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  • 1.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    The Swedish forestry model: More of everything?2017In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, p. 44-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “The Swedish forestry model” refers to the forest regime that evolved following the 1993 revision of the Swedish Forestry Act. It is key to Swedish forest politics and used to capture the essence of a sustainable way of managing forests. However, the ideas, institutions and practices comprising the model have not been comprehensively analyzed previously. Addressing this knowledge gap, we use frame analysis and a Pathways approach to investigate the underlying governance model, focusing on the way policy problems are addressed, goals, implementation procedures, outcomes and the resulting pathways to sustainability. We suggest that the institutionally embedded response to pressing sustainability challenges and increasing demands is expansion, inclusion and integration: more of everything. The more-of-everything pathway is influenced by ideas of ecological modernization and the optimistic view that existing resources can be increased. Our findings suggest that in effect it prioritizes the economic dimension of sustainability. While broadening out policy formulation it closes down the range of alternative outputs, a shortcoming that hampers its capacity to respond to current sustainability challenges. Consequently, there is a need for a broad public debate regarding not only the role of forests in future society, but also the operationalization of sustainable development.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Challenges to the Legitimacy of Private Forest Governance: the Development of Forest Certification in Sweden2012In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 424-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Substantial scholarly attention has been given to the effectiveness and legitimacy of private forest governance, especially the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Research has suggested that such cooperation between forest corporations and ENGOs may develop shared norms for responsible forestry. At least initially, however, conflicts are likely to occur since these stakeholders are accountable to different constituencies.Yet there are comparatively few studies on how such conflicts have affected the development and legitimacy of forest certification on the national level, which is where conflicts must be managed. This study explores how stakeholders’ search for accountability has influenced the legitimacy of forest certification schemes, drawing on developments in Sweden. The study relies on the theoretical foundations of governance, legitimacy and accountability, and on reports from forest corporations and ENGOs. The results show that these stakeholders have continuously disagreed on the input and output legitimacy of forest certification, though the positions have changed over time, eventually making ENGOs reject forest certification schemes. These repeated conflicts have been fuelled by the stakeholders’ search for public reputational accountability and market accountability. In effect, the very meaning of the FSC label is today being questioned. Thereby forest certification in Sweden has, at least temporarily, left the suggested path to the evolution of shared norms. These results call for related studies on how to manage accountability issues and power relations in forest certification.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Collaborative governance for sustainable forestry in the emerging bio-based economy in Europe2018In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 32, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a common theme in social science research, natural resource policies and practical management has been the increasing emphasis on partnerships and other forms of collaborative efforts as effective means to reach tangible and sustainable outcomes. Another significant trend is the increasing focus on the role of the forestry sector in managing the challenges of climate change, and the push towards a bio-based, low-carbon economy is at the epicenter of the public debate in several EU countries. Drawing on research on collaborative processes as well as research on policy design, this paper reviews the current trend to rely increasingly on collaborative efforts to improve sustainability, using forest governance in northern Europe as an illustrative case. It pays particular attention to efforts to balance concerned stakeholders through National Forest Programmes (NFPs), and considers these efforts in an international context. It concludes by elaborating on future research directions and policy recommendations that are critical to achieve intended outcomes in forest governance systems characterized by state-initiated collaborative processes as well as various forms of voluntary initiatives.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Constructing and contesting the legitimacy of private forest governance: The case of forest certification in Sweden2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, political scientists have devoted substantial attention to the changing role of the state towards more inclusion of non-state actors in policymaking. This deliberative turn, or move towards governance, may signal inability to handle complex problems without cooperation with nonstate actors. On the other hand, governance is frequently credited with generating legitimate decision-making processes and results. In some instances, non-governmental actors have even taken the lead in policymaking. One archetype of such private governance, which has received significant scholarly attention, is forest certification. The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is frequently described as the most democratic and therefore legitimate forest certification organization since it grants equal voting rights to three stakeholder groups in the formulation of criteria for responsible forestry: environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs), social groups (indigenous peoples and labor organizations) and forest owners. However, in Sweden, a country often described as a role model in forest certification, the FSC has increasingly received critique for failing to generate legitimate processes and results, and recently three of five ENGOs have chosen to exit the FSC organization. Such processes of de-legitimation have received little attention in the forest certification literature.

