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  • 1.
    Saunders, Fred
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, K.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Dahl, K.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, A.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, J.
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, H.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zaucha, J.
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D2.4: MSP as a governance approach? Knowledge integration challenges in MSP in the Baltic Sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing integrative decision-making underpinned by a diverse knowledge base is seen as essential to meet marine spatial planning’s (MSP) sustainable development aspirations. In contributing to a better understanding of how this might be achieved, this report considers knowledge integration challenges drawing on several MSP empirical cases across the Baltic Sea Region. Each case-study, involves Baltic Sea states at different stages of developing national marine spatial plans. At the Baltic-wide level, HELCOM-VASAB has interpreted the Ecosystem Approach in MSP as relying heavily on an evidence-base informed by natural scientific and expert knowledge. The results of the report show that challenges arise when trying to apply scientific knowledge to MSP events or processes for a number of reasons such as, incomplete data and associated substantial uncertainty or because stakeholders contest the policy interpretation of the data. This raises questions of how to assess or evaluate the quality and comprehensiveness/sufficiency of scientific and stakeholder knowledge or input into MSP decision-making, particularly in highly politicised, conflictual contexts, such as the integration of parts of the fishing sector in MSP in Poland. MSP in German territorial waters provides a positive example, where science and stakeholder knowledge input have been integrated in decision-making through informal and formal processes. This case exhibits evidence of social learning where authorities have reflected on previous experiences and invested in actively nurturing the meaningful participation of a wide variety of stakeholders (to form a community of practice) over an extended period of time. The key findings of the report call for more attention to be paid to ways that scientific and stakeholder knowledge can be fruitfully incorporated in MSP, through initiatives such as: the development of knowledge evaluation measures; drawing more actively on social science expertise to help facilitate processes of stakeholder engagement and knowledge inclusion; and paying more attention to how to include heterogeneous socio-cultural values and knowledge (placed-based) in a way that improves the salience of scientific knowledge and the legitimacy of MSP decision-making.

  • 2.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH.
    Göke, Cordula
    Aarhus University.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Lenninger, Paula
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Piwowarczyk, Joanna
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Schiele, Kerstin
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk.
    BALTSPACE Deliverable: D1.2: Final Guidance Document on Analysing Possibilities and Challenges for MSP Integration2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report makes a case for examining the role of integration and its links to how sustainable development is variably expressed in different marine spatial planning (MSP) contexts. The aim of the report is to refine an analytical approach to examine integration in MSP in the Baltic Sea through consideration of preliminary empirical results from a broad range of case studies. MSP is conceptualised here as a governance platform for improving processes to enable political decision-making with the aim to achieve sustainable development of marine space. Integration is universally espoused as a means to address a variety of challenges closely related to MSP’s sustainable development ambitions, such as supporting inter-sectoral decision-making, stakeholder engagement and cross-border interaction, but its role, value and implementation in MSP has not been examined in any empirical detail. Although increased integration may well have positive effects on MSP processes and outcomes, in some instances, the contrary might also be the case. With these thoughts in mind, this report argues that we need to analyse integration as a multidimensional concept in MSP processes and outcomes. Based on understandings of integration derived from MSP experience and concepts in the broader social science literature, an analytical framework is developed to examine MSP practice in the Baltic Sea. Integration is conceptualised as including transboundary/cross-border, policy/sectoral, stakeholder and knowledge dimensions. Despite common requirements under the European Union MSP Directive and policies, national jurisdictions are likely to adopt MSP differently, which has implications for the role integration is likely to play in national and transnational MSP practice. Drawing on empirical data derived from national MSP studies, stakeholder dialogue forums and preliminary interviews with stakeholders the analytical framework is applied to examine how particular integration challenges play out in both national and transnational marine space across the Baltic Sea Region. The analytical framework is then used to structure an examination of several case studies from different parts of the Baltic Sea Region. Based on consideration of the empirical work and an analyses of previous experiences in science and practice we then propose some revisions to the initial analytical framework presented earlier. The revised analytical framework, while capturing the integration dimensions mentioned earlier, also includes consideration of the following aspects of integration: how ‘balance’ between sustainable development dimensions is exercised; the character of cross-boundary interactions; and temporal dynamics. Instead of a conclusion, short think-pieces are presented to capture the main insights of the report, which could be used to aid the examination of integration in MSP in other MSP contexts, beyond the Baltic Sea.

