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  • 1. Abe, Sarah Krull
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Roberts, Bayard
    Richardson, Erica
    Abbott, Pamela
    Rotman, David
    McKee, Martin
    Changing patterns of fruit and vegetable intake in countries of the former Soviet Union2013In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 16, no 11, 1924-1932 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Andreev, Evgeny
    et al.
    Bogoyavlensky, Dmitri
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Comparing Alcohol Mortality in Tsarist and Contemporary Russia: Is the Current Situation Historically Unique?2013In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 48, no 2, 215-221 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study compared the level of alcohol mortality in tsarist and contemporary Russia. Methods: Cross-sectional and annual time-series data from 1870 to 1894, 2008 and 2009 on the mortality rate from deaths due to 'drunkenness' were compared for men in the 50 provinces of tsarist 'European Russia': an area that today corresponds with the territory occupied by the Baltic countries, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine and the Russian provinces to the west of the Ural Mountains. Results: In 1870-1894, the male death rate from 'drunkenness' in the Russian provinces (15.9 per 100,000) was much higher than in the non-Russian provinces. However, the rate recorded in Russia in the contemporary period was even higher-23.3. Conclusions: Russia has had high levels of alcohol mortality from at least the late 19th century onwards. While a dangerous drinking pattern and spirits consumption may underpin high alcohol mortality across time, the seemingly much higher levels in the contemporary period seem to be also driven by an unprecedented level of consumption, and also possibly, surrogate alcohol use. This study highlights the urgent need to reduce the level of alcohol consumption among the population in order to reduce high levels of alcohol mortality in contemporary Russia.

  • 3.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    et al.
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Unick, Jay
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Oh, Hans
    University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, USA / Prevention Research Center, Oakland, USA.
    Nam, Boyoung
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stress Sensitivity and Psychotic Experiences in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries2016In: Schizophrenia Bulletin, ISSN 0586-7614, E-ISSN 1745-1701, Vol. 42, no 6, 1353-1362 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress has a central role in most theories of psychosis etiology, but the relation between stress and psychosis has rarely been examined in large population-level data sets, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We used data from 39 countries in the World Health Survey (n = 176 934) to test the hypothesis that stress sensitivity would be associated with psychotic experiences, using logistic regression analyses. Respondents in low-income countries reported higher stress sensitivity (P < .001) and prevalence of psychotic experiences (P < .001), compared to individuals in middle-income countries. Greater stress sensitivity was associated with increased odds for psychotic experiences, even when adjusted for co-occurring anxiety and depressive symptoms: adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) = 1.17 (1.15-1.19) per unit increase in stress sensitivity (range 2-10). This association was consistent and significant across nearly every country studied, and translated into a difference in psychotic experience prevalence ranging from 6.4% among those with the lowest levels of stress sensitivity up to 22.2% among those with the highest levels. These findings highlight the generalizability of the association between psychosis and stress sensitivity in the largest and most globally representative community-level sample to date, and support the targeting of stress sensitivity as a potential component of individual- and population-level interventions for psychosis.

  • 4.
    Elmelid, Andrea
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Henrich, Christopher C
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Depressive symptoms, anxiety and academic motivation in youth: Do schools and families make a difference?2015In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 45, 174-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal study aimed to examine the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms and academic motivation by gender, and whether positive school and family factors would be associated with academic motivation, in spite of the presence of such symptoms. Study participants were predominantly economically disadvantaged youths aged 13-15 years in a Northeastern US urban public school system. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) served as the basis for a survey undertaken in 2003 and 2004 with information being used from students who participated at both time points (N = 643). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that depressive symptoms were negatively associated with academic motivation, while anxiety was positively related to academic motivation in both genders. Teacher support, school attachment and parental control were positively related to academic motivation even in the presence of internalizing problems. The negative association of depressive symptoms with academic motivation may be potentially decreased by attachment to school.

  • 5.
    Ferlander, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Uppsala University.
    Social capital - a mixed blessing for women? A cross-sectional study of different forms of social relations and self-rated depression in Moscow2016In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 4, no 1, 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a major health problem worldwide, especially among women. The condition has been related to a number of factors, such as alcohol consumption, economic situation and, more recently, to social capital. However, there have been relatively few studies about the social capital-depression relationship in Eastern Europe. This paper aims to fill this gap by examining the association between different forms of social capital and self-rated depression in Moscow. Differences between men and women will also be examined, with a special focus on women.