    This thesis therefore provides a critical assessment of the legitimacy of forest certification in Sweden. Legitimacy is analyzed through concerned stakeholders’ perceptions of both procedural qualities (input legitimacy) and problem-solving capacity (output legitimacy). This study of legitimacy is combined with an assessment of the ability of certification to enhance environmental protection, defined as changes in both forest management practices and biophysical conditions. The thesis focuses not the least on legitimacy on the local level, which is where the actual implementation takes place. Today local studies of the legitimacy of forest certification are rare.

    Both quantitative and qualitative research methods are applied and a number of sources are analyzed: forest monitoring data, survey data, interviews with and documents produced by the participating stakeholders. Papers I and IV analyze the perceived legitimacy of forest certification, while Papers II and III analyze forest certification schemes’ ability to enhance environmental protection.

    The results show that a process of de-legitimation is occurring in Swedish forest certification. In particular, certification has lost legitimacy with ENGOs, which increasingly consider Swedish forest certification to lack both input legitimacy and output legitimacy. Moreover, although the Swedish FSC standard pays attention to reindeer husbandry, the results show that reindeer herders consider themselves to have limited power to influence long-term forest planning and management (low output legitimacy). The forest industry, on the other hand, increasingly grants legitimacy to forest certification due to customer demands, which are created not the least by pressures from international ENGOs and by EU regulation. The results also show that Swedish forest companies have paid more attention to their environmental practices after obtaining certification. However, to what extent these changes result in positive environmental impacts remains uncertain, especially since forests in Sweden grow slowly, which requires analyses over time. There are also measurement problems resulting from the low certification rate among small-scale forest owners and from the fact that certified small-scale owners tend to be more active in their management.

