforms aimed at improving multilevel and multisectoral integration, science-policy interactions and stakeholder participation. To further develop these ideas, it is proposed amongst other things that priority is given to setting up an international ‘Baltic Sea Policy Review Mechanism’, formed by cross-body and cross-stakeholder participation.

  • 26.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Linke, Sebastian
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    Gdansk University, Poland.
    Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea2016 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This edited volume presents a comprehensive and coherent interdisciplinary analysis of

    challenges and possibilities for sustainable governance of the Baltic Sea ecosystem by

    combining knowledge and approaches from natural and social sciences. Focusing on

    the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM) and associated multi-level, multi-sector

    and multi-actor challenges, the book provides up-to-date descriptions and analyses of

    environmental governance structures and processes at the macro-regional Baltic Sea

    level. Organised in two parts, Part 1 presents in-depth case studies of environmental

    governance practices and challenges linked to five key environmental problems -

    eutrophication, chemical pollution, overfishing, oil discharges and invasive species.

    Part 2 analyses and compares governance challenges and opportunities across the five

    case studies, focusing on governance structures and EAM implementation, knowledge

    integration and science support, as well as stakeholder communication and participation.

    Based on these cross-case comparisons, this book also draws a set of general conclusions

    on possible ways of improving the governance of the Baltic Sea by promoting what are

    identified as vital functions of environmental governance: coordination, integration,

    interdisciplinarity, precaution, deliberation, communication and adaptability.

  • 27.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Linke, Sebastian
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    Gdansk University, Poland.
    Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea: Identifying Key Challenges, Research Topics and Analytical Approaches2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, 1, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea ecosystem is subject to a wide array of societal pressures and associated environmental risks (e.g. eutrophication, oil discharges, chemical pollution, overfishing and invasive alien species). Despite several years of substantial efforts by state and non-state actors, it is still highly unlikely that the regionally agreed environmental objectives of reaching “good environmental status” by 2021 in the HELCOM BSAP (Baltic Sea Action Plan) and by 2020 in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) will be met. This chapter identifies key research topics, as well as presents analytical perspectives for analysing the gap between knowledge and action in Baltic Sea environmental governance. It does so by outlining important trends and key challenges associated with Baltic Sea environmental governance, as well as by summarising the scope and results of individual chapters of this interdisciplinary volume. The analysis reveals the development of increasingly complex governance arrangements and the ongoing implementation of the holistic Ecosystem Approach to Management, as two general trends that together contribute to three key challenges associated with (1) regional and cross - sectoral coordination and collaboration, (2) coping with complexity and uncertainty in science-policy interactions and (3) developing communication and knowledge sharing among stakeholder groups. Furthermore, to facilitate analysis of environmental governance opportunities and obstacles both within and across specific environmental issues, this chapter reviews the scientific literature to pinpoint key research issues and questions linked to the identified governance challenges.

  • 28.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Linke, Sebastian
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Science and Policy in the Governance of Europe’s Marine Environment: The Impact of Europeanization, Regionalization and the Ecosystem Approach to Management2015In: Governing Europe’s Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, p. 141-160Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Kern, Kristine
    Wageningen University, Holland.
    Environment2011In: Political State of the Region Report 2011 / [ed] Bernd Henningsen & Tobias Etzold, Köpenhamn: Baltic Development Forum , 2011, p. 68-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Linke, Sebastian
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Lundberg, Cecilia
    Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Lemke, Paulina
    Gdansk University, Poland.
    Interactions between risk assessment and risk management for environmental risks in the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Deliverable 92011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report has been produced within the interdisciplinary RISKGOV project with the overall aim of comparing risk assessment – risk management interactions connected with five severe Baltic Sea environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges linked to marine transports).

    Specifically, we compare three major aspects connected with assessment  – management interactions and, based on this analysis, suggest possible routes for improving interaction between science-based advice and environmental (risk) management:

    1. Organisational structure of the risk assessment activities and the generation, selection and implementation of management options.
    2. The management of scientific uncertainties and disagreements.
    3. Implementation of the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) and modes of ‘good governance’.

    In order to understand these aspects we started by describing and analysing the characteristics of the five risk cases. This revealed substantial differences in terms of sources, effects and complexities (in terms of scientific uncertainty and socio-political ambiguity). For example, chemical risks are associated with great uncertainty and oil spill with much lower; fisheries relate to very high socio-political ambiguity, whereas invasive species show the opposite nature and oil spill fit with more traditional risk parameters. Our analysis also revealed a great variation in the societal risk responses, which far from always seems rational in relation to the risk characteristics.

