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  • 1.
    Aburto, J.
    et al.
    Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN), Coquimbo, Chile.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Stotz, W.
    Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN), Coquimbo, Chile.
    Cerda, C.
    Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN), Coquimbo, Chile.
    Mondaca-Schachermayer, C.
    Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN), Coquimbo, Chile.
    Vera, K.
    Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN), Coquimbo, Chile.
    Territorial user rights for artisanal fisheries in Chile: intended and unintended outcomes2013In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 71, p. 284-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Granting property property rights in fisheries is assumed to provide incentives for sustainable resource exploitation. These rights might also open other income options for fishers, including some that go beyond the original objectives intended by authorities establishing the right. The opportunity for alternative uses is especially high if the details of these rights are not clearly identified. In Chile, a de novo TURF (Territorial User Rights for Fishery) system, called Management Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (Areas de Manejo y Explotacion de Recursos Bentonicos-AMERB) was created to achieve sustainable exploitation of benthic resources. This study compares two small-scale fishing communities in Chile, Guayacan and Huentelauquen, representing two typical contrasting settings, regarding geographical contexts and surroundings, origin, history, location, social embeddedness, main fisheries activities as well as the motivation and the process through which they acquired their AMERB. While in Guayacan the main fishing activity outside the AMERB is the giant squid and finfish fishery, in Huentelauquen the main and traditional activity has been diving for benthic resources. The objectives to acquire their AMERBs were different in both cases. Huentelauquen applied the AMERB for their traditional activity, the fishery of Concholepas concholepas ("loco"), thus in accordance with the official objective of the AMERB. Due to reduced catches of loco, fishers also added the collection of kelps, using their AMERB to control access to the entire coast surrounding their fishing community, beyond the limits of their AMERB. In Guayacan the AMERB, applied for the management of scallops and a species of red algae, began to be used for sea squirt aquaculture. Within the framework of sustainable fisheries implied by the AMERBs, there was in both cases a clear expectation to gain new sources of income. However with time both AMERBs are being used as a tool for territorial exclusion of other fishers beyond the limits of their respective AMERBs. In Huentelauquen fishers mention mostly negative aspects about the performance of their AMERB, given the poor economic results, being unsatisfied with the AMERB system in general, because they feel that the system disrupted their traditional migration along the coast. In Guayacan, fishers mentioned mostly positive aspects for their AMERB, as it was an opportunity to add new activities. Both examples show that rights-based management approaches are very attractive; they could promote new uses or developments, whose sustainability nevertheless needs to be analyzed further. The analyzed case studies show that, contrary to how the system was developed in Chile, a more bottom-up implementation of new management arrangements may make it easier to agree on common objectives, and/or leave more freedom for fishers to adjust and arrange their livelihood. Considering the importance the AMERBs have acquired for fishers, these kinds of systems need flexible regulations in order that fishers can adapt the system to local traditions, uses or needs and also to their learning and adapting capacities.

  • 2.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    Uppsala universitet.
    From Seascapes of Extinction to Seascapes of Confidence: Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries in Chile: El Quisco and Puerto Oscuro2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Chile, the indiscriminate harvest for export of the edible shellfish, Concholepas concholepas or false abalone, propelled by a neo-liberal market economy during the 1970s, almost led to the extinction of the species, thereby threatening the dependant small-scale artisan fishers’ survival as well as the ecosystem. To reverse this, fishers’ organizations in Chile have adopted the state created regulatory measure, Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABR; locally known as Management Areas -- MAs). Replacing the former unsuccessful fishing regulatory measurements, the MEABR regime empowers the fishers with exclusive territorial use rights (TURF) to manage the species, often under commons institutions, thus creating new seascapes of confidence. However, as is often the case with new solutions, emergent problems are posed that threaten to undermine the reform. With the new regulated extraction measure and geographical expansion of this novel labour and production alternative, fishers experience a transition from ‘nomadic’ to sedentary fishing leading to a transformation of their lifestyle and skills. If MAs become permanent, fishing in rural areas may lead to tensions as the fishers settle on coastal lands without entitlement, or are hindered from developing their own fisheries infrastructure. The legal system does not seem to fully foresee the consequences of the reform, and prevailing power relations and private property rights work to disadvantage the fishers. Using a participatory approach for the first research location of El Quisco (Valparaíso Region), and interviews with key informants for the second research location of Puerto Oscuro (Coquimbo Region), fishers’ views of the Chilean TURF were evaluated. How fishers perceive this experience should be central for the success or failure of the MAs as a viable alternative to the earlier conditions of open access. While the assessment of El Quisco deals more with the performance of the MA, Puerto Oscuro is used to portray the seascapes of conflict that have emerged as ownership of the coastal land is contested. The study shows that while the reform has brought better incomes from the benthic resources, the overall economic importance of the MAs for the fishers is reduced relative to the incomes coming from fishing activities realized outside the MAs. Experiences in both cases have been otherwise positive in terms of the recuperation of the species, ecological concerns and strengthening fishers’ so-called soft assets. Nevertheless, many problems remain, among them the problem of access to the sea border and those related to ambiguous land rights to support coastal settlement and fishing infrastructure development.