    These findings highlight that research on private forest governance should not neglect the role of the state, neither as a buyer nor as a regulator. These findings also suggest that further research should pay attention to power asymmetries in private governance and develop methods for better understanding and evaluating the certification schemes’ environmental and social impacts.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Participation and deliberation in Swedish forest governance: The process of initiating a National Forest Program2016In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 70, p. 137-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades intergovernmental organizations have supported the initiation of National Forest Programs (NFPs): forums for joint deliberation by the state, private companies and NGOs that are intended to resolve conflicts over forestry and enhance sustainability. However, NFPs do not always reconcile conflicting perspectives or produce legitimate strategies for sustainable forestry. Thus, further analysis of NFPs' organization and processes is required, including exploration of effective means to address such challenges in early stages. These are key concerns of this paper, focusing on the first process to establish a Swedish NFP. Possibilities for an NFP to constitute a new arena for deliberation and consensus-building, producing forest policy statements and action plans considered legitimate by various stakeholders, are discussed. A number of key challenges are identified through a theoretical framework based on notions regarding the input and output legitimacy of collaborative governance. Analysis of official documentation, records of public hearings and stakeholder comments from the establishment phase in 2013–2015 suggests that the process will continually face a number of challenges, including balancing production and conservation values in the new bio-economy and securing equal stakeholder participation. The paper concludes with some remarks on the future of the NFP process.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Towards democratic and effective forest governance?: The discursive legitimation of forest certification in northern Sweden2014In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 803-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest certification, particularly that of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), is frequently claimed to constitute an effective and democratic private governance arrangement for responsible forestry. It has, however, recently been questioned whether this view holds true for the northernmost countries, which have traditionally been presented as successful examples of forest certification. Yet there is little research on the perceived legitimacy of forest certification at the local level, which is where the standard implementation takes place. This paper examines how the perceived legitimacy of forest certification is created as well as challenged at the local level in Sweden, drawing on Steffek's [2009. Discursive legitimation in environmental governance. Forest Policy and Economics, 11, 313–318] conceptualisation of discursive legitimation and Bernstein's [2011. Legitimacy in intergovernmental and non-state global governance. Review of International Political Economy, 18 (1), 17–51] definition of legitimacy as well as semi-structured interviews with forest companies, reindeer husbandry (indigenous Sámi) and environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs). The results reveal that local ENGOs question the FSC's decision-making process and results, while both the ENGOs and reindeer husbandry see few opportunities to influence long-term forest management. These findings highlight the difficulties of managing power asymmetries in certification and the challenges involved when certification standards are translated from policy to practice.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Why do forest companies change their CSR strategies? Responses to market demands and public regulation through dual-certification2014In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 349-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Certification represents a comparatively new means of CSR, which is important in the forest industry. Forest companies and industries have previously certified their management and products in accordance with one of the competing systems (FSC: Forest Stewardship Council and PEFC: Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes), but recently, important large-scale companies in several countries have started to certify under both schemes. This study explores the causes and effects of this change in strategies, drawing on semi-structured interviews with Swedish forest companies and industries and European retailers. The results show that public bodies, not the least in the EU, as well as ENGOs, have transformed customer demands, resulting in dual-certification. This change in strategies has the potential to alter corporate environmental practices throughout the supply chains. These results call for further research on the under-studied issue of the interaction between public regulation and private forest governance.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Coordinating and implementing multiple systems for forest management: implications of the regulatory framework for sustainable forestry in Sweden2014In: Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, ISSN 1939-0459, E-ISSN 1939-0467, Vol. 6, no 2-3, p. 117-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of multi-level governance is well illustrated by forest management in one of Europe’s large forested states, Sweden. Deregulated government policies emphasise “freedom with responsibility,” largely expecting the forest sector to determine ways in which policy goals and legal requirements are reached. In relation to this, Sweden has become one of the countries with the largest share of forests certified by third-party organisations, such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), in accordance with specific environmental and social criteria. This multi-level case study draws on official documents and semi-structured interviews to analyse Swedish forest governance; specifically, the impact of multiplicity and complexity of environmental considerations on agreement over goal coordination, implementation, and evaluation for feedback and accountability. This contributes to previous research by analysing interactions between state regulation and certification at multiple levels.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Can voluntary standards regulate forestry?: Assessing the environmental impacts of forest certification in Sweden2011In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 191-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the issue of to what extent forest certification schemes contribute to the enhancement of environmental protection in Swedish forestry. Our assessment is built on the analysis of three different data sets, namely: 1) the Swedish National Forest Inventory (NFI), 2) the Swedish Database for Forest Owner Analysis, presenting data on small-scale forestry practices and certification, and 3) a follow-up mail survey addressed to private small-scale forest owners with certified forest properties. Our NFI analysis indicated some minor improvements in forest conditions, corresponding with the interim target for enhanced biological diversity (dead wood, broad-leaved trees and old forests). The improvements were less evident on large-scale forest properties (certified in accordance with the Forest Stewardship Council scheme) than on small-scale private forest properties (mainly certified in accordance with the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes). This contradicts a common assumption that a much higher degree of certification with stricter environmental standards will give more evident positive impacts on environmental conditions. However, results from the follow-up survey showed that more harvesting activity had taken place on certified small-scale forest properties than on non-certified properties. This could mean more negative effects on biodiversity. We conclude by stressing the importance of improving quantitative methods for determining a cause-and-effect relationship between certification and nature protection; previous research tends to report rather far-reaching conclusions based on limited data sets.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    SLU (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences).
    Inspired by structured decision making: a collaborative approach to the governance of multiple forest values2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 4, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 2000s, consensus-oriented decision making has become increasingly common in the management of natural resources because of the recognition that collaborative processes may enhance the legitimacy of decision making and facilitate effective implementation. Previous research has identified a number of problems with the design and practical facilitation of collaborative processes. Structured decision making (SDM) has been developed as an alternative suitable for decision making characterized by complexity, stakeholder controversy, and scientific uncertainty. Our aim was to investigate the feasibility and practical relevance of collaboration and dialogue inspired by SDM in the sphere of forest management. The methods used included analyses of meetings records and semistructured interviews with participating stakeholders and organizers of a collaborative process focused on improving the management of Swedish forests in the young forest phase. The results show that the SDM rationale of step-by-step teamwork, the involvement of experts, and guidance by an independent facilitator has a number of merits. These merits included the creation of genuine discussion with careful consideration of different interests and values, thus building trust among stakeholders and the Swedish Forest Agency. However, at the end of the process, some issues still remained unclear, including how the decision options would be made practically useful and accessible to forest owners. Furthermore, concerns were raised about the lack of novelty of the options. As a result, there was uncertainty about the extent to which the options would contribute to a more varied forest landscape given the multiple values involved. We conclude with some remarks on the potential future of engaging SDM in the forestry sector.

  • 11.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Tysiachniouk, Maria
    Centre for Independent Social Research, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Local consequences of applying international norms: differences in the application of forest certification in northern Sweden, northern Finland, and northwest Russia2009In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 1-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest certification, developed in the early 1990s, is a process in which independent assessors grant use of the certification label to producers who meet certain environmental and social criteria set for their forest products. This label was quickly seen to offer a market advantage and to signal corporate social and environmental responsibility. This paper focuses on international norms pertaining to environmental and indigenous rights, as manifested in cases of Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)- and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC)-compatible certification, and how these norms have been applied domestically and perceived locally in different states. Case studies are drawn from northern Sweden, northern Finland, and three regions in northwest Russia. The studies illustrate that the choice and implementation of certification type depend considerably on national infrastructure and market characteristics and result in substantial differences in the impact that international norms have at the local level.