    METHODS: Data was obtained from the Moscow Health Survey, which was conducted in 2004 with 1190 Muscovites aged 18 years or above. For depression, a single-item self-reported measure was used. Social capital was operationalised through five questions about different forms of social relations. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to estimate the association between social capital and self-rated depression, separately for men and women.

    RESULTS: More women (48 %) than men (36 %) reported that they had felt depressed during the last year. An association was found between social capital and reported depression only among women. Women who were divorced or widowed or who had little contact with relatives had higher odds of reporting depression than those with more family contact. Women who regularly engaged with people from different age groups outside of their families were also more likely to report depression than those with less regular contact.

    CONCLUSIONS: Social capital can be a mixed blessing for women. Different forms of social relations can lead to different health outcomes, both positive and negative. Although the family is important for women's mental health in Moscow, extra-familial relations across age groups can be mentally distressing. This suggests that even though social capital can be a valuable resource for mental health, some of its forms can be mentally deleterious to maintain, especially for women. More research is needed on both sides to social capital. A special focus should be placed on bridging social relations among women in order to better understand the complex association between social capital and depression in Russia and elsewhere.

  • 6.
    Footman, Katharine
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK / University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    East-Ukrainian Foundation for Social Research, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
    Rotman, David
    Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus .
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking in nine countries of the former soviet union2013In: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 15, no 9, 1628-1633 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Smoking rates and corresponding levels of premature mortality from smoking-related diseases in the former Soviet Union (fSU) are among the highest in the world. To reduce this health burden, greater focus on smoking cessation is needed, but little is currently known about rates and characteristics of cessation in the fSU. Methods: Nationally representative household survey data from a cross-sectional study of 18,000 respondents in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine were analyzed to describe patterns of desire and action taken to stop smoking, quit ratios (former ever-smokers as a percent of ever-smokers, without a specified recall period), and help used to stop smoking. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze characteristics associated with smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking. Results: Quit ratios varied from 10.5% in Azerbaijan to 37.6% in Belarus. About 67.2% of respondents expressed a desire to quit, and 64.9% had taken action and tried to stop. The use of help to quit was extremely low (12.6%). Characteristics associated with cessation included being female, over 60, with higher education, poorer health, lower alcohol dependency, higher knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Characteristics associated with desire to stop smoking among current smokers included younger age, poorer health, greater knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Conclusions: Quit ratios are low in the fSU but there is widespread desire to stop smoking. Stronger tobacco control and cessation support are urgently required to reduce smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality.

  • 7.
    Inoue, Y.
    et al.
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA / The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, A.
    The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Aida, J.
    Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan / Miyagi Prefectural Government Office, Sendai, Japan.
    Kawachi, I.
    Harvard University, Boston, USAChiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Kondo, K.
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan / Nihon Fukushi University, Aichi, Japan / National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan.
    Fujiwara, T.
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA / Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Adverse childhood experiences, exposure to a natural disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami2017In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims.: To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people. Methods.: Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i.e., house damage and loss of relatives/friends during the earthquake/tsunami) and ACEs was obtained from 580 participants aged 65 or older living in Iwanuma City, Miyagi Prefecture, which suffered severe damage as a result of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Associations were examined using Poisson regression analysis with a robust variance estimator after adjusting for covariates. Results.: The prevalence of PTSD was 9.7% in this population; compared to those with no traumatic experience, the prevalence of PTSD was approximately two times higher among those who experienced the loss of close friends/relatives (PR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11–3.03, p = 0.018), or whose house was damaged (PR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.07–4.34, p = 0.032). ACE was not significantly associated with PTSD. Stratified analyses by the presence of ACE showed that damage due to the earthquake/tsunami was associated with PTSD only among those without ACEs; more specifically, among non-ACE respondents the PR of PTSD associated with house damage was 6.67 (95% CI = 1.66–26.80), while for the loss of a relative or a close friend it was 3.56 (95% CI = 1.18–10.75). In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed among those with ACEs. Conclusion.: Following the Great East Japan earthquake/tsunami in 2011 a higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms was observed in 2013 especially among older individuals without ACEs. This suggests that ACEs might affect how individuals respond to subsequent traumatic events later in life.