  • 3.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Eva, Friman
    Uppsala universitet.
    Küstennahe Commons in Chile: Kompetente Menschen, starke Institutionen, reiche Natur2012In: Commons: Für eine neue Politik jenseits von Markt und Staat / [ed] Silke Helfrich and the Heinrich Boell Foundation, Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag, 2012, p. 313-320Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Als mit der Einführung der neoliberalen Wirtschaftspolitik in Chile Mitte der 1970er-Jahre die Ausfuhren der chilenischen Meeresschnecke Loco – der auf dem Markt begehrtesten Art – stark anstiegen, waren die Fischer rasch Teil des globalen Marktes geworden. Die »Anlandungen« bzw. Fangmengen der Loco (concholepas concholepas) erreichten rasch Rekordmengen, nur um bald darauf wieder stark einzubrechen – ein Zeichen für die exzessive Ausbeutung der Vorkommen. Daraufhin erließ der Staat Anfang der 1980er-Jahre eine Reihe von Schutzmaßnahmen – saisonale Sperrungen von Fanggebieten, nationale Fangquoten und Fangverbote –, die die Fischer wirtschaftlich schwer trafen. Zehn Jahre später, 1991, wurde schließlich ein neues Fischereigesetz erlassen, mit dem ein System »gebietsbezogener Nutzungsrechte in der Fischerei« (Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries, kurz: TURFs) eingeführt wurde. Die auf sogenannte »Bewirtschaftungszonen« aufgeteilten chilenischen TURFs sind in ein Verwaltungssystem eingebettet, in dem staatliche Regulationen und die von den Fischern selbst festgelegten Regeln zusammenkommen. Durch TURF können die Fischer ausschließliche, nicht übertragbare und erneuerbare Zugangs- und Nutzungsrechte zu bestimmten benthalen (meeresbodennahen) Ressourcen innerhalb des zugewiesenen Areals erhalten. Die Rechte werden ausschließlich an Fischervereinigungen vergeben. Mit einer Größe von 250 bis 600 Hektar liegen die Bewirtschaftungszonen in den für die Fischer reservierten ertragreichsten Fischgründen innerhalb der fünf Seemeilen breiten Küstenzone. Seit 1997 hat die Zahl der TURFs entlang der chilenischen Küste beständig zugenommen, im Jahr 2011 sind über 30.000 Fischer in Bewirtschaftungszonen zusammengeschlossen. Die Fischer landen nahezu den gesamten zum Verzehr bestimmten Fang in Chile an, während hochwertige Arten gewöhnlich in den Export gehen. Die Fischer sind nach sogenannten »Caletas« organisiert, rund 440 kleinen Fischerhäfen, die sich auf privatem, Staats- oder Gemeindeland befinden. In einigen ländlichen Gebieten befinden sich diese Caletas in den Fischerdörfern selbst, in anderen leben die Fischer in einiger Entfernung zu den Häfen. Eine Caleta besteht normalerweise aus einem Pier und einer Bootswerft sowie Hütten oder Schuppen, in denen die Fischer 314 K  a p i t e l   I I I  — Commo n i n g  —  s o z i a l e   I n n o v a t i o n e n  w e l tw e i t übernachten, bzw. den Häusern der Fischer in ihrer Gemeinde. In vielen ländlichen Caletas gibt es keinen Strom, kein fließendes Wasser, keine Kanalisation und auch keine befestigten Straßen. Seit Inkrafttreten des neuen Fischereigesetzes müssen die Fischer an festgelegten Orten fischen, die Küste abzufahren ist nicht mehr erlaubt. Das ist eine Einschränkung, die vielen Fischern gegen den Strich geht. V o  n   R i  v a l i t  ä t   z u   k o  l l e k  t  i  v e m   H a n d e l n Die Beantragung von Fischereirechten für ein Managementgebiet ist müh

