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  • 1.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The Ecosystem Approach to Management in Baltic Sea Governance: Towards Increased Reflexivity?2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, 1, p. 149-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses the governance structures linked to the marine environment of the Baltic Sea. The purpose is to assess whether current developments of the governance structures have a potential to take into account requirements of an Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). We use the concept of reflexive governance to understand key components and weaknesses in contemporary governance modes, as well as to elaborate on possible pathways towards a governance mode more aligned with EAM. The reflexive governance framework highlights three elements: (1) acknowledgement of uncertainty and ambiguity; (2) a holistic approach in terms of scales, sectors and actors; and (3) acknowledgement of path dependency and incremental policy-making. Our analysis is based on a comparative case study approach, including analysis of the governance in five environmental risk areas: chemical pollution, overfishing, eutrophication, invasive alien species and pollution from shipping. The chapter highlights an existing governance mode that is ill-equipped to deal with the complexity of environmental problems in a holistic manner, with systematic attention to uncertainty, plurality of values, ambiguity and limited knowledge, while also pointing at important recent cognitive and institutional developments that can favour pathways towards reflexive governance and consequently EAM.

  • 2.
    Choe, Yonhyok
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 1, Political science.
    Hassler, BjörnSödertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.Zyborowicz, Stanislaw
    Sweden and Poland from a European perspective: some aspects on the integration process2003Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Engkvist, Fanny
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Kern, Kristine
    The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan: challenges of implementing an innovative ecosystem approach2013In: Political State of the Region Report 2013: Trends and Directions in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Bernd Henningsen, Tobias Etzold and Anna-Lena Pohl, Copenhagen: Baltic Development Forum , 2013, p. 58-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jentoft, Svein
    Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, 900 Tromsø. Norway.
    Marine Environmental Governance in Europe: Problems and Opportunities2015In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, 1, p. 249-264Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hassler, BjörnSödertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.Jönsson, Anna MariaSödertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.Karlsson, MikaelSödertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    AMBIO Special Issue: Coping with Complexity in Baltic Sea Risk Governance2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Coping with complexity in baltic sea risk governance: Introduction2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 109-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Accidental Versus Operational Oil Spills from Shipping in the Baltic Sea: Risk Governance and Management Strategies2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 170-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors’ incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.

  • 8.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Coping and adaptation in socio-ecological problem structures: Towards an integrated framework for analyzing trans-boundary environmental problems in marine settings2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on governance of socio-ecological systems has been growing fast during the last one or two decades. However, sound theoretical underpinnings to these systems have not been sufficiently articulated and tied to existing theory, it is argued in this working paper. To address this shortcoming, this paper aims to elaborate on how the theoretical constructs  problem structure, collective choice theory and adaptive governance can be brought together to form a coherent analytical framework for analyzing trans-boundary environmental problems in marine settings. The argument that collective action problematiques may inhibit successful adaptation to environmental change among sovereign states is fundamental to this model. Given that governments tend to prefer national coping strategies where expected national rather than joint benefits are maximized, mutually beneficial cooperation often does not evolve and regional adaptation turn out piecemeal. It is concluded that in order to improve trans-national environmental governance, a better understanding of underlying drivers and countries’ incentives to take action is a necessary prerequisite.

  • 9.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    En regional organisation med pengar och makt: vem vågar föreslå det?2006In: Östersjön: hot och hopp / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Stockholm: Formas , 2006, p. 203-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Environmental Conventions, Pro-active Countries and Unilateral Initiatives: Sweden and the Case of Oil Transportation on the Baltic Sea2008In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 339-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine oil transportation in the Baltic Sea has increased significantly during the past decade. This may pose a significant threat to the environment, partly due to the increased risk of accidents and partly because of deliberate flushing of oil tanks at sea and other diffuse emissions. The problem is examined from a Swedish point of view, emphasizing possible ways of reducing environmental risks associated with marine oil transportation in which cooperative solutions will be required to solve current collective action dilemmas. It is argued that since international conventions tend to suffer from lowest-common-denominator (LCD) effects whereby the least interested actors often set the level of ambition, pro-active countries may benefit from adopting dual strategies where unilateral initiatives and convention-based cooperation are made part of an integrated approach. Countries such as Sweden that are especially vulnerable to ecological threats from marine oil transportation may thus have strong incentives to provide targeted support to less exposed countries. It is concluded that unilateral and sub-regional initiatives may serve an important objective in complementing international conventions and thereby reduce negative effects from Lcd outcomes.