  • 8.
    Inoue, Y.
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, A.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Fujiwara, T.
    National Center for Child Health & Development, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kondo, K.
    Chiba University, Chiba City, Chiba, Japan / Nihon Fukushi University, Nagoya City, Aichi, Japan.
    Kondo, N.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    December birth is associated with higher mortality among older people in Japan: Findings from the JAGES cohort.2016In: American Journal of Human Biology, ISSN 1042-0533, E-ISSN 1520-6300, Vol. 28, no 2, 281-282 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Inoue, Y.
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, A.
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Fujiwara, T.
    National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya-ku, Japan.
    Kondo, K.
    Chiba University, Chiba City, Chiba, Japan / Nihon Fukushi University, Nagoya City, Aichi, Japan.
    Kondo, N.
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Month of birth is associated with mortality among older people in Japan: Findings from the JAGES cohort2016In: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 33, no 4, 441-447 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Month of birth (MOB) has been linked to a variety of health conditions in adulthood. This study examined the association between MOB and mortality among the healthy elderly in Japan, where a practice of traditional age reckoning was employed up until the late 1940s. The results showed male participants born in December were more likely to die earlier while those born in January had lower mortality. It is possible that social factors in early life, such as the time period when a birth is officially registered, may have implications for health that stretch across the life course.

  • 10.
    Inoue, Y.
    et al.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, A.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Li, D.
    Hainan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Du, J.
    Hainan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Jin, Y.
    Hainan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Chen, Y.
    Hainan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Watanabe, C.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    The association between economic development, lifestyle differentiation, and C-reactive protein concentration within rural communities in Hainan Island, China2016In: American Journal of Human Biology, ISSN 1042-0533, E-ISSN 1520-6300, Vol. 28, no 2, 186-196 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Earlier fieldwork in rural areas of Hainan Island, China, demonstrated that during the course of economic development increasing differences had emerged in lifestyles within communities. It is possible that these variations might have stratified residents into subpopulations with different health attributes. This study examined the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, a biomarker of future cardiovascular events, and personal lifestyle parameters and the degree of community-level economic development among rural communities. Methods: A cross-sectional field survey was undertaken in 19 rural communities in Hainan. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 1,744 participants. Dried blood spot samples were collected to measure high-sensitivity CRP concentration. Sex-stratified multilevel regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with CRP concentration among the participants. Results: While CRP concentration was negatively associated with being married and (more) education among men, for women CRP concentration was associated with the frequency of poultry consumption (P = 0.014) and the experience of migratory work in the previous year (P = 0.009). In addition, for females, living in communities with a greater degree of inequality, as indexed by the Gini coefficient, was also associated with increased CRP concentration (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Given that CRP concentration is a marker of future CVD risk, this study suggests that within these previously homogenous rural communities, economic development might have stratified people into population subgroups with a different CVD risk. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2015.

  • 11.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, Aki
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shirai, Kokoro
    University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.
    Amemiya, Airi
    National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kondo, Naoki
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kondo, Katsunori
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan / Nihon Fukushi University, Aichi, Japan / National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan.
    Ojima, Toshiyuki
    Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Hanazato, Masamichi
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Suzuki, Norimichi
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Fujiwara, Takeo
    Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Neighborhood Characteristics and Cardiovascular Risk among Older People in Japan: Findings from the JAGES Project2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 10, e0164525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found an association between neighborhood characteristics (i.e., aspects of the physical and social environment) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and elevated CVD risk. This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk among older people in Japan where research on this association is scarce. Data came from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study project; questionnaire data collected from 3,810 people aged 65 years or older living in 20 primary school districts in Aichi prefecture, Japan, was linked to a computed composite CVD risk score based on biomarker data (i.e., hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). A sex-stratified multilevel linear regression analysis revealed that for male participants, living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived occurrence of traffic accidents and reduced personal safety was associated with an elevated CVD risk (coefficient = 1.08 per interquartile range increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30 to 1.86) whereas males living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived proximity of exercise facilities had a lower risk (coefficient = −1.00, 95% CI = −1.78 to −0.21). For females, there was no statistically significant association between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk. This study suggests that aspects of the neighborhood environment might be important for CVD morbidity and mortality in Japan, particularly among men.