  • 4.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Eva, Friman
    Uppsala University.
    New marine commons along the Chilean coast: The Management areas (MAs) of Peñuelas and Chigualoco2011In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 433-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To halt degradation of benthic resources in Chile, management areas (MAs) were set up under the Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries (TURFs) framework in the late 1990s. Integrated into the global market, MAs have since expanded along the Chilean coast, involving thousands of small-scale artisanal fishers. This paper analyses how economic criteria relates to social and ecological performance of Chilean MAs, by applying TURFs, commons and co-management theory to two cases: MAs Peñuelas and Chigualoco. To collect and analyse data Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, interviews and official statistics and reports were used. Our results show that MAs’ economic benefits are connected to fluctuations on the global market. Adapting to changing world market prices then becomes paramount. TURFs’ main goal is ecological conservation, but achieving this seems to depend on meeting fishers’ livelihoods; failure to do so likely results in failure to meet conservation objectives. A serious weakness of the Chilean TURFs system is that it does not pay enough attention to fishers’ livelihoods or to the global market context. Furthermore, there is a strong relationship between good economic benefits and social sustainability. But irrespective of economic performance, fisher organizations have been empowered and gained increased resource control with the TURFs system. At policy level, a differentiated and more flexible system could be more suitable for existing heterogeneous MAs and their particular economic, social and ecological challenges. For improved economic sustainability and resource conservation, a system with multiple-species managing MAs could be promoted as well. Finally, to enhance theory of commons, co-management and TURFs, we argue for greater acknowledgement of TURFs’ social benefits in addition to economic assessments. More attention should also be paid to global market conditions of which MAs are dependent and in which they are embedded: macrostructures that are seldom considered in the analyses.

  • 5.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Friman, Eva
    Uppsala universitet.
    The Politicized Nature of Global Trade: The Continuous Commoditization of Land and Marine Resources, and Struggles for Livelihoods in Chile2010In: Politicized Nature: Global Exchange, Resources and Power / [ed] Eva Friman and Gloria L. Gallardo Fernández, Uppsala: Centre for Environment and Development Studies (Cemus) , 2010, p. 49-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rodriguez Osuna, Andrea
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ueyonahara, Jorge
    Uppsala universitet.
    Monetary stabilisation policies and militarisation: The effects on social and class structure in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay (1950-1985)2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the origins of neoliberalism in the Southern Cone; a process that has its origin in the period 1955-65 with the implementation of monetary stabilization policies, followed later by the structural adjustment programs. Both the monetary stabilization and the structural adjustment policies were global macroeconomic mechanisms to restructure the dynamic of capital accumulation and economic power relations. By promoting a freer flow of capital, the economic stabilisation policies facilitated the entry of foreign capital into the economies of the Southern Cone, predisposing the economies of the Southern Cone to the process of internationalisation of production and financial capital, which began to take shape after World War II more rigorously.This process can be understood within a double transformation of capital as 1) the destruction of the domestic bourgeoisie; a process of relative concentration of capital; and 2) the internationalization of finance capital; a process of absolute concentration or centralization of capital. Military rule was a necessary conditions for the project and process of ‘peripheral privatization’ through which capital was accumulated, but not mainly through the productive circuit of capital (M-C-M+). This process thus took place within a global transformation in the process of concentration of capital characterised by a shift in the domain that provided the productive sphere towards the financial and commercial spheres as mean to secure the valorization of capital, requiring the liberalization of international credits and financial markets, thus setting the bases for the expansion of neoliberalism as an accumulation regime, globally and within Latin America. Therefore neoliberalism and globalization found their grounds in Latin America’s ephemeral ‘national developmentalism’ promoted by ECLAC (United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean).

  • 7.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Commoditization of rural lands in the semi-arid region of Chile—the case of the huentelauquén agricultural community2018In: Agriculture, E-ISSN 2077-0472, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The agri-pastoralist communities of the semi-arid region of Chile, with their unusual common land ownership, have not escaped economic neo-liberalism. The general pattern of insatiable demand of land for agricultural production, mining, energy generation and real-estate development has become a challenge for these communities. How are these processes affecting the traditional practices of these localized agri-food systems, based on rain-fed-agriculture, pastoralism and the fading practice of transhumance? In this article, we look at how the Huentelauquén Agricultural Community in the Canela Commune has dealt with, reacted to, and been affected by regional economic shifts geared towards market liberalization. In particular, we analyze the structural changes in the community in regard to alienation of the commons and changes in land tenure. Qualitative interviews were conducted with key informants in this setting. To provide a richer contextual setting, this article draws on several other empirically-based works on the commons’ emergence and evolution, land commoditization and local struggles for livelihoods. Our study shows that a community can adopt different strategies when dealing with powerful sectoral development that can involve resistance as well as positioning that seeks to find favorable terms of engagement. Our findings highlight that processes affecting the traditional commons are resulting in the re-appropriation and re-occupation of the land. This is resulting in social differentiation, weakening of the community’s social bonds, depeasantization and further degradation of an already vulnerable ecosystem. In sum, these shifts are posing an existential threat to this form of traditional agri-pastoralism. 