  • 3.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Tafon, Ralph
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Adding People to the Sea: Conceptualizing Social Sustainability in Maritime Spatial Planning2019In: Maritime Spatial Planning: past, present, future / [ed] Jacek Zaucha & Kira Gee, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 175-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is growing critique emerging to address social sustainability in marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP), overwhelmingly attention has been on governance, economic and environmental aspects. This chapter redresses this by proposing a conceptual framework to elucidate key features of social sustainability in MSP. The ambition is to both note the existing critique of MSP and go beyond it by more clearly and comprehensively articulating how social sustainability could be conceived in MSP, as well as how this framework could be applied to analyse MSP practice. Key features of social sustainability elaborated are: deepening democratic decision-making, inclusion of socio-cultural values and knowledge, equitable distribution and social cohesion. Finally, the chapter concludes by nominating strategies to give greater visibility to social sustainability as a key MSP concern.

  • 4.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Small-scale fishers as allies or opponents?: Unlocking looming tensions and potential exclusions in Poland’s marine spatial planning2019In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 637-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) depends on the effective participation of small-scale fishers (SSFs), and the extent to which marine governance in general can address the problems they face. As Poland's MSP in areas that are key to small-scale fisheries are yet to begin, this paper explores tensions in the country's looming coastal MSP processes through clarifying both the risks faced by SSFs and their perspectives on MSP. Using semi-structured interviews with SSFs and analytical literature reviews on small-scale fisheries, it is found that Poland's MSP is cast against a contentious history of marine resource management that shapes negative perceptions of and attitudes towards both the European Union-mediated MSP and marine scientists. Notably, SSFs believe that (1) authorities often undervalue and underutilize their experiential knowledge, (2) MSP is intended primarily to facilitate the siting of offshore wind farms and, (3) scientific knowledge is either not effectively communicated or is at the service of investors. A discussion follows that proposes measures through which planners can ensure procedural fairness. The paper concludes by offering TURF-Reserves as a novel and integrated co-management system within MSP which has potentials for empowering SSFs and revitalizing Poland's small-scale fisheries, while ensuring effective marine protection.

  • 5.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Taking power to sea: Towards a post-structuralist discourse theoretical critique of marine spatial planning2018In: Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, ISSN 2399-6544, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 58-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responding to calls for a more theoretically driven, post-positivist and radical marine spatial planning research that approaches the policy as a political project, this paper develops a poststructuralist discourse theory approach to critical marine spatial planning. Elaborating radical contingency as an ontological condition of social life, which points to the ineradicability of power and conflict in marine spatial planning social relations, the paper problematizes marine spatial planning as constituting politics, or key practices that attempt to organize human coexistence and thus, conceal this radical contingency. These practices (e.g. ecosystem-based management, participation, planning regulation and the organization of socio-natural spaces), whose outcomes are far from adaptive, consensual or neutral are discussed as sites of ‘politics’ that effectively marginalize particular groups of people and ‘herd’ their participation and ways of knowing toward achieving limited policy outcomes. Drawing on the EU Marine Spatial Planning Directive, the paper further teases out how specific narratives and rhetorical signifiers around ‘integrating’ and ‘balancing’ potentially irreconcilable sustainable development objectives may interpellate particular stakeholders in ways that render them ideologically complicitous in sustaining, rather than challenging, neoliberal logics of managerialism and economic maximization of marine resources. But in tune with the ontological condition of the social as radically contingent, the paper discusses how and why participatory spaces may constitute a potential space of contestation for marginalized voices and thus, reveal the political moment of marine spatial planning. Calls are made for future empirically grounded research that explores how these marine spatial planning practices are lived in both planning and extra-planning settings, and with what implications for marine protection and extant social relations of power in different marine spatial planning contexts.

