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  • 1. Appelgren, Ester
    Adoption of interactive media services among young people in the Nordic countries2006In: Advances in printing and media technology: vol. XXXIII, Oxford: Pergamon Press , 2006, p. 81-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies adoption of interactive media news services among young people in the Nordic countries, focusing on Sweden. The paper aims to reflect the courses of events in terms of usage as the services are established on the market.

    Using statistics and survey data concerning four contemporary media technology based news services selected to reflect different levels of available interactivity - on-line newspaper editions, web TV, news podcasting and news blogs - this paper analyzes some of the adoption characteristics of the services.

    The new technological platforms as well as the presentation of content for the four analyzed news services can be compared to specific precursors, thus the S-curve and the five adopter categories suggested in diffusion theory can to some extent be used when forecasting the diffusion of the new services.

  • 2.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    An Illusion of Interactivity: The paternalistic side of data journalism2018In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 308-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores paternalism in contemporary data journalism, a hybrid form of journalism where parts of the engineering culture are blended with the culture of journalism. Technologists often question paternalistic elements in design, whereas journalists consider paternalistic decision-making to be justified as an inherent part of what journalism is. Based on a predominately qualitative content analysis of paternalistic elements in 31 data journalistic projects submitted to the Nordic Data Journalism Awards in 2013, 2015 and 2016, three characteristics of paternalism were found: controlling functionality, the illusion of interactivity and linearity. All three characteristics include several types of control over the audience control, embedded in the design, and as previous research has found that paternalism is often associated with negative effects, on the basis of journalistic choices in design and presentation involving technology, the problem is whether the audience begins to perceive data journalism as controlling, non-transparent or intrusive.

  • 3.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Bokrecension: Aske Kammer: Digital journalistik: kort og præcist om medier og kommunikation2018In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 124-126Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    [Book review:] Mirko Tobias Schäfer and Karin van Es (Eds.), The Datafied Society: Reviewed by Ester Appelgren2018In: International Journal of Communication, ISSN 1932-8036, E-ISSN 1932-8036, Vol. 12, p. 433-435Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Will the current practice of data and digital analysis harm humanities scholarship? Or will increasing access to data and easy-to-use tools for digital analysis instead strengthen the ability to critically interpret culture and contemporary life? These two perspectives permeate The Datafied Society: Studying Culture through Data, edited by Mirko Tobias Schäfer and Karin van Es.

  • 5.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Book review: News, numbers, and public opinion in a data-driven world: by An Nguyen New York, Bloomsbury Academic, 2018, 304 pp., £86.40 (hardback.), ISBN: 9781501330353, £26.09 (paperback), ISBN: 97815013540072019In: Digital Journalism, ISSN 2167-0811, E-ISSN 2167-082XArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism. Naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Commentary: Openness and Transparency in the Data Journalism Practice2018In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 76-77Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7. Appelgren, Ester
    Convergence and divergence in media: different perspectives2004In: Building digital bridges: linking cultures, commerce and science : proceedings of the 8th ICCC International Conference on Eletronic Publishing / [ed] Jan Engelen, Sely M S Costa, Ana Cristina S Moreira, 2004, p. 237-248Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A current issue in the media industry is coping with the effects of convergence. The concept ofconvergence is frequently used both in the academic field and within the media industry to denotethe ongoing restructuring of media companies as well as to describe the latest developments inmedia forms, distribution, and consumption. However, there is currently no generally accepteddefinition of the concept. Depending on the context, the meaning and connotations vary. Someresearchers suggest that convergence is a result of a change toward a more modern media societywhile others treat the concept as denoting the actual process toward a more efficient managementof the media value chain. This paper discusses various definitions of convergence, both in a historicalperspective and as it is used and understood in contemporary media and communications research,one aim being the evaluation of how the meaning of the concept has evolved during the past decade.The study is based on literature research and one conclusion is that convergence is a processdependent on current circumstances within society. The use of the concept has therefore developedfrom being mainly connected with digitalization in media technology to also include elements ofintegration, combination, competition and divergence. This paper suggests that convergence shouldbe seen as an ongoing process of media and media industry development that is dependent on and incontinuous interplay with a contrasting and complementary process, that of media divergence.