  • 11.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Foreign Assistance as a Policy Instrument: Swedish Environmental Support to the Baltic States, 1991-962002In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 25-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreign assistance is often characterized by a mix of altruistic and self-interested considerations of the donor country. Swedish environmental support to the Baltic States during the 1991-96 period was designed primarily to promote Swedish interests. Based on a classification of the different supported issue-areas according to collective good content, it is clear that areas with large trans-boundary effects were favoured. The most important targets for Swedish assistance were wastewater treatment facilities, measures to decrease emissions from point sources and increased nuclear safety, while for example handling of solid waste and nature protection received scant attention. Since Sweden, like most other donors, required the recipient country to cover a significant proportion of the cost of every joint project with local funding, domestic financial resources were furthermore drawn to the areas preferred by the donors. Depending on the scarcity of investment funds as well as of administrative capacity in the Baltic States, other domestically prioritized environmental issue-areas were thus largely neglected.

  • 12.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Gains from bilateral cooperation: a tentative research agenda2003In: Sweden and Poland from a European Perspective: Some Aspects on the Integration Process / [ed] Yonhyok Choe, Björn Hassler, Stanislaw Zyborowicz, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2003, p. 1-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Global regimes, regional adaptation: environmental safety in Baltic Sea oil transportation2010In: Maritime Policy & Management, ISSN 0308-8839, E-ISSN 1464-5254, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 489-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite significant efforts to improve environmental safety in marine oil transportation, the risk of a major accident with devastating oil spills has most likely increased. Building on the regime analytical approach where it is assumed that international collaboration may benefit participating countries, it is argued that bilateral and sub-regional initiatives may increase maritime safety significantly, compared to exclusive reliance on universal conventions. A distinction is made between on the one hand investments in safety-increasing infrastructure and local capacity building and on the other, vessel design, on-board installations and crew qualifications. It is suggested that bilateral and sub-regional initiatives are more likely to be taken on the former kind of objects, targeting issues, such as modernization of port facilities, monitoring support, assistance in emergency capacity building and designation of ports of refuge, because the interaction between the involved countries are comparably stable in the cases. Actual efforts to improve safety seem to follow the logic of separation between these two types of safety-increasing measures. It is concluded that similar drivers of bilateral and sub-regional initiatives targeting specific aspects of marine safety and contributing to overall collective benefits from improved environmental protection probably exist also in other regions than the Baltic Sea.

  • 14.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Oil Spills from Shipping: a case study of the governance of accidental hazards and intentional pollution in the Baltic Sea2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea: / [ed] Michael Gilek, Mikael Karlsson, Sebastian Linke, Katarzyna Smolarz, Springer, 2016, p. 125-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Postmaterialistic environmental attitudes: From attitudinal change to behavioural implications2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that economic development and increased socioeconomic security tend to foster postmaterialistic attitudes including an increased concern for the environment. According to the postmaterialist hypothesis, individuals who grow up under favorable materialistic conditions tend to place a higher value on non-materialistic issues, not only during their adolescence but also for the rest of their lives. During a modernization process where people’s socioeconomic welfare increases with time, a generational effect is created where younger cohorts systematically demonstrate a higher concern for postmaterialistic values. In contrast to the postmaterialist hypothesis, a link between current income and postmaterialism has been suggested as an alternative explanation for the alleged spread of postmaterialistic attitudes. This would imply that the generational effect is substituted for a current income effect where societies with more affluent citizens tend to have a more postmaterialistic outlook. In this article, concern for the environment is taken as an example of a postmaterialistic outlook. Survey data about attitudes towards environmental issues in Estonia (2001) is used to show that no clear correlation can be found between either personal income or age and the adoption of a positive attitude towards environmental issues. This finding is taken as a starting point for a theoretical elaboration about the relationship between income, attitudes and the consumption of postmaterialistic goods. It is suggested that the important link might not be between attitudes and socioeconomic security but between income and spending on postmaterialistic goods. Changes in behavior are therefore dependent on differences in income elasticity between materialistic and postmaterialistic goods. The most important implication is that the observed changes in attitude in a postmaterialistic direction probably entail less consumption of materialistic goods in relative terms but not in absolute terms.