    When it comes to the organisational structures, we can conclude that different forms of institutions and institutional arrangements and relations have evolved over time in the various cases, for instance relatively well-formalised in the overfishing case, and rather informal for combating eutrophication. Similarly, we see different forms of expert dependencies. In the overfishing case there are institutionalised formal links between e.g. ICES and the EU Commission and the historic path-dependency is quite strong, thereby causing institutional inertia, even though the development of Regional Advisory Councils (RACs) such as the Baltic RAC are gradually changing the picture. In relation to many other environmental risk cases (e.g. eutrophication and chemicals) HELCOM provides a regional basis for assessment and management (although implementation of management recommendations have often proved complex). Still, assessment-management interactions seem more developed and better organised in the overfishing case, even though it is obvious that the last link, the political decision-making on quotas, has deviated substantially from the science-based advice, thereby opening for continued overfishing. Similarly, well-developed institutions seem to allow for improved deliberative processes for fisheries, including improved analysis of socio-economic dimensions, which we cannot find to the same extent for e.g. chemicals, eutrophication and invasive species.

    The assessment and management responses we see to the studied risks do not seem to be based on any thorough analysis of the specific risk characteristics, or on the suitability of different overall strategies (e.g. traditional science-based assessment, precautionary, deliberative). Instead, all studied assessment-management interactions can be classified as being built primarily on traditional science-based assessment of risks. Of course, we see elements of for example precaution in e.g. the chemicals case, and deliberation in the fish case, and the inclusion of the EAM as a starting point for assessment exercises and management decisions is becoming more common, but overall this happens only partially and infrequently.

    Thus, to summarise, we conclude that there are substantial differences among environmental risks in relation to, for example, complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity, and we argue that it is important to maintain a balance between ideals of holistic approaches such as EAM and context dependent requirements of various management objectives, environmental risks and sectors. For example, high levels of uncertainty (e.g. chemical pollution) and ambiguity (e.g. overfishing) can be assumed to require assessment-management approaches focussed on precaution and participatory deliberation, respectively.

    Furthermore, our analysis identifies six key issues and challenges that, if adequately addressed, may improve assessment-management interactions and facilitate the implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.

    1. We see a need to further develop the regional and ecosystem basis of assessment-management interactions in terms of addressing prioritised knowledge gaps, as well as developing regional knowledge management and monitoring to strengthen regionally-based scientific advice.

    2. Integration of various forms of scientific knowledge is currently rather undeveloped in assessment and scientific advice, which reduces possibilities of addressing also the social dimension of sustainable development as well as possibilities of identifying and reducing ‘blind spots’.

    3. Stakeholder participation requires more consideration since incorporation of practitioner and local knowledge in risk assessments as well as stakeholder deliberation in risk management often are vital for the successful implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.

    4. We identify substantial room for improvements linked to coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement in both risk assessment and risk management. We conclude that there in fact are examples of science-based precautionary approaches and methods, but that a comprehensive and coherent strategy for addressing uncertainty is often lacking.

    5. Interdependencies among environmental risk issues need to be more specifically addressed than today. Climate change will, for example, influence both the outcome of risk assessments as well as the possibilities for successful management in all the studied environmental risk cases.

    6. Despite a commonly expressed idea of a clear separation between assessment and management, the studied science-policy interactions are in general rather diffuse and politicised. This lack of transparency about how these interactions evolve and are constructed may mislead political decision makers and the public and thus potentially hamper management progress.

  • 31.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Littorin, Bengt
    Saetre, Peter
    Spatial patterns of abundance and growth of Mytilus edulis on boulders in the Northern Baltic Sea proper2001In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 452, no 1-3, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small scale spatial patterns of abundance, growth and condition of the mussel Mytilus edulis on sub-littoral boulders (approx. 1-2 m high) were investigated at the island of Asko in the northern Baltic proper. The effect of side (exposed/sheltered with respect to wave action and sunlight) of boulder and position (up/down) on boulder was investigated. A large spatial variability in abundance of M. edulis between boulders and between various sites within boulders were found. The highest numbers of mussels were found on the wave exposed side, near the top of boulders. Shell growth was favoured by a sheltered side and a down position. The body condition (meat weight/shell weight) of mussels was, on the other hand, affected only by position, the condition of mussels being better at the up position. Consequently, there seems to be temporal differences in the condition for growth within a spatial position. The body condition of the mussels was best near the top of boulders in the spring, but long-term shell growth was favoured by a sheltered side and a down position. This may reflect changes in the composition and availability of food during the year with phytoplankton as the major food source during the spring bloom and resuspension of benthic production and detritus as relatively more important during the rest of the year.