  • 8.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Data Journalists Using Facebook: A Study of a Resource Group Created by Journalists, for Journalists2016In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On Facebook there are interest groups created by journalists, for journalists, that focus on the journalistic profession and work methods. One example is the Swedish group, “Datajournalistik” (in English, “Data Journalism”), which was created in 2012. This article builds on Granovetter’s theory on the strength of weak ties and is focused on the skill development process taking place in the group. A content analysis has been carried out of all posts that received comments in order to explore the social functions of the group. The results indicate both a significant need for knowledge exchange and a need for self-affirmation. At the time of the study, the group was unique in the Nordic countries and as such has played a major role in data journalism’s development process in the Nordic region. 

  • 9.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Datajournalistikens fem framgångsfaktorer: Analys2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Valåret 2014 har inneburit att datajournalistik kommit igång på allvar inom desvenska medieföretagen. För att bli framgångsrik är fem områden centrala:datajournalistisk kompetens, nya organisatoriska lösningar på redaktionen,tillgång till data, användarupplevelsen och aff ärsmodellen.

  • 10.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Från kontroll till en illusion av interaktivitet: Datajournalistik som grävande arbetsmetod2016In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 58-61Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Datajournalistik som grävande arbetsmetod resulterar ofta i att journalistiska vinklar visualiseras i form av mönster eller specifika samband med hjälp av digitala medieformer. Här möts två tidigare åtskilda kulturer då journalistiska arbetsmetoder kombineras med tekniska arbetsmetoder. För att skapa en berättelse får journalister förtroende att fatta beslut åt publiken, i publikens intresse, medan en ingenjör istället kan bli anklagad för att fatta paternalistiska beslut över huvudet på människor. Med utgångspunkt från aktuell nordisk datajournalistik diskuteras i denna artikel därför vad som händer när just dessa två kulturer möts, i termer av beslutsfattande åt publiken, i publikens intresse.

  • 11. Appelgren, Ester
    Interactive News Services: Competitors to the printed newspaper2006In: Proceedings of the 33rd International Research Conference, Iarigai, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    JOURNALISTS' USING FACEBOOK TO CLAIM THE TERRITORY, BRAG OR CRY IN DESPERATION FOR HELP: A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF A NORDIC JOURNALISTIC RESOURCE GROUP ON FACEBOOK2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On Facebook there are interest groups created by journalists, for journalists, that focus on the journalistic profession and work methods. One example is the Swedish group, "Datajournalistik" (in English, "Data Journalism") created in 2012. The group has grown to more than 1,000 Nordic members, most of whom are active data journalists working primarily at Swedish media companies. This article builds on Granovetter's theory on the strength of weak ties. A content analysis of all posts with comments has been carried out to discuss tie strength in relation to information sharing and addressivity in the group. The findings indicate that Datajournalistik forms a network where the individuals are mainly connected by weak ties. Another conclusion is that the group has a function in developing data journalistic competence, but it also functions as means for journalists to promote Nordic data journalistic work in their community giving others credit while at the same time taking some of the credit for oneself.

  • 13. Appelgren, Ester
    Konvergens2009In: Mediesamhället: centrala begrepp / [ed] Peter Berglez, Ulrika Olausson, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, p. 177-196Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Appelgren, Ester
    KTH.
    Media Convergence and Digital News Services: adding value for producers and consumers2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, media convergence strategies and added value of digital news services are investigated, focusing on the newspaper industry and it’s audience. Convergence implies that previously unalike areas come together, approaching a common goal. A subordinate concept of convergence, i.e., media convergence, is a concept that has become common when denoting a range of processes within the production of media content, its distribution and consumption.