  • 12.
    Isaksson, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Koposov, R.
    The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA / Säter Psychiatric Clinic / .
    The danger of being inattentive – ADHD symptoms and risky sexual behaviour in Russian adolescents2017In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, no 47, 42-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractBackground Prior research has indicated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may be associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour (RSB). However, research on this association among adolescents has been comparatively limited and mainly confined to North America. The aim of this study was to examine if inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were linked to RSB in a community cohort sample of Russian adolescents. Methods The study was based on a group of 537 adolescents from Northern Russia. Information on inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as well as conduct problems was obtained through teacher ratings, while information on RSB (previous unprotected sex, number of sexual partners, sex while intoxicated and partner pregnancies), substance use, perception of risk, and parenting behaviour was based on students’ self-reports. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Teacher-rated inattention symptoms predicted RSB, independently of co-morbid conduct problems, substance use, risk perception, and different parenting styles (parental warmth, involvement and control). In addition, male sex, binge drinking and a lower assessment of perceived risk were all significantly associated with RSB in an adjusted model. Neither teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms nor conduct problems were linked to RSB in the full model. Conclusions Deficits in planning and organizing behaviours, being easily distracted and forgetful seem to be of importance for RSB in Russian adolescents. This highlights the importance of discriminating between different types of ADHD symptoms in adolescence to prevent risk behaviours and their potentially detrimental outcomes on health and well-being.

  • 13.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). niversity of Tokyo, Japan / European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition (ECOHOST), London, United Kingdom.
    The historical development of suicide mortality in Russia, 1870-20072015In: Archives of Suicide Research, ISSN 1381-1118, E-ISSN 1573-8159, Vol. 19, no 1, 117-130 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Russia has one of the highest suicide mortality rates in the world. This study investigates the development of Russian suicide mortality over a longer time period in order to provide a context within which the contemporary high level might be better understood. Annual sex- and age-specific suicide-mortality data for Russia for the period 1870-2007 were studied, where available. Russian suicide mortality increased 11-fold over the period. Trends in male and female suicide developed similarly, although male suicide rates were consistently much higher. From the 1990s suicide has increased in a relative sense among the young (15-34), while the high suicide mortality among middle-aged males has reduced. Changes in Russian suicide mortality over the study period may be attributable to modernisation processes.

  • 14.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Uppsala University.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Sparén, Pär
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Age, period and cohort effects on suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-20052017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, no 1, 235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Russian suicide mortality rates changed rapidly over the second half of the twentieth century. This study attempts to differentiate between underlying period and cohort effects in relation to the changes in suicide mortality in Russia between 1956 and 2005.

    METHODS: Sex- and age-specific suicide mortality data were analyzed using an age-period-cohort (APC) approach. Descriptive analyses and APC modeling with log-linear Poisson regression were performed.

    RESULTS: Strong period effects were observed for the years during and after Gorbachev's political reforms (including the anti-alcohol campaign) and for those following the break-up of the Soviet Union. After mutual adjustment, the cohort- and period-specific relative risk estimates for suicide revealed differing underlying processes. While the estimated period effects had an overall positive trend, cohort-specific developments indicated a positive trend for the male cohorts born between 1891 and 1931 and for the female cohorts born between 1891 and 1911, but a negative trend for subsequent cohorts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the specific life experiences of cohorts may be important for variations in suicide mortality across time, in addition to more immediate effects of changes in the social environment.

  • 15.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Sparén, Pär
    Karolinska institutet.
    Age, period and cohort effects on suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-2007Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Kamio, Y.
    et al.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Haraguchi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Ogino, K.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan / Tokyo Metropolitan Children’s Medical Center, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ishitobi, M.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Brief Report : Best Discriminators for Identifying Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at an 18-Month Health Check-Up in Japan2015In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 45, no 12, 1447-1453 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the best discriminative items for identifying young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we conducted a secondary analysis using longitudinal cohort data that included the Japanese version of the 23-item modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT-JV). M-CHAT-JV data at 18 months of age and diagnostic information evaluated at age 3 or later from 1851 Japanese children was used to isolate six highly discriminative items. Using data from two different community samples (n = 1851, n = 665) these items were shown to have comparable psychometric values with those of the full version. Our results suggest that these items might work as a short form screener for early identification of ASD in primary care settings where there are time constraints on screening. © 2015 The Author(s)

  • 17.
    Karlsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala university.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Säter.
    Risk and protective factors for peer victimization: a 1-year follow-up study of urban American students2014In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 9, 773-781 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether internalizing problems, parental warmth and teacher support were associated with adolescents' experience of future peer victimization in school. Data were drawn from two rounds of the longitudinal Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Study subjects comprised 593 US urban adolescents (aged 13.8 +/- A 0.8 years; 56 % female). Results showed that there was a substantial degree of continuity in peer victimization over a 1-year period. The presence of internalizing (anxiety, depressive and somatic) symptoms at baseline was associated with an increased risk of peer victimization over time. Both parental warmth and teacher support were uniquely associated with a lower risk for peer victimization. Implications of these findings for prevention efforts are discussed.

