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  • 1.
    Birksjö, David
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Löfgren, Helena
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Westberg, Karl
    Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth.
    The Swedish Innovation Paradox Revisited: A Discussion about Measurement Problems2012In: Entrepreneurship and innovation networks: revised papers presented at the 15th Uddevalla Symposium, 14-16 June, 2012, Faro, Portugal / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: University West , 2012, p. 95-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature in the field of innovation lacks clear definitions of how to classify different types of innovations and how they are operationalized and measured. This can create problems when innovation policies are developed.

    Recent responses to the Swedish paradox (Granberg and Jacobsson, 2006; McKelvey et al. 2007) – where investments in knowledge and R&D not in a corresponding manner contributes to innovations and economic growth – states that measurement problems may be the answer to the existence of this paradox. Innovations are often measured by number of patents, patent citations and R&D expenditures.

    In this paper we primarily focus on the number of patent applications as proxy for innovation to provide better information for decision making and research.

    The study consists of two empirical parts. One focusing on data covering the Swedish security industry and data on patents applications. The other part is a qualitative study where managers are interviewed about innovativeness within their company. This allows us to find innovations that are not showing in the patent data.

    Our study showed that major innovations were often introduced from other industries – implemented by large dominating companies – and they were seldom patented. Our quantitative data indicates a lower level of innovation that arguably could be assumed to be the case judging from our qualitative data which includes a number of unpatented innovations. Notwithstanding considerable measurement problems, it seems that the Swedish security industry is characterised by high growth in terms of number of firms but a relatively modest amount of patented innovations. Major innovations have rather come from other industries, or have not been patented and therefore they are not captured in statistics when using patent as a proxy for innovation. This study provides empirics from the Swedish security industry that indicates these claims.

    With this paper we want to provide a basis for discussion about the use of patent statistics as an indicator of innovation. We also suggest that the usage of patents as a proxy for innovations need to be further discussed and elaborated.

  • 2.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, ENTER (Center for Entrepreneurship).
    Att studera ägande och succession i små företag: ett nytt forskningsprojekt2011In: Business History in Sweden: Näringslivshistoria i Sverige / [ed] Mikael Lönnborg och Paulina Rytkönen, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2011, p. 257-274Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Bring in the brewers: business entry in the Swedish brewing industry from 1830 to 20122017In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 710-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses long-term business entry in the Swedish brewing industry, presenting new data on its organisational historiography. Since 1830, the rate of entry has varied considerably; entries increased progressively from the 1850s, and fell at a decreasing rate from the early twentieth century. An increasing tendency to enter the trade can be observed from the mid-1980s – in particular, there has been a considerable resurgence since the turn of the millennium. The article elaborates on explanations that are both exogenous and endogenous. Above all, the results provide support for the role of endogenous conditions. The results should be viewed as complementary to previous analyses of the (Swedish) brewing industry, which either have employed shorter analytical time-frames or have mainly focused on the role of exogenous conditions, such as changes in the institutional framework.

  • 4. Box, Marcus
    New Venture, Survival and Growth: Development of Six Cohorts of Swedish Business Firms2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 5. Box, Marcus
    New venture, survival, growth: continuance, termination and growth of business firms and business populations in Sweden during the 20th century2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    The death of firms: exploring the effects of environment and birth cohort on firm survival in Sweden2008In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 379-393Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Bankruptcies in Sweden, 1774–1849: Causes and structural differences2020In: Luxury, Fashion and the Early Modern Idea of Credit / [ed] Klas Nyberg; Håkan Jakobsson, London: Routledge, 2020, 1, p. 62-75Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1771, the first Swedish academic thesis on bankruptcy and insolvency was defended by Carl Bergström at Uppsala University. In this and other contemporary Swedish publications on the topic, shortcomings in the debtor’s character including gambling, dishonesty, fraudulent behaviour and a disposition for speculation were mentioned as major causes for bankruptcies. The idea that a debtor also was a swindler, and should be severely punished, was spread by Italian merchants to, above all, France, Spain, England and Germany. The moralising causal explanation for bankruptcy can be questioned from a social science research perspective. Based on modern literature, we can see many reasons for why a trader, shopkeeper or an artisan had to file for bankruptcy. An economic shock is an event that occurs outside of an economy and produces significant change within an economy.