    Newspapers are one of many so-called publishing channels that provide information and entertainment. They have traditionally been printed on paper, but today’s digital technology makes it possible to provide newspapers through a number of different channels. The current strategy used by newspaper companies involves a process of convergence mainly regarding multiple publishing. A newspaper company interested in publishing content through multiple channels has to adapt its production workflow to produce content not only for the traditional printed edition, but also for the other channels. In this thesis, a generalized value chain involving four main stages illustrates the production workflow at a newspaper company in relation to the convergence processes. The four stages are creation, packaging, distribution and consumption of content.

    One of the aims of this thesis is to assess how the views and strategies of newspaper companies concerning media convergence correspond with the opinions and views concerning convergence of their audience. In order to discuss this, seven types of media convergence are suggested.

    Furthermore, the thesis explores how the newspaper industry is relating to the processes of convergence, using two examples: newspaper companies’ ventures into the use of moving images, and the newspaper companies’ strategies for a future epaper edition.

    Among the findings of this thesis are that digital news services can add value to a newspaper company, however that the digital news services investigated, in their current form, are not sophisticated enough to give added value as perceived by the audience.

    The findings of the thesis are based on studies of the newspaper industry in Sweden and reflect specific newspaper companies, their strategies, production workflow and ventures from 2002 to 2007. The methods used have mainly been case studies and surveys.

  • 15. Appelgren, Ester
    Perceived simultaneous consumption of media content services among media aware university students2007In: Proceedings of I-MEDIA ’07 and I-SEMANTICS ’07, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Remaining in Control with an Illusion of Interactivity: The Paternalistic Side of Data Journalism*2019In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, no 8, p. 956-960Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    The Reasons Behind Tracing Audience Behavior: A Matter of Paternalism and Transparency2017In: International Journal of Communication, ISSN 1932-8036, E-ISSN 1932-8036, Vol. 11, p. 2178-2197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes privacy agreement texts and cookie consent information collected from 60 news sites in three countries (U.S., UK, and Sweden) within the context of paternalism. The goal of this study is to explore how paternalism is present in news media companies’ stated reasons for collecting behavioral data. Twenty-five categories of reasons were identified and divided into six categories: personalization and enhanced user experience, delivery and maintenance of services, internal and corporate use of data, legal reasons, communication with the user, and third-party use of data. The analysis shows that the reasons can be formulated in both paternalistic and nonpaternalistic ways, and that the market-driven logic of Web analytics seems to collide with ethics in a journalistic context.

  • 18.
    Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Informatics.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Data Journalism: Implications and Opportunities2012In: Digital Humanities Congress 2012, The University of Sheffield / [ed] Clare Mills, Michael Pidd and Esther Ward, Sheffield: HRI Online Publications , 2012, p. 60-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data journalism is a form of storytelling where elements of text, interactive graphics and datasets are often combined into one interactive journalistic project or service. In addition, the general public are often encouraged to submit their own data for publication within the service. Data journalism is not a new field, but due to the expensive production process and the advanced skills needed by journalists, it is still relatively uncommon in the Swedish media landscape. This study is based on a joint research project together with SVT Pejl, the data journalism department at the Sveriges television (SVT). The main aim of this paper is to explore this emerging form of interactive journalism based on public sector data, and how the general public engages with it. This paper is based on a four-month case study in 2011 and 2012 of SVT Pejl and “Brottspejl”one of its data journalism services. An action research approach has been used, and the methods were in-depth interviews and a web-based survey.

  • 19.
    Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö University.
    Att dela eller inte dela: Användarnas inställning till insamling av personlig data2016In: Ekvilibrium / [ed] Jonas Ohlsson, Henrik Ekengren Oscarsson och Maria Solevid, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2016, p. 403-418Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att dela personlig information i digitala sammanhang kan ge fördelar, men det finns också risker. Trots att insamling av beteendedata sker på många av de sajter svenska folket använder idag, visar 2015 års SOM-undersökning att 60 procent av befolkningen är negativa till att dela personliga data med företag. Endast en liten andel av befolkningen accepterar fullt ut att insamling sker. Majoriteten av befolkningen säger att de försöker begränsa sin personliga information på internet, samtidigt är det bara 15 procent som noga läser igenom användarvillkor. Kanske beror svenskarnas övervä- gande negativa attityd till att dela data på en omedvetenhet kring när data samlas in och vilka fördelar det ger. Frågan är om ökad medvetenhet ger en mer accepterande attityd eller om det leder till det motsatta? Oavsett vilken riktning utvecklingen tar kommer företagen att behöva bli tydligare jämtemot användare med hur och när de samlar in beteendedata.