  • 32.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The Ecosystem Approach and Sustainable Development in Baltic Sea Marine Spatial Planning: The Social Pillar, a ‘Slow Train Coming’2018In: The Ecosystem Approach in Ocean Planning and Governance: Perspectives from Europe and Beyond / [ed] David Langlet and Rosemary Rayfuse, Nijhoff: Brill Nijhoff, 2018, p. 160-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter develops an analytical framework, drawing on the multidimensional role of integration, to explore how the Ecosystem Approach (EA) is variously conceived and practiced in marine spatial planning (MSP) in the Baltic Sea region (BSR). This framework is used to examine how EA practices reflect differing conceptions of sustainable development (SD) in Baltic marine and coastal areas. This work intersects with several of the other chapters on marine planning in this volume by explicitly exploring links between EA and SD through examination of in-depth BSR case studies. Results reveal that EA principles for MSP developed at the international level (HELCOM/VASAB) and in some national MSP settings (e.g. Latvia), combined with a common assumption of ecological limits to development, largely acknowledge a wide definition of EA as a governance approach building on societal choice and diverse knowledge inclusion (as seen e.g. in the Malawi principles). However, looking at more specific guidelines and MSP practices, there is a significant gap between espoused principles and the practical implementation of EA in BSR MSP, especially regarding social aspects of sustainability such as participation, social inclusion and knowledge pluralism. While work on ecological services in EA looks promising as a means of developing joined-up thinking between ecological and economic interests, it is uncertain whether this approach can deliver on EA’s social sustainability ambitions. We conclude the chapter by discussing ways that could strengthen the social pillar in MSP as a form of governance to bridge the gap between EA principles and practice.

  • 33.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Kautsky, Nils
    Physiological performance and general histology of the blue mussle, Mytilus Edulis L, from the Baltic and North seas1992In: Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, ISSN 0077-7579, Vol. 30, p. 11-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A physiological approach has been proposed for studying the ecological consequences of diseases and parasitism in bivalve molluscs. We investigated effects of some naturally occurring non-lethal parasites and histological changes in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., on some commonly used bivalve condition indices, viz the oxygen:nitrogen ratio, the scope for growth and the body condition index. We found no correlation between these physiological condition indices, which implies that an individual can be classified as in 'good condition' according to e.g. the O:N ratio and the body condition index, while at the same time this mussel may have a low scope for growth indicating a stressed status. This is probably because the O:N ratio, the scope for growth and the body condition index integrate metabolic processes over different periods of time. No general deleterious effects on these condition indices could be detected either due to parasitic infestation or general histological changes. Hence, it was not possible to translate detrimental effects of histological conditions directly into energy equivalents.

  • 34. Gunnarsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Björk, Mikael
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Granberg, Maria
    Rosenberg, Rutger
    Effects of eutrophication on contaminant cycling in marine benthic systems2000In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 29, no 4-5, p. 252-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of inputs of organic matter were studied on bioavailability and cycling of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in benthic ecosystems of the Baltic and Kattegat Seas. In laboratory experiments, effects of microalgae additions were studied on the bioaccumulation of HOCs (PCBs and PAHs) by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the brittle star Amphiura filiformis, and the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Contrary to the equilibrium partitioning theory, bioaccumulation was proportional to the concentrations of algae and organic carbon. This was attributed to the high nutritional quality of the algal organic carbon and suggests that feeding rather than equilibrium partitioning governed bioaccumulation in these species. In the field, annual mass fluxes of PCBs in blue mussels and in brittle stars were estimated, as well as contaminant transfer to higher trophic levels. Our results suggest that: I) Eutrophication processes may contribute to increase HOC accumulation in benthic species. ii) Temporal variation in the quantity and quality of organic carbon needs to be considered when assessing contamination of benthic systems. ill) Macrofaunal feeding activities are important for the benthic-pelagic coupling of HOCs. iv) Bioturbation enhances the release of HOCs from sediment to overlying water.