  • 8.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Destructive entrepreneurship in the small business sector: bankruptcy fraud in Sweden, 1830–20102020In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 54, p. 437-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship will not always productive: Baumol (1990, 1993) distinguishes between productive, unproductive, and destructive entrepreneurial activities, and in the last two cases, new values are not created. Setting of from the notion of destructive entrepreneurship and the bankruptcy institute as framework for the empirical analysis, we use long aggregate series on bankruptcies and bankruptcy frauds in Sweden, 1830–2010. We operationalize destructive entrepreneurship with bankruptcy frauds. The bankruptcy institute is not a pure cleansing mechanism; assets can be redistributed by criminal procedure. Thus, a form of destructive entrepreneurship can be conducted within this system. We link bankruptcy frauds to the selection mechanism—the aggregate bankruptcy volume—over time. We cannot establish any direct linkages between the bankruptcy volume and institutional changes. However, and in line with research on bankruptcy diffusion and diffusion of economic crimes, we find that bankruptcy frauds have significant, positive impacts on the bankruptcy volume. Therefore, our results indicate that increases in bankruptcy frauds, destructive entrepreneurship, would affect the economic system. © 2018 The Author(s)

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  • 9.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Företagsnedläggningar: Olika perspektiv och forskningsmetoder2018In: Insolvensrättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2002-3014, E-ISSN 2002-6315, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 12-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen redogör för förklaringar till företagsdödlighet i såväl offentliga utredningar som inom ekonomisk och sociologisk forskning och teoribildning. Två fundamentalt olika föreställningar om hur och varför företag beter sig på ett visst sätt har dominerat de flesta studier. Ett perspektiv förutsätter en central roll för företagsledningens beslutsfattande och kompetens. Ett andra och motsatt perspektiv ser företags beteenden bestämda av externa krafter över vilka företagsledningen saknar kontroll. De olika föreställningarna påverkar resultat och slutsatser inom forskningen och har också betydelse för utformningen av den ekonomiska politiken.

  • 10.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Konkurs och konjunktur i Sverige 1830-20102016In: Insolvensrättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2002-3014, E-ISSN 2002-6315, no 1, p. 20-36Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomer betraktar vanligtvis konkursutvecklingen som en konjunkturindikator och därmed beroende av förändringar på ekonomins efterfrågesida: konkurserna förväntas öka i tider av ekonomisk nedgång och minska under högkonjunkturer. Flertalet analyser är emellertid kortsiktiga. I denna uppsats presenterar vi ny och unik empiri där vi ana­lyserar det långsiktiga sambandet mellan konjunkturväxlingar och konkurser i Sverige mellan år 1830 och år 2010. I uppsatsen diskuteras också problem som kan uppstå i tolk­ningen av konkursstatistiken, både historiskt och i vår samtid. Den statistiska analysen visar att det delvis går att fastställa ett samband mellan makroekonomiska svängningar och förändringar i konkursmängden.

  • 11.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–20002014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship has gained increasing support from governments in recent decades. Entrepreneurship is considered to generate new jobs, innovations, and economic growth. In current research, a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth is maintained, where variations in entrepreneurship precede variations in economic output. Various models identify a positive effect entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades – a time when several Western countries transformed from ‘managed’ to ‘entrepreneurial’ economies.

    Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship in both policy and research. The present study analyzes the relationship between growth in self-employment and economic growth in Sweden between 1850 and 2000. For the entire period (1851–2000), variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. Using Granger causality tests, the results in this study show that variations in self-employment did not granger-cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948, which gives two different periods: 1851–1948 and 1949–2000.

    Between 1851 and 1948, Granger causality between self-employment and GDP in either (Granger) direction could not be established. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth granger-caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. Granger causality tests in the frequency domain show that for the period 1949–2000, but for no other periods, variations in self-employment lagged with GDP growth. Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth.

    Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator for entrepreneurship, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream entrepreneurship research.

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    Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–2000
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  • 12.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    New-Firm Survival in Sweden: New Methods and Results2017In: International Review of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, no 4, p. 431-464, article id 1567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse firm survival and focus on several levels of analysis (both firm level and macro-level). We employ a unique longitudinal data set, recorded at the firm-level and covering nine complete entry cohorts of Swedish companies. The companies were founded between 1899 and 1992, and each firm is followed over nearly a decade. We adopt the semi-parametric complementary log-log (cloglog) model. The main novelty of our approach is that, unlike extant studies so far, we are able to distinguish between the impact on the hazard rate of founding conditions and contemporaneous, post-entry conditions. Using our new approach we test several hypotheses derived from the Industrial Organization and Organizational Ecology literatures.

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  • 13.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Self-employment, corruption, and property rights: a comparative analysis of European and CEE economies2023In: SN Business & Economics, E-ISSN 2662-9399, Vol. 3, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the relationship between self-employment, corruption, and property rights in 30 European countries, including 11 Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) economies, across the two decades of 1996–2016. In general, relatively little research has focused on the relationship between entrepreneurship and the protection of property rights. Furthermore, past findings show that corruption may have both negative and positive effects on the level of entrepreneurial activity, either “greasing” or “sanding” the wheels for entrepreneurship. Overall, research on how the informal institution corruption and the formal institution property rights are linked to entrepreneurship in post-socialist/transition economies has been limited. We find that stronger protection of property rights increases self-employment ratios, both in Europe in general and in CEE economies. The relationship between self-employment and the control of corruption is not significant. We conclude that neither higher nor lower levels of corruption control affect the share of self-employment. In comparative perspective, the ratio of self-employment in the group of CEE economies does not respond differently to these two key institutions.

  • 14.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    The Asymmetric Effect of Bankruptcy Fraud in Sweden: A Long-Term Perspective2019In: Journal of quantitative criminology, ISSN 0748-4518, E-ISSN 1573-7799, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 287-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The knowledge of the effects of white-collar crimes is incomplete. In the article, we operationalize white-collar crimes as bankruptcy frauds. Economic models maintain that interlinkages between firms may give ‘domino effects’: bankruptcy events could lead to ‘bankruptcy chains’ in which a bankruptcy spreads to other firms. Analogously, criminologists assert that social and economic networks can be a major source of fraud diffusion, with the potential to drive other firms bankrupt. Recent empirical results show that crimes may have detrimental and even asymmetric (nonlinear) effects on economic activity. We analyze the diffusion and the aggregate development of bankruptcy frauds in Sweden over nearly two hundred years, specifically focusing on the relationship between bankruptcy frauds and the bankruptcy volume. We also consider linkages between bankruptcy frauds, bankruptcies, and the macroeconomic cycle. Methods: We use long, aggregate time series, collected from several different historical and contemporary sources. Applying the recently developed cointegrating nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model, we investigate whether the bankruptcy volume reacts asymmetrically to increases and decreases in bankruptcy frauds, both in the short and the long run. Results: Bankruptcy frauds reveal a causal effect on bankruptcies, showing an asymmetric (nonlinear) diffusion effect from economic frauds to the bankruptcy volume. Increases in bankruptcy frauds have a positive and significant effect on the bankruptcy volume. However, decreases in bankruptcy frauds show no significant effect. No causal relationship between the macroeconomic cycle and bankruptcy frauds is found. Conclusions: Our data and research approach demonstrate how previously generated hypotheses in both criminology and economic research on the relationship between (economic) crimes, economic activity, and the diffusion of white-collar crime can be tested at an aggregate level. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 15.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, ENTER (Center for Entrepreneurship). The RATIO institute.
    Heshmati, Almas
    The RATIO institute.
    Karlson, Nils
    The RATIO institute.
    Statlig neutralitet och arbetslöshet i ett internationellt perspektiv: Staten och arbetsmarknaden, rapport 22006Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Entrepreneurial Teams, Gender, and New Venture Survival: Contexts and Institutions2018In: SAGE Open, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The link between new venture survival and the presence of founding teams is investigated, in particular the effect of the gender composition of teams. Furthermore, we study venture survival, gender, and institutional change. A unique longitudinal database is employed, covering a large number of Swedish ventures established during 6 specific years, 1930-2005. These data capture the initial gender diversity of start-ups. The contextualization of entrepreneurship involves situational and temporal boundaries, and we elaborate on contextual factors at different levels of analysis. Our results show that ventures founded by teams have a higher probability of surviving, but show no overall team gender homogeneity/heterogeneity effect. However, we find some support for the fact that ventures founded by all-female teams have lower survival chances. Nevertheless, the clearest negative effect is found for female solo start-ups. Furthermore, our results support the fact that institutional transformation may gradually have increased the likelihood of ventures founded by females to survive. 