  • 20.
    Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö University.
    Mediepubliken och stora datamängder2016In: Människorna, medierna och marknaden: Medieutredningens forskningsantologi om en demokrati i förändring / [ed] Oscar Westlund, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2016, p. 165-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö Universitet.
    Tröga processer i en snabb medievärld2019In: På väg mot medievärlden 2030: Journalistikens villkor och utmaningar / [ed] Gunnar Nygren, Ingela Wadbring, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 6, p. 31-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö Högskola.
    Tröga processer i en snabb medievärld: En introduktion till att förutspå medieutveckling2013In: På väg mot medievärlden 2020: Journalistik, teknik, marknad / [ed] Gunnar Nygren och Ingela Wadbring, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 5, p. 41-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö Högskola.
    Mejtoft, Thomas
    Umeå Universitet.
    Mediekonsumentens medvetna och omedvetna val: En nyckel till morgondagens mediekonsumtion.2014In: Medie-Sverige 2014: Statistik och analys / [ed] Ulla Carlsson & Ulrika Facht, Göteborg: Nordicom , 2014, p. 29-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24. Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Nordqvist, Stig
    Evaluating digital TV as a publishing channel for newspapers2003In: Proceedings of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, TAGA, 2003, 2003, p. 23-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can there be synergies between newspapers and digital TV? What business synergies exist and are the technical formats reliable and flexible enough for cross media publishing? At the end of the 1990's, several Swedish newspapers applied for a license to broadcast digital TV. The major trend among newspapers during this time was to develop websites as a secondary publishing channel, and many companies withdrew their applications. Today, digital TV is again raising expectations. When digital TV broadcasting technology replaces analogue broadcasting, the media landscape will change. The conversion will offer new publishing and business opportunities for newspaper companies. We have studied three Swedish newspaper companies actively working with TV production, three major Nordic television companies, and five television broadcasting operators in Sweden. The objective is to give a wider perspective on the digital TV publishing market today, focusing on technical as well as on economical aspects. In addition, we have evaluated the next steps for newspaper companies interested in establishing themselves in the digital TV medium. The study indicates that among the viable strategies for small and medium sized newspapers are entering the digital TV business through text based services and using cross promotion in order to strengthen the brand.

  • 25.
    Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Data Journalism In Sweden: Introducing new methods and genres of journalism into “old” organizations2014In: Digital Journalism, ISSN 2167-0811, E-ISSN 2167-082X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 394-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data journalism is an evolving form of investigative journalism. In previous research andhandbooks published on this topic, this form of journalism has been called computer-assistedreporting and data-driven journalism, as well as precision, computational or database journalism.In Sweden, data journalism is still fairly uncommon. The purpose of this paper is to providean overview of the development of data journalism at seven Swedish traditional mediacompanies, using action research methods. The content of this paper is based on an onlinesurvey of journalists and in-depth interviews with editors at these participating companies. Theresults indicate that, based on how this field is currently perceived by journalists in the interviews,there is a common definition of data journalism. Furthermore, the survey shows thatthe attitudes towards data journalism during the process of introducing new methods andgenres of journalism into “old” organizations are correlated with the level of perceived experiencein data journalism working methods. The main challenges facing the working methodsof data journalism today are a shortage of time and the need for training and developingdata journalism skills.