  • 18. Kislitsyna, Olga
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Gilmore, Anna
    McKee, Martin
    The social determinants of adolescent smoking in Russia in 20042010In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 55, no 6, 619-626 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the prevalence of adolescent smoking in the Russian ederation and examine what factors are associated with it. ata were drawn from Round 13 of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring urvey (RLMS) carried out in 2004. The sample consists of 815 dolescents (430 boys, 385 girls) aged 14-17 years who answered uestions about their health behaviours. moking was more prevalent among boys than girls (26.1 vs. 5.7%). aternal smoking and adolescent alcohol use were associated with smoking mong both sexes. The self-assessment of one's socioeconomic position as nfavourable was associated with girls' smoking, while living in a isrupted family, physical inactivity and having a low level of elf-esteem were predictive of boys' smoking. he family environment appears to be an important determinant of dolescent smoking in Russia. In particular, boys and girls may be odelling the negative health behaviour lifestyles of their parents, ith unhealthy behaviours clustering. Efforts to reduce adolescent moking in Russia must address the negative effects emanating from the arental home whilst also addressing associated behaviours such as lcohol use.

  • 19.
    Konishi, Shoko
    et al.
    The University of Tokyo, Japan / University of Washington, USA.
    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Watanabe, Chiho
    The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Pollinosis and all-cause mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese: a population-based cohort study2016In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 46, no 8, 1083-1089 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Having an allergic disease may have health implications beyond those more commonly associated with allergy given that previous epidemiological studies have suggested that both atopy and allergy are linked to mortality. More viable immune functioning among the elderly, as indicated by the presence of an allergic disease might therefore be associated with differences in all-cause mortality.

    OBJECTIVE: Using data from a Japanese cohort, this study examined whether having pollinosis (a form of allergic rhinitis) in a follow-up survey could predict all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

    METHODS: Data came from the Komo-Ise cohort, which at its 1993 baseline recruited residents aged 40-69 years old from two areas in Gunma prefecture, Japan. The current study used information on pollinosis that was obtained from the follow-up survey in 2000. Mortality and migration data were obtained throughout the follow-up period up to December 2008. Proportional hazard models were used to examine the relation between pollinosis and mortality.

    RESULTS: At the 2000 follow-up survey, 12% (1 088 out of 8 796) of respondents reported that they had pollinosis symptoms in the past 12 months. During the 76 186 person-years of follow-up, 748 died from all-causes. Among these there were 37 external, 208 cardiovascular, 74 respiratory, and 329 neoplasm deaths. After adjusting for potential confounders, pollinosis was associated with significantly lower all-cause (hazard ratio 0.57 [95% confidence interval = 0.38 to 0.87]) and neoplasms mortality (hazard ratio 0.48 [95% confidence interval = 0.26 to 0.92]).

    CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Having an allergic disease (pollinosis) at an older age may be indicative of more viable immune functioning and be protective against certain causes of death. Further research is needed to determine the possible mechanisms underlying the association between pollinosis and mortality.