  • 16.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    ’Protecting the Baltic Sea: The Helsinki Convention and national interests’2003In: Yearbook of international co-operation on environment and development, 2003/2004, p. 33-43Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    [Recension av] "Internasjonal Miljøpolitikk", Steinar Andresen, Elin Lerum Boasson och Geir Hønneland (red).2009In: Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning, ISSN 0040-716X, E-ISSN 1504-291X, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 242-246Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Science and politics of foreign aid: Swedish environmental support to the Baltic States2003Book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Swedish environmental support to the Baltic Sea countries: collective goods, national interests, and altruism2007In: Western Aid in Postcommunism Effects and Side-effects / [ed] Anna Korhonen, David Lehrer, Palgrave Macmillan , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    The Myth of Sustainable Development: Environmental Policy, Practice and Incentives in the Baltic Sea Region2005In: The Challenge of the Baltic Sea Region: Culture, Ecosystems, Democracy / [ed] Bolin, Göran, Hammer, Monica, Kirsch, Frank-Michael, and Szrubka, Wojciech, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2005, p. 213-238Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Hassler, Björn
    Linköpings universitet.
    The strategy of assistance: Swedish environmental support to the Baltic states 1991-19962000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Transnational environmental collective action facing implementation constraints: the case of nutrient leakage in the Baltic Sea Action Plan2017In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 408-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While scholars have showed a long-standing interest for how to design effective environmental treaties and other international agreements, less interest has been paid to implementation phases of these agreements. This article takes the Eutrophication Segment in the Baltic Sea Action Plan as an example of a regional effort to reduce nutrient leakages, where national reporting of adopted strategies has been a key mechanism to improve implementation effectiveness. It is shown that although transnational collective action theory is a powerful tool to analyse underlying drivers and priorities in state implementation policies, a deeper analysis of domestic and external constraints can shed additional light on observed implementation gaps. Varying views among countries on, for example, the role of stakeholder participation, legitimacy and top-down governing versus multi-stakeholder governance approaches may comprise domestic constraints that make effective and efficient implementation problematic. In terms of external constraints, states’ balancing of action plan objectives versus other international commitments, such as other environmental treaties and EU Directives, is shown to potentially reduce implementation efficiency as well.

  • 23.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Blažauskas, N.
    Klaipėda University Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Lithuania.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Janßen, H.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Luttmann, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Piwowarczyk, J.
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, H.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE D2:2: Ambitions and Realities in Baltic Sea Marine Spatial Planning and the Ecosystem Approach: Policy and Sector Coordination in Promotion of Regional Integration2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the BONUS BALTSPACE project and is focused on challenges for policy and sector integration in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning (MSP). The main objectives have been to identify concrete coordination problems, to analyse why they have emerged and to discuss possible remedies. It is based on selected aspects extracted from case studies carried out in this project related to the development of regional MSP approaches in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden and on an additional case study on the HELCOM-VASAB Working Group on MSP. To facilitate the analysis of vertical policy interactions between institutions at different levels as well as of horizontal interactions over sector and country borders, an analytical framework was constructed. This framework consists of two main components; (a) institution-driven coordination where institutions such as global treaties, the EU, regional organisations, and state authorities provide boundaries for decisions taken at lower levels and (b) benefit-driven coordination capturing horizontal coordination across sector and country borders.