  • 26.
    Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    HiPPOs (Highest Paid Person’s Opinion) in the Swedish media industry on innovation: A study of news media leaders’ attitudes towards innovation2019In: Journal of Media Innovations, ISSN 1812-7592, E-ISSN 1894-5562, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 45-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decades of change in the media landscape and technological innovation have brought several uncertainties to media leadership. In this study, we build on the upper echelons theory to discuss the possible isomorphic behaviour of media leaders. Based on a survey of 372 Swedish media leaders, our results indicate that while innovation is considered to be a strength at media companies, innovation work may still stand in contrast to the institutional perspective. We found that Swedish media leaders perceive innovation as highly important and something they are good at. The perceived ability to work with innovation inside the organizations (rather than introducing knowledge from outside expertise) is undermined by the fact that, during the average work week, the majority of leaders set aside very little time for developing their own competences, individual talks with their employees, and time to reflect on their own work. Thus, in line with upper echelons theory, we find a paradox of trust in in-house innovative strength and, at the same time, media leaders fall back on their own experiences, limiting the inflow of new ideas into their strategic work.

  • 27. Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Sabelström Möller, Kristina
    Nordqvist, Stig
    E-Paper Production Workflow: Adapting Production Workflow Processes for Digital Newsprint2004In: Proceedings of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, TAGA, 2004, 2004, p. 181-208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on production flow for publishing in generic digital newsprint editions, such as e-paper, PDAs or on-line editions, by analyzing and mapping existing production workflow at three Swedish newspaper publishing companies covering the most common organizational types in the newspaper publishing industry today. Most newspaper publishing companies produce a range of electronic editions, all part of the digital newsprint family. In general, there exists two types of organizational production workflows - the integrated multiple channel workflow, and the separated, where the printed and the electronic workflows are detached, sometimes in totally separate organizations. Using scenarios, the aim is to propose a model for the production workflow of the electronic paper editions in newspaper publishing. The results indicate several possibilities for automation in the workflow. Furthermore, the study points out stages as challenges in the workflow where changes have to be done in order to introduce epaper as a publishing channel for news publishing. We will as an introduction, along with the workflow scenarios in this paper, also present a brief overview of the existing techniques for displaying content on electronic paper terminals.

  • 28.
    Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Salaverría, Ramón
    Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
    Interacting, but not contributing: fruitless news crowdsourcing in Spain2019In: Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodí­stico, ISSN 1134-1629, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 639-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trusting the audience to contribute data, a practice called crowdsourcing, is one of several procedures of contemporary data journalism. While previous research has embraced the idea of crowdsourcing as a transparent way of engaging the audience, the journalistic practice of crowdsourcing is currently still limited. The Spanish case is particularly illuminating of the gap between theoretical expectations and reality. Although online news media in Spain stands out because of its commitment to exploring interactive possibilities, and its audience is especially prone to comment on news, this qualitative study presents evidence that Spanish data journalists remain quite reluctant to embrace crowdsourcing as a research method. Based on semi-structured interviews with five Spanish data journalists, this paper explains the motivations behind this reluctance as well as the challenges of activating the audience.

  • 29.
    Appelgren, Ester
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Salaverría, Ramón
    School of Communication, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spa.
    The Promise of the Transparency Culture: A comparative study of access to public data in Spanish and Swedish newsrooms2018In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 986-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013, with the introduction of the Transparency Law in Spain, a number of Spanish newsrooms started working with data journalism methods. In Sweden, which has one of the oldest Freedom of Information acts in the world, newsrooms invested in the skill development of data journalism at approximately the same time. Because previous research suggests that access to public data has been one of the key driving forces for the development of data journalism worldwide, it is important to understand how legislation is actually shaping the practice of data journalism. Based on a survey of 66 key informants in Spain and Sweden and ten in-depth interviews with data journalists from five media companies in each country, we conducted a comparative study, building on the frameworks of media systems to explore data journalism practices in these two countries. The differences found indicate that the national and EU legislation in both nations shape journalistic strategies for accessing data, turning journalists at times into activists fighting for the right to access public data. Beyond the law, data journalists advocate for a transparency culture among the civil servants, in order to secure public accountability.