  • 35. Gustafsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Björk, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Burreau, Sven
    Gilek, Michael
    Bioaccumulation kinetics of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)1999In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 1218-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, IUPAC congeners 47, 99, and 153) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners 31, 52, 77, 118, and 153) in a flow-through experimental setup for 44 d. After the exposure phase, the mussels were allowed to depurate in natural brackish water for 26 d. After analyses, uptake clearance rate coefficients (k(u)), depuration rate coefficients (k(d)), and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated. A rapid uptake of all PBDEs and PCBs was observed, especially for PBDE congeners 47 and 99 (k(a) 120 and 170 L/day/g dry weight, respectively). The depuration rare decreased with increasing hydrophobicity as expected for the PCBs, bur for the PBDEs, depuration rate coefficients appeared to be of the same magnitude for all three congeners independently of log K-ow. The BAFs obtained for PBDE 47 and PBDE 99 (1.3 x 10(6) and 1.4 x 10(6) ml/g dry weight, respectively) were higher than for all other substances in the study, severalfold higher than for PCBs of similar hydrophobicity. The presented data indicate that the bioaccumulation potential of PBDEs, extensively used as flame retardants, is similar or higher than that of PCBs for filter feeding organisms such as blue mussels.

  • 36.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Towards improved environmental risk governance of the Baltic Sea: RISKGOV Deliverable 112012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving towards sustainable ecosystem governance practices is potentially a complex and time consuming endeavour. The RISKGOV project identified three main governance challenges linked to implementing an ecosystem approach to management in the medium to long term time span (i.e. years to decades), that, if adequately addressed by actors and stakeholders, could help improve the governance of environmental problems and risks in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Firstly, fostering a move towards reflexive and adaptive governance structures and processes by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration and forming spaces for interaction and dialogue. Secondly, strengthening the regional and ecosystem basis of knowledge generation and management is needed, including integration of various forms of scientific knowledge, stakeholder input, and increased attention to interdependencies among environmental problems and risks to better address uncertainties and disagreements. Thirdly, to develop a more integrated system of stakeholder input and communication, e.g. in the form of a “regional marine advisory council”, to face issues of inclusiveness, create a common concern for the Baltic ecosystem, improve the motivation and capacity, and improve coordination across scales and sectors.

  • 37.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Blažauskas, N.
    Klaipėda University Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Lithuania.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Janßen, H.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Luttmann, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Piwowarczyk, J.
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, H.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE D2:2: Ambitions and Realities in Baltic Sea Marine Spatial Planning and the Ecosystem Approach: Policy and Sector Coordination in Promotion of Regional Integration2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the BONUS BALTSPACE project and is focused on challenges for policy and sector integration in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning (MSP). The main objectives have been to identify concrete coordination problems, to analyse why they have emerged and to discuss possible remedies. It is based on selected aspects extracted from case studies carried out in this project related to the development of regional MSP approaches in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden and on an additional case study on the HELCOM-VASAB Working Group on MSP. To facilitate the analysis of vertical policy interactions between institutions at different levels as well as of horizontal interactions over sector and country borders, an analytical framework was constructed. This framework consists of two main components; (a) institution-driven coordination where institutions such as global treaties, the EU, regional organisations, and state authorities provide boundaries for decisions taken at lower levels and (b) benefit-driven coordination capturing horizontal coordination across sector and country borders.

  • 38.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    Collective action and agency in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning: Transnational policy coordination in the promotion of regional coherence2018In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 92, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increasing attention given to marine spatial planning and the widely acknowledged need for transnational policy coordination, regional coherence has not yet improved a great deal in the Baltic Sea region. Therefore, the main objectives in this article are: (a) to map existing governance structures at all levels that influence how domestic marine spatial planning policy strategies are formed, (b) to identify specific challenges to improved regional cooperation and coordination, and (c) to discuss possible remedies. Based on data from in-depth case studies carried out in the BONUS BALTSPACE research project, it is shown that, despite the shared goal of sustainability and efficient resource use in relevant EU Directives, action plans and other policy instruments, domestic plans are emerging in diverse ways, mainly reflecting varying domestic administrative structures, sectoral interests, political prioritisations, and handling of potentially conflicting policy objectives. A fruitful distinction can be made between, on the one hand, regulatory institutions and structures above the state level where decision-making mechanisms are typically grounded in consensual regimes and, on the other hand, bilateral, issue-specific collaboration, typically between adjacent countries. It is argued that, to improve overall marine spatial planning governance, these two governance components need to be brought together to improve consistency between regional alignment and to enhance opportunities for countries to collaborate at lower levels. Issue-specific transnational working groups or workshops can be one way to identify and act upon such potential synergies.