  • 24.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi, Turku, Finland.
    Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Management in Regional Marine Governance?: The Baltic Sea Context2013In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 225-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, European marine governance seems to be undergoing significantchanges. From having been based largely on scientific expert knowledge, restricted riskassessments and governmental regulation, we are now witnessing a management turntowards holistic perspectives, the inclusion of stakeholders, adaptive governance, and coproductionof knowledge—the so-called ecosystem approach to management (EAM). Byusing the Baltic Sea as an example of these changes, we have taken a closer look at the2007 Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) of the Helsinki Commission and the recent organizationalchanges within the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES).Informed by a Reflexive Governance perspective, the primary objective has been toanalyse the extent to which institutional preconditions for using an EAM exist in thesetwo cases. Our results show that even though the BSAP has been designed with anEAM approach as its core philosophy, existing implementation, financing, monitoring,and enforcement structures make it unlikely that actual management modes will changesignificantly in the near feature. Changes in the ICES have occurred as a result of aninternal restructuring process characterized by integrative and learning elements. It hasbeen shown that adopting a broad social science perspective and a reflexive governanceviewpoint can elucidate how factors such as inadequate institutional change, limitedcooperation over sector borders, and adjustment problems caused by path dependencycan threaten the successful turn towards the EAM in marine governance.

  • 25.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Boström, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Åbo University.
    Kern, Kristine
    Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea - A comparison between five key areas: Deliverable number 82011Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    Collective action and agency in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning: Transnational policy coordination in the promotion of regional coherence2018In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 92, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increasing attention given to marine spatial planning and the widely acknowledged need for transnational policy coordination, regional coherence has not yet improved a great deal in the Baltic Sea region. Therefore, the main objectives in this article are: (a) to map existing governance structures at all levels that influence how domestic marine spatial planning policy strategies are formed, (b) to identify specific challenges to improved regional cooperation and coordination, and (c) to discuss possible remedies. Based on data from in-depth case studies carried out in the BONUS BALTSPACE research project, it is shown that, despite the shared goal of sustainability and efficient resource use in relevant EU Directives, action plans and other policy instruments, domestic plans are emerging in diverse ways, mainly reflecting varying domestic administrative structures, sectoral interests, political prioritisations, and handling of potentially conflicting policy objectives. A fruitful distinction can be made between, on the one hand, regulatory institutions and structures above the state level where decision-making mechanisms are typically grounded in consensual regimes and, on the other hand, bilateral, issue-specific collaboration, typically between adjacent countries. It is argued that, to improve overall marine spatial planning governance, these two governance components need to be brought together to improve consistency between regional alignment and to enhance opportunities for countries to collaborate at lower levels. Issue-specific transnational working groups or workshops can be one way to identify and act upon such potential synergies.

  • 27.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Lockne, Erika
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Rabe, Linn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Problems and potential solutions to effective communication among stakeholders in the Baltic Sea shipping for reduced air pollution: Outcomes from a survey2013In: Clean Shipping Currents, ISSN 2242-9794, Vol. 2, no 5, p. -33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a web survey distributed to stakeholders in the Baltic Sea marine sector regarding environmental communication on air pollution from shipping. The survey was carried out in the spring and summer of 2012. Drawing on the literature on risk communication and environmental governance, the main focus was placed on so-called communication barriers, that is, possible hindrances to effective communication among stakeholders on how to reduce air pollution without threatening sector competitiveness. The results show that although there is a dense networking among stakeholders in this sector, there is a demand for improvements in communication in (a) exploratory phases among broad groups of stakeholders and (b) operational phases among selected groups of e.g. business and research teams. To facilitate the emergence of such improved communication, regional organizations such as HELCOM and EU could play important roles. Furthermore, it is shown that there is a perceived need among many stakehold­ers to step up the involvement of certain stakeholders, for example fuel companies, in collabora­tion on how to reduce pollution from shipping in cost-efficient ways. Finally, the results show that although continuous improvements of international regulation is a vital part of the governance of the marine sector, compliance will suffer if operators’ incentives are too strong in favor of not con­tributing to reduced pollution levels. Therefore, there is a strong need for innovative thinking on how to design such incentive schemes, not the least in relation to the continued implementation of Baltic Sea SECA and NECA as well as of the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