  • 20.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Oh, H.
    University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, USA / Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Oakland, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    DeVylder, J.
    University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA.
    Risk and functional significance of psychotic experiences among individuals with depression in 44 low- and middle-income countries2016In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 43, no 12, 2655-2665 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on whether the co-occurrence of psychotic experiences (PEs) and depression confers a more pronounced decrement in health status and function compared with depression alone are scarce in the general adult population. Method: Data on 195 479 adults aged ⩾18 years from the World Health Survey were analysed. Using the World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), depression in the past 12 months was categorized into four groups: depressive episode, brief depressive episode, subsyndromal depression, and no depression. Past 12-month psychotic symptoms were assessed using four questions on positive symptoms from the CIDI. Health status across seven domains (cognition, interpersonal activities, sleep/energy, self-care, mobility, pain/discomfort, vision) and interviewer-rated presence of a mental health problem were assessed. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the associations. Results: When compared with those with no depression, individuals with depression had higher odds of reporting at least one PE, and this was seen across all levels of depression severity: subsyndromal depression [odds ratio (OR) 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02–2.81], brief depressive episode (OR 3.84, 95% CI 3.31–4.46) and depressive episode (OR 3.75, 95% CI 3.24–4.33). Having coexisting PEs and depression was associated with a higher risk for observable illness behavior and a significant decline in health status in the cognition, interpersonal activities and sleep/energy domains, compared with those with depression alone. Conclusions: This coexistence of depression and PEs is associated with more severe social, cognitive and sleep disturbances, and more outwardly apparent illness behavior. Detecting this co-occurrence may be important for treatment planning.

  • 21.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain .
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Garin, N.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain.
    Miret, M.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain / Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP), Madrid, Spain .
    Ayuso-Mateos, J. L.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain / Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP), Madrid, Spain .
    Leonardi, M.
    Neurological Institute Carlo Besta IRCCS Foundation, Milan, Italy.
    Koskinen, S.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland .
    Galas, A.
    Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland .
    Haro, J. M.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, Cibersam, Spain .
    The association between obesity and back pain in nine countries: A cross-sectional study2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, no 1, 123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The association between obesity and back pain has mainly been studied in high-income settings with inconclusive results, and data from older populations and developing countries are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess this association in nine countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America among older adults using nationally-representative data. Methods: Data on 42116 individuals ≥50 years who participated in the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE) study conducted in Finland, Poland, and Spain in 2011-2012, and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa in 2007-2010 were analysed. Information on measured height and weight available in the two datasets was used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Self-reported back pain occurring in the past 30 days was the outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between BMI and back pain. Results: The prevalence of back pain ranged from 21.5% (China) to 57.5% (Poland). In the multivariable analysis, compared to BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, significantly higher odds for back pain were observed for BMI ≥35 kg/m2 in Finland (OR 3.33), Russia (OR 2.20), Poland (OR 2.03), Spain (OR 1.56), and South Africa (OR 1.48); BMI 30.0-34.0 kg/m2 in Russia (OR 2.76), South Africa (OR 1.51), and Poland (OR 1.47); and BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 in Russia (OR 1.51) and Poland (OR 1.40). No significant associations were found in the other countries. Conclusions: The strength of the association between obesity and back pain may vary by country. Future studies are needed to determine the factors contributing to differences in the associations observed. © 2015 Koyanagi et al.

  • 22.
    Koyanagi, A
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J M
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Psychotic symptoms and smoking in 44 countries.2016In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 133, no 6, 497-505 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between psychotic symptoms and smoking among community-dwelling adults in 44 countries.

    METHOD: Data from the World Health Survey (WHS) for 192 474 adults aged ≥18 years collected in 2002-2004 were analyzed. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify four types of past 12-month psychotic symptoms. Smoking referred to current daily and non-daily smoking. Heavy smoking was defined as smoking ≥30 tobacco products/day.

    RESULTS: The pooled age-sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) of psychotic symptoms (i.e., at least one psychotic symptom) for smoking was 1.35 (1.27-1.43). After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to those with no psychotic symptoms, the ORs (95% CIs) for smoking for 1, 2, and ≥3 psychotic symptoms were 1.20 (1.08-1.32), 1.25 (1.08-1.45), and 1.36 (1.13-1.64) respectively. Among daily smokers, psychotic symptoms were associated with heavy smoking (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92), and individuals who initiated daily smoking at ≤15 years of age were 1.22 (95% CI = 1.05-1.42) times more likely to have psychotic symptoms.

    CONCLUSIONS: An increased awareness that psychotic symptoms are associated with smoking is important from a public health and clinical point of view. Future studies that investigate the underlying link between psychotic symptoms and smoking prospectively are warranted.