  • 6.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The “Dark Side” of Marine Spatial Planning: A study of domination, empowerment and freedom through theories of discourse and power2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to contribute to the marine spatial planning (MSP) literature by elaborating a robust theoretical account of power for a more rigorous and balanced critical analysis of MSP. Conceived as a problem-solving regime, MSP has emerged as a radical approach to govern the use and protection of marine resources. However, critics are questioning the radicalness of MSP, particularly its ability to address issues around knowledge, stakeholder and land-sea integration, as well as power asymmetry, distributive justice and equity. Nonetheless, critics largely conceive power in MSP as restricting agency. Even so, insidious mechanisms of power remain under-examined, as are the productive power and potential of planning. This thesis brings concepts from discourse and power theories together (drawing on Foucault, Laclau and Mouffe, and Haugaard) to conceptualize various mechanisms of power in MSP. The framework is then brought into dialogue with planning issues in Estonia and Poland. Empirical data are drawn from semi-structured interviews, legal judgments, planning and policy documents, as well as position papers and media statements, which are produced by planners, officials, developers, fishers and coastal residents. The following findings and conclusions are reached. First, MSP’ing (verb form) restricts agency because (a) in planning encounters, powerful actors misuse opportunities for concerted action to reach sectoral rather than collective goals; (b) in setting the agenda, various biases are mobilized in favor of vested interests; and (c) the fantasmatic power of planning conjoin with the planner’s cognitive limitation to naturalize and sustain subjugation. Second, MSP is a laudable system. It provides stakeholders with the dispositional power to get things done in concert, which entails a normatively felicitous move from the risks of open commons-type conflicts and chaos to structuring and predictability. Third, when planning is rigidly done within the confines of legality and programmatic norms, “free” subjects of planning may be transformed into immovable subjects of resistance, who may develop contestatory strategies that have transformatory potentials. Fourth, to both facilitate equitable planning processes and outcomes, and ensure efficiency and stability, not only must the planner be reflective of the norms and ideologies that shape her actions and/or inactions, but the state as the ultimate governing authority in MSP must also take measures to minimize asymmetries in the distribution of social resources. The thesis makes a call for scholars to contribute towards planning praxis through analyzing who the weakest actors are in each MSP setting, what their context-specific needs are, and what empowerment may entail for them.

  • 7.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Howarth, David
    University of Essex, UK.
    Griggs, Steven
    De Montfort University, UK.
    The Politics of Estonia's Offshore Wind Energy Programme: Discourse, power and marine spatial planning2019In: Environment and Planning. C, Government and Policy, ISSN 0263-774X, E-ISSN 1472-3425, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 157-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing recognition that marine spatial planning is an inherently political process marked by a clash of discourses, power and conflicts of interest. Yet, there are very few attempts to make sense of and explain the political practices of marine spatial planning protests in different contexts, especially the way that planners and developers create the conditions for the articulation of objections, and then develop new strategies to negotiate and mediate community resistance. Using poststructuralist discourse theory, the article analyses the politics of a proposed offshore wind energy project in Estonia within the context of the country’s marine spatial planning processes. First, through the lens of politicization, it explores the strategies of political mobilization and the rival discourses of expertise and sustainability through which residents and municipal actors have contested the offshore wind energy project. Secondly, through the lens of depoliticization, it explains the discursive and legalistic strategies employed by developers, planners and an Administrative Court to displace – spatially and temporally – the core issues of contestation, thus legitimizing the offshore wind energy plan. We argue that the spaces created by the preplanning conjuncture offered the most conducive conditions for residents to voice concerns about the proposed project in a dialogical fashion, whereas the marine spatial planning and post-planning phases became mired in a therapeutic-style consultation, set alongside rigid and unreflexive interpretations and applications of legality. We conclude by setting out the limits of the Estonian marine spatial planning as a process for resolving conflicts, while offering an alternative model of handling such public controversies, which we call pragmatic adversarialism.