  • 12.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sjödin, Daniel
    Örebro universitet.
    Wildfires, responsibility and trust: public understanding of Sweden's largest wildfire2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 319-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wildfires present a growing risk to many countries, and climate change is likely to exacerbate this risk. This study analyzes how people directly affected by a wildfire understand its causes and consequences, as well as the future risk of wildfires. The point of departure is that social understanding of wildfires has an important influence on the consequences that emerge in the wake of a wildfire. The empirical case analyzed here is the largest forest fire in modern Swedish history, and the material basis of the study is a postal survey to all individuals directly affected by the fire. The results revealed a complex picture of the respondents’ understanding of the wildfire. Even if the fire was human caused, there was little blame toward forest companies and fire departments. Many positive consequences, such as a long-term increase in biodiversity, were attached to the disaster, and there was a belief that organizations will learn from it and take action to limit wildfires in the future. Simultaneously, the majority of the respondents believed that climate change may lead to an increased risk of forest fires in the future. These findings illustrate the complexity of people's perceptions of the fire and its aftermath.

  • 13.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Nordin, Annika
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Rist, Lucy
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Umeå universitet.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Lämås, Tomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nilsson, Urban
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk.
    Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract2017Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the past, and of the future on current-time tradeoffs in the forest arena are particularly relevant given the long-term successions in forest landscapes and the hundred years’ rotations in forestry. Historically established path dependencies and conflicts determine our present situation and delimit what is possible to achieve. Similarly, future trends and desires have a large influence on decision making. Nevertheless, decisions about forest governance and management are always made in the present – in the present-time appraisal of the developed situation, future alternatives and in negotiation between different perspectives, interests, and actors.

    This book explores historic and future outlooks as well as current tradeoffs and methods in forest governance and management. It emphasizes the generality and complexity with empirical data from Sweden and internationally. It first investigates, from a historical perspective, how previous forest policies and discourses have influenced current forest governance and management. Second, it considers methods to explore alternative forest futures and how the results from such investigations may influence the present. Third, it examines current methods of balancing tradeoffs in decision-making among ecosystem services. Based on the findings the authors develop an integrated approach – Reflexive Forestry – to support exchange of knowledge and understandings to enable capacity building and the establishment of common ground. Such societal agreements, or what the authors elaborate as forest social contracts, are sets of relational commitment between involved actors that may generate mutual action and a common directionality to meet contemporary challenges.

  • 14.
    Olschewski, Roland
    et al.
    WSL Swiss Federal Research Institute.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Kasymov, Ulan
    Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Fürst, Christine
    Martin-Luther-University, Halle-Wittenberg.
    Ring, Irene
    TU Dresden.
    Policy Forum: Challenges and opportunities in developing new forest governance systems: Insights from the IPBES assessment for Europe and Central Asia2018In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 97, p. 175-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts to develop new governance systems in environmental policy at the international, national and subnational level face multiple challenges. In the context of these challenges, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) was established by the United Nations in 2012 to become the leading intergovernmental body for assessing the state of the planet’s biodiversity, its ecosystems, and the essential contributions they provide to society. In this note, we refer to the Regional Assessment for Europe and Central Asia. As co-authors of the report, we present the results of our assessment focusing on the forest sector due to its high potential for conserving biodiversity and providing ecosystem services. Notwithstanding several knowledge gaps, the IPBES regional assessment provides a valuable basis to make better-informed decisions. It identifies promising governance options by mainstreaming the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and the sustained provision of ecosystem services into public and private decision making, emphasising a more pro-active and goal-oriented policy approach. To which degree these options can be realized and which pathways will be taken towards a sustainable transition is a matter of societal choice, including policy, economy and citizens.