  • 8.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Ávila, Marcela
    Isakson, Alberto
    Greco, Iván
    Moscoso, Patricia
    Rodríguez, Daniel
    Granjeras del Mar: Luchas y Sueños en Coliumo2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the book is to make visible the history and aspirations of the Union of Independent Workers of Artisanal Fishermen, Shore Harvesters and Seaweed collectors, Caleta Coliumo − which in spite of its masculine name is composed only of women. In doing so the authors hope to contribute to supporting the Union’s ongoing struggle to secure productive livelihoods and contribute more widely to coastal sustainability in the region. These are goals that we think should involve partnerships between scientists, fishing organizations and local, regional and national authorities. The book is also a contribution to the general discussion on the Áreas de Manejo y Explotación de Recursos Bentónicos (AMERB) and especially to the entry of women into fishing in Chile.

    More particularly, this book focuses on the experience of women in Coliumo, in southern Chile (Bío-Bío region), who in the heat of the struggle for coastal resources with fishermen from an adjacent fishing cove, organized themselves and were successful in applying for and obtaining exclusive use rights in coastal marine areas under the system of Territorial Rights of Use for Fishing (TURFs). Gaining entitlements to TURFs soon evolved into a new struggle for resources, this time among women aligned with different fishing unions in Coliumo. The outcome of this struggle was the creation of a second TURFs, again governed only by an all-women fishing union. This demonstrated once again, that in addition to the women’s role as seaweed collectors, they were able to effectively exercise their recently acquired negotiation and managerial skills. These were capacities that even local fishermen came to admire. What began as a conflict with fishermen from another cove, became an avenue where two all-women fishing unions became managers of two TURFs entitlements in the village.  The women’s capacities to effectively manage their TURFs entitlements and related resources has resulted in increases in income and enhanced standing in their communities. The fishing union examined in the study will soon be moving up the value chain from seaweed collectors to producers. With the support of the State, there are also plans to develop small-scale algae aquaculture. Through the collective exercise of their own agency the women of Coliumo have empowered themselves not only as fishers and workers but also as resource managers, entrepreneurs and community leaders.

  • 9.
    Gallardo-Fernandez, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    “Before we asked for permission, now we only give notice”: Women’s entrance into artisanal fisheries in Chile2018In: Maritime Studies, ISSN 1872-7859, E-ISSN 2212-9790, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 177-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fisheries (SSF) in the Global South are increasingly subjected to the internationalisation of food systems. Guided by a feminist political ecology approach, we examine how gender relations and power structures within SSF are changing through policy interventions and market linkages. Chilean women working in SSF have traditionally been unregistered direct producers. Since the early 2000s, however, women have formally entered as fishers within this hitherto male-dominated space. Today, women constitute almost a quarter of artisanal fishers in Chile. While women have become more visible, among others, in their engagement in territorial use rights in fisheries (TURFs), little research attention has been paid to women’s roles within SSF. We redress this shortfall by examining the struggle to obtain TURFs by an all-women seaweed gatherers union in Coliumo (Bio-Bio Region, Chile). Using participatory research tools, we describe key gendered interactions and events over a local struggle for resources. Our findings show how closely related episodes of cooperation and conflict were involved in realising TURFs, which included differently-gendered relationships. While the women implicated in formalising fishing entitlements accrued individual benefit and enhanced their collective standing, the conflict left a deep scar among women in the community.