  • 28.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Får Östersjön en hållbar förvaltning2009In: Miljöforskning, ISSN 1650-4925, no 3-4, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lockne, Erika
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    Communication among maritime stakeholders: Problems and solutions in the field of ship’s air emissions2013In: Pan-Baltic Manual of Best Practices on Clean Shipping and Port Operations / [ed] Breitzmann, K-H and M. Hytti, Turku: Union of the Baltic Cities , 2013, p. 98-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Söderström, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Leposa, Neva
    Marine oil transportations in the Baltic Sea area: Deliverable number 62010Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Miljörisker i Östersjön och möjlighet till hållbar förvaltning av naturresurser2009In: Miljöforskning, ISSN 1650-4925, no 3/4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Knudsen, Olav F.
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    IMO legislation and its implementation: Accident risk, vessel deficiencies and national administrative practices2011In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 201-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article takes as its point of departure the apparently contradictory findings in recent research about accident rates in shipping and IMO implementation records. It is argued here that although IMO conventions have probably greatly improved shipping safety, they cannot credibly be held to be the chief cause of reduced accident rates as claimed in a recent Marine Policy article, when the documented failures of flag state and port state implementation continue to leave vessels sailing with grave deficiencies. The present analysis posits and corroborates a cluster of linked tendencies that jointly undermine IMO implementation. The core problem is IMO’s weak connection to the national maritime administrations, leading to broadly discretionary practices, exacerbated by language difficulties. Adding new rules is no panacea, as new rules in some cases negatively affect the functioning of existing regulations, and sometimes seem motivated mainly to show political alertness. The structural weakness of the IMO/member state link is the core implementation problem that urgently needs to be dealt with if marine safety is to be improved. The concluding section proposes a reform to bring the IMO out of this conundrum and ensure effective implementation.

  • 33.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Dahl, K.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, J.
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, H.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D2.4: MSP as a governance approach? Knowledge integration challenges in MSP in the Baltic Sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing integrative decision-making underpinned by a diverse knowledge base is seen as essential to meet marine spatial planning’s (MSP) sustainable development aspirations. In contributing to a better understanding of how this might be achieved, this report considers knowledge integration challenges drawing on several MSP empirical cases across the Baltic Sea Region. Each case-study, involves Baltic Sea states at different stages of developing national marine spatial plans. At the Baltic-wide level, HELCOM-VASAB has interpreted the Ecosystem Approach in MSP as relying heavily on an evidence-base informed by natural scientific and expert knowledge. The results of the report show that challenges arise when trying to apply scientific knowledge to MSP events or processes for a number of reasons such as, incomplete data and associated substantial uncertainty or because stakeholders contest the policy interpretation of the data. This raises questions of how to assess or evaluate the quality and comprehensiveness/sufficiency of scientific and stakeholder knowledge or input into MSP decision-making, particularly in highly politicised, conflictual contexts, such as the integration of parts of the fishing sector in MSP in Poland. MSP in German territorial waters provides a positive example, where science and stakeholder knowledge input have been integrated in decision-making through informal and formal processes. This case exhibits evidence of social learning where authorities have reflected on previous experiences and invested in actively nurturing the meaningful participation of a wide variety of stakeholders (to form a community of practice) over an extended period of time. The key findings of the report call for more attention to be paid to ways that scientific and stakeholder knowledge can be fruitfully incorporated in MSP, through initiatives such as: the development of knowledge evaluation measures; drawing more actively on social science expertise to help facilitate processes of stakeholder engagement and knowledge inclusion; and paying more attention to how to include heterogeneous socio-cultural values and knowledge (placed-based) in a way that improves the salience of scientific knowledge and the legitimacy of MSP decision-making.