  • 15.
    Ring, Eva
    et al.
    Skogforsk.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Bjarnadóttir, Brynhildur
    University of Akureyri, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Finér, Leena
    Natural Resources Institute Finland-Luke, Joensuu, Finland.
    Lībiete, Zane
    LSFRI Silava, Salaspils, Latvia.
    Lode, Elve
    Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia / Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stupak, Inge
    University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Sætersdal, Magne
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Mapping policies for surface water protection zones on forest land in the Nordic-Baltic region: Large differences in prescriptiveness and zone width.2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 878-893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest landscape across the Nordic and Baltic regions hosts numerous lakes and watercourses, which must be included in forest management. In this study, national policy designs regarding protection zones for surface waters on forest land were reviewed and compared for the Nordic countries, Estonia and Latvia. The focus was how each country regulates protection zones, whether they are voluntary or mandatory, and the rationale behind adopting a low or high degree of prescriptiveness. Iceland and Denmark had a low degree of policy prescriptiveness, whereas Norway, Estonia and Latvia had a high degree of prescriptiveness. Sweden and Finland relied to a large extent on voluntary commitments. The prescribed zone widths within the region ranged from 1 m to 5 km. The results indicated that land-use distribution, forest ownership structure and historical and political legacies have influenced the varying degrees of prescriptiveness in the region.

  • 16. Ring, Irene
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Acar, Sevil
    Adeishvili, Malkhaz
    Albert, Christian
    Allard, Christina
    Anker, Yaakov
    Arlettaz, Raphaël
    Bela, Györgyi
    ten Brink, Ben
    Fischer, Anke
    Fürst, Christine
    Galil, Bella
    Hynes, Stephen
    Kasymov, Ulan
    Marta- Pedroso, Cristina
    Mendes, Ana
    Molau, Ulf
    Olschewski, Roland
    Pergl, Jan
    Simoncin, Riccardo
    Adem, Çiğdem (Contributor)
    Blackstock, Kirsty (Contributor)
    Hauck, Jennifer (Contributor)
    Johansson, Johanna (Contributor)
    Lasson, Caroline (Contributor)
    Minchenko, Natalya (Contributor)
    Reimerson, Elsa (Contributor)
    Schläpfer, Martin (Contributor)
    Simonov, Eugene A. (Contributor)
    Snethlage, Mark (Contributor)
    Söderasp, Johanna (Contributor)
    Options for governance and decision-making across scales and sectors2018In: IPBES: The IPBES regional assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services for Europe and Central Asia / [ed] Rounsevell, M., Fischer, M., Torre-Marin Rando, A., Mader, A., Bonn: Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem services , 2018, p. 661-802Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå universitet.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Fries, Clas
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet.
    In the eye of the stakeholder: the challenges of governing social forest values2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 87-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines which kinds of social benefits derived from forests are emphasised by Swedish stakeholders and what governance modes and management tools they accept. Our study shows that there exists a great variety among stakeholders’ perceptions of forests’ social values, where tourism and recreation is the most common reference. There are also differences in preferred governance modes and management where biomass and bioenergy sectors advocate business as usual (i.e. framework regulations and voluntarism) and other stakeholders demand rigid tools (i.e. coercion and targeting) and improved landscape planning. This divide will have implications for future policy orientations and require deliberative policy processes and improved dialogue among stakeholders and authorities. We suggest that there is a potential for these improvements, since actors from almost all stakeholder groups support local influence on governance and management, acknowledged and maintained either by the authorities, i.e. targeting, or by the stakeholders themselves, i.e. voluntarism.

  • 18.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish Forest Agency, Umeå; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Örebro University.
    Beland-Lindahl, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Felton, Adam
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Widmark, Camilla
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Rist, Lucy
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    From ecological knowledge to conservation policy: a case study on green tree retention and continuous cover forestry in Sweden2019In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent to which scientific knowledge translates into practice is a pervasive question. We analysed to what extent and how ecological scientists gave input to policy for two approaches advocated for promoting forest biodiversity in production forests in Sweden: green-tree retention (GTR) and continuous-cover forestry (CCF). GTR was introduced into forest policy in the 1970s and became widely implemented in the 1990s. Ecological scientists took part in the policy process by providing expert opinions, educational activities and as lobbyists, long before research confirming the positive effects of GTR on biodiversity was produced. In contrast, CCF was essentially banned in forest legislation in 1979. In the 1990s, policy implicitly opened up for CCF implementation, but CCF still remains largely a rare silvicultural outlier. Scientific publications addressing CCF appeared earlier than GTR studies, but with less focus on the effects on biodiversity. Ecological scientists promoted CCF in certain areas, but knowledge from other disciplines and other socio-political factors appear to have been more important than ecological arguments in the case of CCF. The wide uptake of GTR was enhanced by its consistency with the silvicultural knowledge and normative values that forest managers had adopted for almost a century, whereas CCF challenged those ideas. Public pressure and institutional requirements were also key to GTR implementation but were not in place for CCF. Thus, scientific ecological knowledge may play an important role for policy uptake and development, but knowledge from other research disciplines and socio-political factors are also important.

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