  • 10.
    Gallardo-Fernández, Gloria L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sokolov, Tatiana
    Uppsala University.
    Börebäck, Kristina
    Stockholm University .
    van Laerhoven, Frank
    Utrecht University.
    Kokko, Suvi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tuvendal, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    We adapt … but is it good or bad? Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic: Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-Arctic2017In: Journal of political ecology, ISSN 1073-0451, E-ISSN 1073-0451, Vol. 24, p. 667-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reindeer herding (RDH) is a livelihood strategy deeply connected to Sami cultural tradition. This article explores the implications of two theoretical and methodological approaches for grasping complex socio-environmental relationships of RDH in Subarctic Sweden. Based on joint fieldwork, two teams – one that aligns itself with political ecology (PE) and the other with social-ecological systems (SES) – compared PE and SES approaches of understanding RDH. Our purpose was twofold: 1) to describe the situation of Sami RDH through the lenses of PE and SES, exploring how the two approaches interpret the same empirical data; 2) to present an analytical comparison of the ontological and epistemological assumptions of this work, also inferring different courses of action to instigate change for the sustainability of RDH. Key informants from four sameby in the Kiruna region expressed strong support for the continuation of RDH as a cultural and

    economic practice. Concerns about the current situation raised by Sami representatives centered on the cumulative negative impacts on RDH from mining, forestry and tourism. PE and SES researchers offered dissimilar interpretations of the key aspects of the RDH socio-economic situation, namely: the nature and scale of RDH systems; the ubiquitous role of conflict; and conceptualizations of responses to changing socio-environmental conditions. Due to these disparities, PE and SES analyses have radically divergent socio-political implications for what ought to be done to redress the current RDH situation.

  • 11.
    Hauck, Maria
    et al.
    University of Cape Town, USA.
    Gallardo-Fernández, Gloria L.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Crises in the South African abalone and Chilean loco fisheries: Shared challenges and prospects2013In: Maritime Studies, ISSN 1872-7859, E-ISSN 2212-9790, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-20, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide there is an increasing realisation that there is an inextricable link between the natural and human systems, and there is a need to integrate these into the governance of small-scale fisheries. The critical importance of adopting such an approach is argued in this paper by exploring the challenge of resource over-exploitation in the abalone fishery in South Africa and the loco fishery in Chile, both of which faced unsuccessful fishery closures and the implementation of Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries (TURFs). By exploring similarities and differences in fisheries context and approaches, these case studies highlight that although management strategies have been progressive on paper, they are compromised, to different degrees, by a lack of understanding of the socio-economic and political factors that are influencing the fisheries system. We argue that unless a more integrated approach is adopted to understand the social-ecological system as a whole, few long-term benefits will be secured for both the resources and the livelihoods of fishers.

  • 12.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gallardo-Fernández, Gloria L.
    Uppsala University, Centre for Sustainable Development.
    Van Tuyen, Truong
    Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Vietman.
    Raemaekers, Serge
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Marciniak, Boguslaw
    Dıaz Pla, Rodrigo
    Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Chile.
    Transformation of small-scale fisheries: critical transdisciplinary challenges and possibilities2016In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 20, no June, p. 26-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to confront the global marginalisation of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is to support a sustainable transformation of these coastal communities. In 2014/15, a network of researchers and SSF communities from four countries cooperated in a transdisciplinary research approach to examine governance shifts, fish stock collapses, power structures, future visions and transformation strategies. We combined a political ecology approach with transformation theory to: (i) consider how local context is affected by structural changes and (ii) identify place-based transformational strategies for each case. The global emergence of large-scale fisheries and associated free markets appeared as key factors negatively affecting SSF and coastal sustainability. Through envisioning exercises and context dependent analysis, SSF communities articulated possible and actual strategies towards sustainability that will require ongoing support.

  • 13.
    Wallner-Hahn, Sieglind
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Molander, Fia
    Stockholm University.
    Gallardo, Gloria
    Uppsala universitet.
    Villasante, Sebastian
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University.
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    University of Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Tanzania.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University.
    Destructive gear use in a tropical fishery: Institutional factors influencing the willingness- and capacity to change2016In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 72, p. 199-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to empirically assess institutional aspects shaping fishers’ behavior leading to unsustainable resource use, by using the example of destructive drag-net fishing in Zanzibar, Tanzania. A broad institutional approach was used to specifically assess institutional factors influencing the fishers’ reasons for the current use of destructive drag-nets as well as their willingness- and economic capacity to change to less destructive gears. Different regulative, normative, cultural-cognitive and economic factors (tradition, group-belonging, social acceptance, common practice, identity of drag-net users and weak economic capacity) were identified as critical elements influencing the current use of destructive gears, as well as obstructing changes to other gears. Hence, the importance of addressing all of these factors, matching to the different contexts, rather than focusing on fast-moving regulative measures, is emphasized to increase chances of management success. More promising approaches would be resource allocations to more sustainable fishing gears, well-managed gear exchange programs, as well as alterations of slow-moving normative and cultural factors, e.g. awareness raising on the advantages of more sustainable fishing gears, their traditional and cultural values, information on the actual income they generate, as well as education and an exchange of traditional knowledge on how to use them.

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