  • 39.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Lockne, Erika
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Rabe, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Problems and potential solutions to effective communication among stakeholders in the Baltic Sea shipping for reduced air pollution: Outcomes from a survey2013In: Clean Shipping Currents, ISSN 2242-9794, Vol. 2, no 5, p. -33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a web survey distributed to stakeholders in the Baltic Sea marine sector regarding environmental communication on air pollution from shipping. The survey was carried out in the spring and summer of 2012. Drawing on the literature on risk communication and environmental governance, the main focus was placed on so-called communication barriers, that is, possible hindrances to effective communication among stakeholders on how to reduce air pollution without threatening sector competitiveness. The results show that although there is a dense networking among stakeholders in this sector, there is a demand for improvements in communication in (a) exploratory phases among broad groups of stakeholders and (b) operational phases among selected groups of e.g. business and research teams. To facilitate the emergence of such improved communication, regional organizations such as HELCOM and EU could play important roles. Furthermore, it is shown that there is a perceived need among many stakehold­ers to step up the involvement of certain stakeholders, for example fuel companies, in collabora­tion on how to reduce pollution from shipping in cost-efficient ways. Finally, the results show that although continuous improvements of international regulation is a vital part of the governance of the marine sector, compliance will suffer if operators’ incentives are too strong in favor of not con­tributing to reduced pollution levels. Therefore, there is a strong need for innovative thinking on how to design such incentive schemes, not the least in relation to the continued implementation of Baltic Sea SECA and NECA as well as of the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

  • 40.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Cooperating for sustainable regional marine governance: The case of fisheries and nutrient runoff from agriculture to the Baltic Sea, Synthesis report2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over-fishing and eutrophication (too much nutrients) are among the most severe threats to the ecosystems of the Baltic Sea and the ecosystem services they provide. Despite the well-known fact that effective and sustainable management requires cooperation – among as well as within states – appropriate frameworks that work have not yet been constructed and successfully applied. This report summarises findings from a research project on cooperation for sustainable marine governance of the Baltic Sea carried out between 2013 and 2018. Three aspects of central relevance for the understanding of regional cooperation in environmental governance are distinguished: interests, knowledge and management. It is shown that it is not enough to design cooperative arrangements that make the group of users, stakeholders or states better off than without such an arrangement. It is furthermore required that all actors have individual interests to participate, and that free-riding on others’ contributions can be controlled. When this is not the case, effective abatement of eutrophication is not likely to be forthcoming, even though aggregated benefits from such measures are larger than expected costs.

    Knowledge often play important roles in marine environmental governance, not least in relation to so-called epistemic communities, that is, groups of experts that share a common understanding of the environmental problem at hand, and how to address it. It is shown that the coherence of the epistemic group can be a crucial factor influencing its impact. In both abatement of eutrophication and management of fish stocks, these expert groups have been somewhat divided, which has limited their impact.

    Modes of management can influence cooperation and outcomes in ways that can be difficult to predict. Although environmental taxes and subsidies are powerful policy instruments in contemporary governance, they must be carefully crafted to fit into exiting norms and contexts to be effective. It is shown that monetary incentives targeting farmers’ use of fertilisers tend not to be effective when they are at odds with deeply held norms on what constitute a “good farmer”. 

  • 41.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Får Östersjön en hållbar förvaltning2009In: Miljöforskning, ISSN 1650-4925, no 3-4, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lockne, Erika
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Communication among maritime stakeholders: Problems and solutions in the field of ship’s air emissions2013In: Pan-Baltic Manual of Best Practices on Clean Shipping and Port Operations / [ed] Breitzmann, K-H and M. Hytti, Turku: Union of the Baltic Cities , 2013, p. 98-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43. Hedman, Jenny E.
    et al.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Thorsson, Maria H.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Fate of contaminants in Baltic Sea sediments: role of bioturbation and settling organic matter2008In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 356, p. 25-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study examined the interactive effects of bioturbation and settling organic matter (OM) on the fate (burial and remobilisation) of 2 surface-deposited contaminants in Baltic Sea sediment: the metal Cd and a hydrophobic organic pollutant, the flame retardant BDE-99. Three macrofaunal species with diverse feeding and bioturbation strategies were used: the amphipod Monoporeia affinis, the clam Macoma balthica and the polychaete Marenzelleria spp. Radiolabelled contaminants were added to the sediment surface in association with 3 different OM types: (1) phytoplankton, (2) terrestrial lignin and (3) Baltic sediment. Bioturbation by all species increased the retention of both contaminants in the sediment, most effectively M affinis and M balthica. A decoupled transport of Cd and BDE-99 by Marenzelleria was observed. Generally, Marenzelleria buried the highest amount of Cd into the sediment but also caused the highest remobilisation to the water, indicating an effective transport of (soluble) Cd over the sediment-water interface via bioirrigation. Lack of the highly hydrophobic and mainly particle-associated BDE-99 below the sediment surface suggests that Marenzelleria caused no significant particle mixing. The addition of various OM types significantly affected the distribution of Cd, but not of BDE-99. There was an interactive effect between bioturbation (species) and OM type, generally showing an increased burial and release of Cd when associated with phytoplankton in the presence of Marenzelleria. Our results emphasise the importance of understanding the complex interactions between ecological (e.g. infaunal feeding and bioturbation activities) and physiochemical processes (contaminant speciation and sorption kinetics) when assessing the fate of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