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  • 17.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies. Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, ENTER (Center for Entrepreneurship).
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies. Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, ENTER (Center for Entrepreneurship).
    Founding Team Gender Structure and the Effects of Spouse Teams on New Venture Performance in Sweden2011In: 56th Annual ICSB World Conference: Back to the future, changes in perspectives of global entrepreneurship and innovation : Online proceedings, 2011, p. -23Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Genus och grundarteam: nya företags överlevnad i Stockholm under 1900-talets första hälft2017In: YMER, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 136, no 2016, p. 51-78Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Is There a Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth?: The Case of Sweden, 1850-20002015Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lin, Xiang
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Gratzer, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–20002016In: Contemporary Entrepreneurship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Innovation and Growth / [ed] Dieter Bögenhold, Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin, Domingo Garcia Pérez de Lema, Cham: Springer, 2016, 1, p. 31-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in entrepreneurship suggest a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth: entrepreneurship precedes economic growth. A positive effect from entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades is often maintained. Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship. The present study uses very long series of non-interrupted data on self-employment in Sweden (1850–2000). It analyzes the relationship between variations in self-employment and economic growth. For the entire period, variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. However, no causal relationship could be discovered: variations in self-employment did not (Granger) cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948. Up until 1948, (Granger) causality between self-employment and GDP could not be established for any direction. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth (Granger) caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. For the period 1949–2000, but not for the previous period, selfemployment lagged with respect to GDP growth.  Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth. Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream research.

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  • 21.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Both a Cooperative and Multinational – International Market Strategies of Danish-Swedish Arla MD2021In: Beyond Borders: Essays on Entrepreneurship, Co-operatives and Education in Sweden and Tanzania / [ed] Mikael Lönnborg; Benson Otieno Ndiege; Besrat Tesfaye, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2021, p. 323-344Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter studies the internationalization of the Swedish–Danish dairy corporation Arla. During a period of 100 years the dairy sector went from being at the focus of national and regional interest, the industry has become global. In some geographical markets, or in particular market areas, these transnationals – corporations as well as cooperatives – may compete fiercely, and their growth strategy is often to merge with or acquire local producers. However, these multinational firms also actively cooperate in other areas (e.g. in branding or distribution) or on other geographical markets. This may take the form of strategic alliances, such as joint ventures. Thus, coopetition – cooperation and competition – has been a common recent strategy. In the case at focus in this study, Arla Foods a.m.b.a. mergers are conducted with cooperatives in European countries, while businesses that are located further away are taken care of through exports and joint ventures. The main contribution of this article is that it employs internationalization theory and places the globalization of cooperatives in the middle of the academic discussion about internationalization. A recommendation for further studies is to both dig deeper into the changing nature of cooperatives historically, but also to look closer at the strategic deals that global expansion of cooperatives is based on. 