  • 23.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Psychotic-like experiences and disordered eating in the English general population2016In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 241, 26-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are no studies on psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and disordered eating in the general population. We aimed to assess this association in the English adult population. Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) were analyzed. This was a nationally representative survey comprising 7403 English adults aged ≥16 years. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire was used to identify the past 12-month occurrence of five forms of psychotic symptoms. Questions from the five-item SCOFF screening instrument were used to identify those with eating disorder (ED) symptoms and possible ED in the past year. The prevalence of any PLE was 5.1% (female) and 5.4% (male), while that of possible ED was 9.0% (female) and 3.5% (male). After adjustment for potential confounders, possible ED was associated with hypomania/mania in females (OR=3.23 95%CI=1.002-10.39), strange experiences [females (OR=1.85 95%CI=1.07-3.20) and males (OR=3.54 95%CI=1.65-7.57)], and any PLE in males (OR=3.44 95%CI=1.85-6.39). An interaction analysis revealed that the association was stronger among males for: auditory hallucinations and uncontrolled eating; and any PLE with uncontrolled eating, food dominance, and possible ED. Clinical practitioners should be aware that PLEs and disordered eating behavior often coexist. When one condition is detected, screening for the other may be advisable, especially among males.

  • 24.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Subclinical psychosis and pain in an English national sample: The role of common mental disorders2016In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 175, no 1-3, 209-215 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Information on the association between subclinical psychosis and pain is scarce, and the role of common mental disorders (CMDs) in this association is largely unknown. The aim of the current study was to therefore assess this association in the general population using nationally representative data from England. Methods: Data for 7403 adults aged. ≥. 16. years were used from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Five forms of psychotic symptoms were assessed by the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire, while pain was assessed in terms of the level of its interference with work activity in the past four weeks. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to assess anxiety disorders, depressive episode, and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD). Participants with probable or definite psychosis were excluded. The association between psychotic symptoms and pain was assessed by ordinal and binary logistic regression analysis. Results: When adjusted for confounders other than CMDs, psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with pain [e.g., the OR (95%CI) for the severest form of pain (binary outcome) was 1.78 (1.11-2.85)]. However, this association was no longer significant when CMDs were controlled for in most analyses. Anxiety disorders and depressive episode explained 34.8%-47.1% of the association between psychotic symptoms and pain, while this percentage increased to 62.7%-78.0% when the sub-threshold condition of MADD was also taken into account. Conclusions: When coexisting psychotic symptoms and pain are detected, assessing for anxiety and depression (even at sub-threshold levels) may be important for determining treatment options.

  • 25.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / SIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Japan / National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Ogawa-Higashi, Japan.
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / SIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Subclinical psychosis and suicidal behavior in England: Findings from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey2015In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 168, no 1-2, 62-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychotic disorders have been associated with suicidality but information on the association between subclinical psychosis and suicidality in the general adult population is scarce. Methods: Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (n = 7403) were analyzed. This was a nationally representative survey of the English adult household population (aged ≥. 16. years). Five types of psychotic symptoms (hypomania, thought control, paranoia, strange experience, auditory hallucination) occurring in the past 12. months were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. Participants with probable or definite psychosis were excluded. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in the past 12. months. Results: The prevalence of at least one psychotic symptom was 5.4%. After adjusting for potential confounders including mental disorders, each individual psychotic symptom was significantly associated with suicidal ideation with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 3.22 to 4.20. With the exception of thought control, all symptoms were also associated with significantly higher odds for suicide attempt (ORs 3.95 to 10.23). Having at least one psychotic symptom was associated with ORs of 3.13 (95%CI 2.09-4.68) and 3.84 (95%CI 1.67-8.83) for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt respectively. In addition, a greater number of psychotic symptoms was associated with higher odds for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Conclusions: Psychotic symptoms, regardless of the type, were independently associated with higher odds for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Assessment and management of suicide risk in individuals with psychotic symptoms may be important for suicide prevention.