  • 44. Jones, Celia
    et al.
    Allard, Ann Sofie
    Bengtsson, Bengt Erik
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas
    Förbättrade miljöriskbedömningar2006Report (Other academic)
  • 45. Jones, Celia
    et al.
    Allard, Ann Sofie
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas
    Lenoir, Linette
    Persson, Tryggve
    Taylor, Astrid
    Yesilova, Håkan
    Tillämpning av metodik för miljöriskbedömning på utvalda förorenade områden2009Report (Other academic)
  • 46. Jones, Celia
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockholm University.
    Overview of programmes for the assessment of risks to the environment from ionising radiation and hazardous chemicals2004In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 24, no 4A, p. A157-A177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the FASSET project, a review of existing programmes for the assessment of environmental risks from radioactive or hazardous substances was carried out in order to identify appropriate aspects that could be incorporated into the FASSET framework. The review revealed a number of different approaches, arising from the need to balance the information value of the assessment against the availability of data and the need to keep the assessment manageable. Most of the existing assessment programmes fit into a three-phase approach to environmental risk assessment: problem formulation, assessment and risk characterisation. However, the emphasis on particular assessment phases varies between programmes. The main differences between the different programmes are: the degree of specificity to a particular site, the level of detail of the assessment, the point at which a comparison is made between a criterion intended to represent 'what is acceptable' and a measured or predicted quantity, the choice of end-point for the assessment and the relationship between measurement end-points and assessment end-points. The existing assessment programmes are based on a similar general structure, which is suitable for use as a basis for the FASSET framework. However, certain aspects of the assessment of exposure and effects of ionising contaminants, e.g. dosimetry, require further development before incorporation into such a framework.

  • 47.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Miljörisker i Östersjön och möjlighet till hållbar förvaltning av naturresurser2009In: Miljöforskning, ISSN 1650-4925, no 3/4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH.
    Farligt när vetenskapen förnekas2017In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 6 septemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH.
    "Skolexempel på hur vetenskapsförnekare arbetar"2017In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 20 septemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Governance of Chemicals in the Baltic Sea Region: A Study of Three Generations of Hazardous Substances2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, 1, p. 97-123Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study zooms in on public governance in the Baltic Sea region of three generations of notorious hazardous substances, namely, PCBs, PBDEs and PFOS/PFOA. Following regulation, PCB concentrations in the Baltic Sea have decreased substantially although they are still above pre-industrial levels. PBDE levels have also decreased in some places, but they too are well above targeted levels, whereas the situation for PFOS and in particular for PFOA has hardly improved at all. In the case of PCBs, while comprehensive measures took long to implement, initial preventive measures were taken early based on the precautionary principle. This contrasts with the cases of PBDEs, PFOS and PFOA, where the burden of proof on policy-makers has been high and hence caused severe delays in policymaking. There has, however, generally been a positive interplay in all three cases between the EU, which has legislated, and HELCOM, which has taken the role of concept and agenda setting. While environment-oriented policies, such as the Ecosystem Approach to Management under MSFD and BSAP, have grown in importance over time, polluter-oriented chemical legislation has been more important when it comes to final decision-making. Nevertheless, the general response has been reactive rather than proactive, and there is no indication that society responds faster today than in the past, at least not given the fact that awareness, experience and knowledge are greater today than a few decades back. Based on that insight, the article discusses various options for improving governance.

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