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    Both a Cooperative and Multinational – International Market Strategies of Danish-Swedish Arla MD
  • 22.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    From the Baltic rim to growth markets: Contextual issues and market strategies of dairy companies in the Baltic rim – the case of Arla2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Box, Marcus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    The Internationalization of the Swedish Dairy Industry2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Gratzer, Karl
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    A longitudinal analysis of selection and failure in Sweden during the 20th century2004In: Entrepreneurship, Employment and Beyond 2003: proceedings of the 3rd international conference organized by the Department of Entrepreneurship and Innovation of the Cracow University of Economics, the Northumbria University at Newcastle, the Södertörn University College, September 18-19, 2003, Cracow / [ed] Jan Targalski, Cracow: Cracow University of Economics Publishers , 2004, p. 289-308Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Gratzer, Karl
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Causes of selection amongst Swedish firms: a contribution to the development of a business demography2002In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 68-84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Gratzer, Karl
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Business studies.
    Lyckliga dilettanter eller kompetenta affärsstrateger?: Metodologiska och empiriska aspekter av företagsnedläggningar med hänsyn till strukturella och externa betingelser2000Report (Other academic)
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    Lyckliga dilettanter eller kompetenta affärsstrateger?
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  • 27.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    School of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    Karlson, Nils
    The RATIO Institute, Sweden.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Generality, State Neutrality and Unemployment in the OECD2013In: Global Economy Journal, ISSN 1524-5861, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 333-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Buchanan and Congleton (1998. Politics by Principle, Not Interest: Towards Nondiscriminatory Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), the generality principle in politics blocks special interests. Consequently, the generality principle should thereby promote economic efficiency. This study tests this hypothesis on wage formation and labor markets, by investigating whether generality defined as state neutrality could explain employment performance among OECD countries during 1970–2003. We identify three types of non-neutrality concerning unemployment. These include the level or degree of government interference in the wage bargaining process over and above legislation which facilitates mutually beneficial wage agreements, the constrained bargaining range (meaning the extent to which the state favors or blocks certain outcomes of the bargaining process), and the cost shifting (which relates to state interference shifting the direct or indirect burden of costs facing the parties on the labor market). Our overall hypothesis is that non-neutrality or non-generality increases unemployment rates. The empirical results from the general conditional model suggest that government intervention and a constrained bargaining range clearly increase unemployment, while a few of the cost shifting variables have unexpected effects. The findings thus give some, but definitely not unreserved, support for the generality principle as a method to promote economic efficiency. One implication may be that the principle should be amended by other requirements if the political process shall indeed be able to promote economic efficiency.

  • 28. Karlson, Nils
    et al.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Generality, State Neutrality and Unemployment in the OECD2008Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies. Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, ENTER (Center for Entrepreneurship).
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies, Business studies.
    Economic History in Sweden2011In: Aktörer och marknader i omvandling: Studier i företagandets historia tillägnade Kersti Ullenhag / [ed] Lars Fälting, Mats Larsson, Tom Petersson & Karin Ågren, Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala universitet , 2011, 1, p. 13-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Lönnborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Moderna varumärken och historiska entreprenörer2013In: Entreprenörskap och varumärken / [ed] Mats Larsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Karin Winroth, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2013, p. 49-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Merouani, Youssouf
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Surviving on the island: linking firm survival and contextual factors in a peripheral region2023In: Contextual Embeddedness of Entrepreneurship / [ed] Mirela Xheneti; Sílvia Costa; Jarna Heinonen; Agnieszka Kurczewska, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. 12-31Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The lion’s share of entrepreneurship research highlights conditions in core regions, while entrepreneurship in peripheral areas has been less studied. This longitudinal study aims at exploring the interplay between the peripheral contexts of island and archipelago communities and firm outcomes - paying special attention to spatial variations and non-linear temporal dimensions. We focus on the survival of all firms active on 17 islands in the Stockholm archipelago, Sweden during a 20-year period (2000-2019). Using longitudinal multilevel modelling, we find that - despite being a seemingly ‘homogeneous’ place - spatial and temporal variations, however small, would have substantial effects on the conditions for everyday entrepreneurship in these communities. Our results show that firms located on islands with higher population density and seasonal dependability face increased probabilities of exit, while access to digital ecosystems, local services in the form of kindergartens, and year-round grocery stores decrease the probabilities of exit. Islands with thicker institutional context, indicating trust and community support, lead to higher survival rates.