  • 34.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, A.
    c Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Sweden.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D1.3: Evaluating the sustainability of governance: a proposal for evaluating marine spatial planning in the Baltic Sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Deliverable elaborates an evaluation design for MSP that responds to a growing call for a more nuanced and critical conceptualisation and implementation of MSP as complex sites of governance. Here we posit that such an evaluation design should be based on 'sustainability of governance' in MSP. Furthermore, that such an evaluation approach should be built on good governance principles of participation, coordination, openness and collaboration in governance processes with the aim to strengthen MSP on both democratic and functionality grounds. To advance this position, we elaborate the relationship between integration as a concept that can be used to examine the sustainability of governance in practice. The conceptual framework is then used to structure a discussion of illustrative examples of the relationship between integration and sustainability of governance across several Baltic Sea case-studies. The results of these case studies are then framed in a discussion on aspects that need to be considered when designing an evaluation process for MSP. Points highlighted here are the need to adopt a deliberative and reflexive approach that draws on a wide body of evidence in evaluation. A set of clustered evaluative criteria (CEC), referring to practices deemed to be desirable for sustainability of MSP governance, are proposed to guide or direct an evaluation process. The CEC were derived through an assessment of what is deemed important in the relevant literature as well as through consideration of the experience of the Baltic cases. The CEC could be seen as indicators of integration that relate to aspects of sustainability of governance in MSP, as well as, in more instrumental terms to support problem-solving aimed at improving MSP coherence. The evaluation design outlined here would require to be tested and trialled in MSP settings to assess its saliency and refine its usability in practice.

  • 35.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH.
    Göke, Cordula
    Aarhus University.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lenninger, Paula
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Schiele, Kerstin
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk.
    BALTSPACE Deliverable: D1.2: Final Guidance Document on Analysing Possibilities and Challenges for MSP Integration2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report makes a case for examining the role of integration and its links to how sustainable development is variably expressed in different marine spatial planning (MSP) contexts. The aim of the report is to refine an analytical approach to examine integration in MSP in the Baltic Sea through consideration of preliminary empirical results from a broad range of case studies. MSP is conceptualised here as a governance platform for improving processes to enable political decision-making with the aim to achieve sustainable development of marine space. Integration is universally espoused as a means to address a variety of challenges closely related to MSP’s sustainable development ambitions, such as supporting inter-sectoral decision-making, stakeholder engagement and cross-border interaction, but its role, value and implementation in MSP has not been examined in any empirical detail. Although increased integration may well have positive effects on MSP processes and outcomes, in some instances, the contrary might also be the case. With these thoughts in mind, this report argues that we need to analyse integration as a multidimensional concept in MSP processes and outcomes. Based on understandings of integration derived from MSP experience and concepts in the broader social science literature, an analytical framework is developed to examine MSP practice in the Baltic Sea. Integration is conceptualised as including transboundary/cross-border, policy/sectoral, stakeholder and knowledge dimensions. Despite common requirements under the European Union MSP Directive and policies, national jurisdictions are likely to adopt MSP differently, which has implications for the role integration is likely to play in national and transnational MSP practice. Drawing on empirical data derived from national MSP studies, stakeholder dialogue forums and preliminary interviews with stakeholders the analytical framework is applied to examine how particular integration challenges play out in both national and transnational marine space across the Baltic Sea Region. The analytical framework is then used to structure an examination of several case studies from different parts of the Baltic Sea Region. Based on consideration of the empirical work and an analyses of previous experiences in science and practice we then propose some revisions to the initial analytical framework presented earlier. The revised analytical framework, while capturing the integration dimensions mentioned earlier, also includes consideration of the following aspects of integration: how ‘balance’ between sustainable development dimensions is exercised; the character of cross-boundary interactions; and temporal dynamics. Instead of a conclusion, short think-pieces are presented to capture the main insights of the report, which could be used to aid the examination of integration in MSP in other MSP contexts, beyond the Baltic Sea.

  • 36.
    Söderström, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Kern, Kristine
    Leibniz-Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Marine Governance in the Baltic Sea: Current Trends of Europeanization and Regionalization2015In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment: Europeanization of Regional Seas or Regionalization of EU Policies? / [ed] Michael Gilek and Kristine Kern, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, 1, p. 163-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Zaucha, J.
    et al.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    d Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Sweden.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Piwowarczyk, J.
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Gee, K.
    f Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Turski, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS Policy Brief: Challenges and Possibilities for MSP integration in the Baltic Sea2017Report (Other academic)
1 - 37 of 37
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