  • 30.
    Brynolf, Anne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Lynoe, Niels
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Virtual colleagues, virtually colleagues: physicians’ use of Twitter: a population-based observational study2013In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 3, no 7, article id e002988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate potential violations of patient confidentiality or other breaches of medical ethics committed by physicians and medical students active on the social networking site Twitter.

    Design Population-based cross-sectional observational study.

    Setting The social networking site Twitter (Swedish-speaking users, n=298819).

    Population Physicians and medical students (Swedish-speaking users, n=237) active on the social networking site Twitter between July 2007 and March 2012.

    Main outcome measure Postings that reflect unprofessional behaviour and ethical breaches among physicians and medical students.

    Results In all, 237 Twitter accounts were established as held by physicians and medical students and a total of 13 780 tweets were analysed by content. In all, 276 (1.9%) tweets were labelled as ‘unprofessional’. Among these, 26 (0.2%) tweets written by 15 (6.3%) physicians and medical students included information that could violate patient privacy. No information on the personal ID number or names was disclosed, but parts of the patient documentation or otherwise specific indicatory information on patients were found. Unprofessional tweets were more common among users writing under a pseudonym and among medical students.

    Conclusions In this study of physicians and medical students on Twitter, we observed potential violations of patient privacy and other breaches of medical ethics. Our findings underline that every physician and medical student has to consider his or her presence on social networking sites. It remains to be investigated if the introduction of social networking site guidelines for medical professionals will improve awareness.

  • 31.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Informatics.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Making The Case For Data Journalism – Challenges For An Ongoing Evolution2012In: i-COME international conference on communication and media 2012: Revisiting Communication for Organisational and Social Change: Exploring the Missing Link / [ed] Che Su Mustfaffa, Hassan Abu Bakar, Mohd Bahardin Othman, Timothy Wlaters, Mohd Khairie Ahmad, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    The audience’s willingness to share Internet-traffic data: An emerging ethical challenge for the media industry2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Media companies partly base strategies on data generated by the audience. With an increased richness of data, focus has transformed from if the user would like to share content, to what he or she is sharing, when and where. From the user’s perspective, the collecting of Internet behavioural traffic data is not necessarily an open and obvious process. This study examines the users’ willingness to share Internet behavioural traffic data with companies and organizations, depending on the degree of interactivity and intimacy of the content and activity of the shared and collected data. The study is based on a survey and collected Internet traffic data from two small samples of Swedish Internet users. The results show that the subjects were more willing to share activities with lesser interaction and intimacy (e.g. visiting news sites and watching video), less willing to share activities with increased site interaction (like social media services), and the majority of the respondents were unwilling to share activities from the personal interaction group (e.g. e-mails). Very few of the respondents were willing to share all of their activities. If the user become increasingly resistant to sharing some type of content or activity, or do not care as much about other types of content, this may entail a bias in the data collected and what will be possible to collect. This will be a challenge for media companies, since their business models are increasingly becoming dependent on such data, i.e. cross-platform Internet data collected without the users’ awareness and of a consent.

  • 33.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Data journalism in Sweden: introducing new methods and genres of journalism into “old” organizations2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data journalism is an evolving form of investigative journalism. In previous research and handbooks published on this topic, this form of journalism has been called computer assisted reporting and data-driven journalism, as well as precision, computational or database journalism.

    In Sweden, this form of journalism is still fairly uncommon. Since 2011, researchers at Södertorn University have been working together with data journalists at SVT (Swedish public service television) to develop knowledge about methods and challenges. In November 2012, the project group was expanded to include five daily newspapers, Aftonbladet (national tabloid), Svenska Dagbladet (national morning paper), Norrköpings Tidningar (regional publishing house), Helsingborgs Dagblad (regional morning paper) and Mittmedia (regional publishing company), the Swedish public service radio as well as the software company, SAS. The expanded project will end in 2014.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the development of data journalism at these media companies, using action research methods. The content of this paper is based on an online survey of journalists working at the participating media companies and in-depth interviews with editors at these companies. The results indicate that, based on how this field is currently perceived by the journalists in the survey, there is a common definition of data journalism. Furthermore, the attitudes towards data journalism during the process of introducing new methods and genres of journalism into “old” organizations are correlated to the level of perceived experience in data journalism working methods. The main challenges facing the working methods of data journalism today are a shortage of time and the need for training and developing data journalism skills.