  • 8.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The Politics of Land Grabbing: State and corporate power and the (trans)nationalization of resistance in Cameroon2019In: Journal of Agrarian Change, ISSN 1471-0358, E-ISSN 1471-0366, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 41-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approaching land grabbing as a site of politics wherein power functions in the challenge and/or stabilization of agrarian socioecological injustices, we capture agrarian relations in Cameroon in 2 fundamental ways. Drawing on Laclauian insights, we discuss power as a “counter‐hegemonic” practice, to characterize the resistance strategies of local NGOs, in terms of their articulated discourses around the socioecological effects of land grabs, on the one hand, and the political possibilities that this articulatory practice opens, in terms of (trans)nationalizing resistance across social identities and space, on the other hand. Here, the analysis adopts a Foucauldian‐inspired critique with strong commitments towards agrarian socioecological justice, in a context where policies to protect democratic access to land are absent. Second, framed as a hegemonic/governmental “form of rule,” we capture how state and diplomatic actors sought to override dissent and stabilize the contentious land deal. We also show how a moment of presidential “nondecision,” characterized by a hyper‐centralized bureaucracy conjoined with these hegemonic forces to disempower local administrative and judicial leverage, thereby fostering corporate power. The article thus contributes to debates on state and corporate powers, as well as the strategies of, or possibilities and constraints for resistance “from below” to irradiate and structure into a compelling force.

  • 9.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Re-reading marine spatial planning through Foucault, Haugaard and others: An analysis of domination, empowerment and freedom2019In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 754-768Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) has emerged as a radical approach to achieving sustainable development objectives at sea. While critics challenge its avowed radicalness, often through highlighting dominative processes, more insidious mechanisms of restricted agency remain under-elaborated, as are the productive power and potential of planning. This paper offers a more robust and balanced reading of MSP/power. First, drawing on Haugaard, we read MSP as providing actors with dispositional power to act in concert, thus entailing a move from the risks of ‘resource rush’ to structuring, which facilitates predictability and promotes agency. However, MSP’ing may also restrict agency when (1) powerful actors misuse opportunities for concerted action to pursue sectoral goals; (2) planning fantasies and the planner’s cognitive limitation sustain dominative power-relations; and (3) in setting the boundaries of MSP, bias is mobilized in favor of vested interests. We thus deploy Foucault’s notion of freedom, to analyze the relationship between ‘steering’ and resistance subjectivities, and his concept of parrhesias to consider to what extent, an ethico-political planner may contribute towards more equitable processes and outcomes. We conclude that besides the planner, the state as the ultimate authority in MSP must intervene substantively to minimize differentials in the distribution of actors’social resources.

  • 10.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Power and resistance in Cameroon: strategies, intentionality, intersectionality, and shifting spaces and identities2015In: Journal of Political Power, ISSN 2158-379X, E-ISSN 2158-3803, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 321-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how forest communities in Cameroon engage in social transformation when faced with social injustices and uneven power relations in their interactions with local state authorities and transnational corporations. It focuses on the different strategies that marginalized resource-dependent communities employ in resisting existing forms of domination manifested in public–private-community forest governance relations. We show how power operates in closed governance spaces to work against equitable, democratic and effective policy-making. We take as a point of departure that resistance or social change cannot be understood in isolation from power. Moreover, we engage with the intentionality debate and make the case that some forms of resistance are goal oriented in character. We reveal how disenfranchised communities, using powerful traditional ritual as a form of public protest, can effectively open up closed spaces and obtain effective participation in processes denied them. Our findings have significance for resistance and power debates relating to intentionality, intersectionality and outcomes.

  • 11.
    Tafon, Ralph Voma
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saunders, Fred P.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Power Relations and Cassava: Conservation and Development in Cameroon2015In: Journal of Environment and Development, ISSN 1070-4965, E-ISSN 1552-5465, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 82-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linking conservation and development activities requires local institutional change that can deliver global conservation as well as local socioeconomic benefits. Participatory approaches are considered a key element to this end, although recent research demonstrates that they may reinforce existing inequitable governance systems. This article examines microinstitutional formations and development interventions in the Mount Cameroon National Park. The study found that blending new governance approaches with traditional institutions at Mount Cameroon National Park led to diminished participation of the project and a failure to listen to and deliver meaningful development opportunities to Bavenga villagers. The article concludes that while local participation and governance institutions constitute laudable additions to Integrated Conservation and Development Projects, the implications of reproducing traditional authority structures must be carefully considered, and locally grounded development opportunities need to be better embedded into these projects.

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