  • 32.
    Merouani, Youssouf
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Sverige.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    What does it take to survive on an island?: The relationship between firm survival and contextual factors in a peripheral region2021In: On conference web site, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lion's share of entrepreneurship research highlights conditions on core-regions, while entrepreneurship in peripheral areas has been less studied. This study aims at exploring the interplay between the context of island and archipelago communities and firm outcomes – paying special attention to spatial variations and non-linear temporal dimensions. Our focus lies in firms founded in 17 islands of Stockholm Archipelago, from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2019. Using longitudinal multilevel modelling, we find that — despite a seemingly ’homogeneous’ place — spatial and temporal variations, however small, would have substantial effects on the conditions for entrepreneurship in these communities. Our results show that firms located in islands with higher population density and seasonal dependability face increased probabilities of exit while those in islands with access to digital ecosystems, local services in the form of kindergartens and year-round grocery stores have decreased probabilities of exit. Islands with thicker institutional context, indicating trust and community support, are related to increasing survival rates. Distance to market was found to be insignificant in terms of survival.

  • 33.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Merouani, Youssouf
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    "There are more lights in the windows": Challenges and opportunities for island societies in Sweden during the Covid 19 pandemic2022In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, E-ISSN 2001-7308, Vol. 15, no 3-4, p. 127-134Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article summarizes the main results of the project “Island and Archipelago Tourism during the pandemic”. The main goal of the project was to find out how the pandemic affected companies in the hospitality industry on islands and in archipelagos; which challenges they faced, and to learn from eventual future opportunities. 

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  • 34.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Merouani, Youssouf
    Ekonomisk historiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet, Sverige.
    Small Island Societies, Livelihoods, Challenges and Opportunities duringthe Covid-19 Pandemic in Sweden2022In: AGER: Journal of Depopulation and Rural Development Studies, ISSN 1578-7168, no 36, p. 131-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Covid-19 increased the social and economic vulnerability of island societies. Swedishislands are key tourism destinations but are also home to many island residents. Previous studies have highlighted the impact of Covid-19 on core areas, but our knowledge of its impact on island communities is lacking. We use phenomenology to analyse how communities in small Swedish islands perceive the impact ofCovid-19. We use institutional theory and the concepts of social capital and accessibility in the analysis.Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and focus groups with islanders and representatives of local organizations on sampled islands. Pandemic regulations affected island communities differently.Authorities and shipping companies strove to discourage people from visiting islands. This affected tourismnegatively in some islands, whereas tourism increased in others. Informal institutions established a basis forgood community relations; enabled the mobilization of social capital, especially given action by local agentswho were endorsed by the community. Cooperation was a key to reducing negative impact. Accessibilityincreased on islands with well-developed and expanded IT-infrastructure that enabled holiday homeownersto work from their holiday islands. This helped create a sustained positive economic trend for grocery storesand the construction industry

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    Small Island Societies, Livelihoods, Challenges and Opportunities duringthe Covid-19 Pandemic in Sweden
  • 35.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Merouani, Youssouf
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Ö- och skärgårdsturism under pandemin: Halvtidsrapport2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport bygger på resultatet från intervjuer och fokusgrupper som genomförts inom ramen för ett forskningsprojekt som syftar till att undersöka hur den pågående Coronapandemin påverkat besöksnäringen på öar och i skärgårdar i Sverige. 

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    Ö- och skärgårdsturism under pandemin: Halvtidsrapport
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  • 36.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Merouani, Youssouf
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Box, Marcus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Larsson Segerlind, Tommy
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Ö- och skärgårdsturism under pandemin: Slutrapport2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ö-samhällen kan rimligtvis antas vara extra sårbara för extern påverkan, inte minst av en sådan chock som utgjorts av Covid-19-pandemin. 

    Denna rapport bygger på undersökningar som genomförts inom projektet Ö- och skärgårdsturism under pandemin, och innefattar bland annat fokusgrupper och intervjuer med företagare och representanter från en mängd svenska ö- och skärgårdsföreningar.

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    Ö- och skärgårdsturism under pandemin: Slutrapport
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1 - 36 of 36
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