  • 34.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Färre journalister som producerar mer för fler kanaler2015In: Mediestudiers årsbok - tillståndet för journalistiken 2014/2015 / [ed] Lars Truedson, Stockholm: Institutet för mediestudier , 2015, p. 67-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det blir färre journalister på de svenska nyhetsredaktionerna. De två senaste åren har fem procent av journalistjobben försvunnit.

    Men det är tydliga skillnader mellan olika typer av medier: På dagstidningar har antalet journalister minskat med 13 procent, medan redaktionerna inom public service är stabila. På gratistidningar och prenumererade endagarstidningar har redaktionerna däremot blivit större. Det visar enkäten Svenska nyhetsredaktioner som gjordes i augusti-september 2015 vid Södertörns högskola. Enkäten gick ut till 236 redaktioner i alla typer av nyhetsmedier. Svar inkom från 143 redaktioner, en svarsfrekvens på 59 procent. Bortfallet är relativt jämnt fördelat, förutom gratistidningar som är underrepresenterade och att TV4 saknas i enkäten[1].

    Medieföretag är kunskapsföretag. Det innebär att deras främsta tillgång är de resurser och kompetenser som finns hos de anställda, hos de journalister som producerar innehållet. När resurser och kompetens förändras och skärs ner, så påverkar det också mediernas möjligheter att uppfylla sitt samhällsuppdrag när det gäller information och granskning. Redaktionell kompetens och journalisternas arbetsvillkor är därför inte någon intern fråga för mediebranschen, det handlar om vilken typ av journalistik som medierna har möjlighet att producera. Med detta perspektiv är redaktionella resurser och kompetenser i grunden en demokratifråga, till exempel att det finns nyhetsmedier som informerar och granskar i hela landet (Strömbäck 2009).

    Enkäten kretsat kring tre områden:

    • Redaktionernas resurser och sammansättning.

    • Redaktionernas organisation och arbete på olika plattformar.

    • Redaktionernas kompetens både när det gäller bevakade ämnesområden och behov av fortbildning.

    Svaren redovisas inte för enskilda medieföretag, utan för grupper av företag.  Ett antal stora medieföretag har valt att inte svara på enkäten 2015, bland dem t ex Expressen, Sydsvenska Dagbladet/HD, TT och TV4 med hänvisning till att det efterfrågas interna uppgifter. I några av dessa fall används offentliga uppgifter ur årsredovisningar och branschpress för att beskriva utvecklingen av resurser och kompetens.

  • 35.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Journalistik hittar nya vägar till användarna2014In: Nordicom-Sveriges Mediebarometer 2013 / [ed] Ulla Carlsson, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2014, 1, p. 165-166Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Appelgren, Ester
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Journalism.
    Hüttenrauch, Helge
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Media technology.
    Datajournalistik - ett växande område2012In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 34, no 3-4, p. 81-88Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Computer assisted reporting (CAR). Datadriven journalism. Databasjournalistik. Datajournalistik.

    Det finns många namn på den växande genre inom undersökande journalistik som använder statistisk analys, datorstödd textanalys och olika typer av grafisk visualisering. Detta område har varit föremål för ett samarbete mellan forskare vid Södertörns högskola och Pejlredaktionen vid Sveriges Television (SVT) under 2011/12. Syftet med samarbetet har varit att utveckla kunskap om arbetsmetoder inom datajournalistik och om publikens användning av den. Projektet har haft stöd från den statliga forskningsstiftelsen Vinnova, och går från hösten 2012 över i en ny fas där ytterligare sju medieföretag ska vara med under en tvåårsperiod.

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