  • 26.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / SIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). niversity of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    The association between psychosis and severe pain in community-dwelling adults: Findings from 44 low- and middle-income countries2015In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 69, 19-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies examining the association between schizophrenia and pain have produced mixed results and data on sub-threshold psychosis or psychotic symptoms and pain are scarce. This study assessed the association between psychosis and severe pain among community-dwelling adults in 44 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where no data exists.Data on 235,370 adults aged ≥18 years from the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2004 were analyzed. The presence of past 12-month psychotic symptoms was established using four questions from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Participants were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups based on whether they had at least one psychotic symptom and/or a lifetime psychosis or schizophrenia diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between psychosis and past 30-day severe pain. The prevalence of severe pain among those with 0, 1, 2, ≥3 psychotic symptoms was 8.7%, 16.7%, 21.8%, 30.5% respectively. Compared to those with no psychotic symptoms or diagnosis, the ORs (95%CIs) were: at least one symptom without diagnosis [2.17 (1.99-2.38)]; no symptom with diagnosis [2.33 (1.71-3.17)]; at least one symptom and diagnosis [4.27 (3.20-5.71)]. Associations were partly mediated by chronic physical conditions, anxiety, and depression. Despite some limitations such as the use of a single-item question to assess pain, the results of this study suggest that individuals with psychotic symptoms or a psychosis diagnosis should be systematically assessed for pain, and if necessary, receive treatment for pain and its underlying conditions. Future research on the effect of pain management on psychosis outcome is warranted.

  • 27.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Fundacio St Joan de Deu, Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain / Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / Natl Ctr Neurol & Psychiat, Natl Inst Mental Hlth, Tokyo, Japan.
    The Association between Sleep Problems and Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Global Perspective2015In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 12, 1875-1885 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Design: Community-based cross-sectional study. Setting: Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. Patients or Participants: 261,547 individuals aged >= 18 years from 56 countries. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40-1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. Conclusions: A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems.

  • 28.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Psychotic-Like Experiences and Nonsuidical Self-Injury in England: Results from a National Survey2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, e0145533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in the general adult population. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association using nationally-representative data from England.

    METHODS: Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of 7403 adults aged ≥16 years. Five forms of PLEs (mania/hypomania, thought control, paranoia, strange experience, auditory hallucination) were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. The association between PLEs and NSSI was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Hierarchical models were constructed to evaluate the influence of alcohol and drug dependence, common mental disorders, and borderline personality disorder symptoms on this association.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of NSSI was 4.7% (female 5.2% and male 4.2%), while the figures among those with and without any PLEs were 19.2% and 3.9% respectively. In a regression model adjusted for sociodemographic factors and stressful life events, most types of PLE were significantly associated with NSSI: paranoia (OR 3.57; 95%CI 1.96-6.52), thought control (OR 2.45; 95%CI 1.05-5.74), strange experience (OR 3.13; 95%CI 1.99-4.93), auditory hallucination (OR 4.03; 95%CI 1.56-10.42), and any PLE (OR 2.78; 95%CI 1.88-4.11). The inclusion of borderline personality disorder symptoms in the models had a strong influence on the association between PLEs and NSSI as evidenced by a large attenuation in the ORs for PLEs, with only paranoia continuing to be significantly associated with NSSI. Substance dependence and common mental disorders had little influence on the association between PLEs and NSSI.

    CONCLUSIONS: Borderline personality disorder symptoms may be an important factor in the link between PLEs and NSSI. Future studies on PLEs and NSSI should take these symptoms into account.

  • 29.
    Kravchenko, Zhanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Univeristy of Barcelona, Spain / Inst Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Close Relationships Matter: Family Well-being and its Effects on Health in Russia2015In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 67, no 10, 1635-1655 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dramatic fluctuations have occurred in population health in Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Although many factors have been examined in connection with this, there has been little focus on the role of the family, despite evidence from Western studies linking family functioning to individual health. Using data from 1,190 respondents collected during the Moscow Health Survey 2004 we examined the association between family relations and health outcomes. Poorer family functioning was strongly associated with worse self-rated physical health and mental health. Our results suggest that the proximal social environment of the family is important for understanding health outcomes in contemporary Russia.

  • 30.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Kunst, Anton E
    University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Reduced affordability of cigarettes and socio-economic inequalities in smoking continuation in Stakhanov, Ukraine, 20092015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no 2, 216-218 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of smoking in this environment in 2009. Low education (in women) and ownership of household assets (in men) were negatively associated with smoking continuation, whereas a positive association was found for personal monthly income. Our findings suggest that in a low-income setting where efficient cessation services are absent, reduced cigarette affordability may have only a limited effect in cutting down smoking.

  • 31.
    Löfving–Gupta, S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Lindblad, F.
    Uppsala University.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Schwab-Stone, M.
    Yale University Medical SchoolNew Haven, CT, United States .
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical SchoolNew Haven, CT, United States / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Säter, Sweden .
    Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth: risk and protective factors2015In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 50, no 4, 539-547 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Method: Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. Results: A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24 % of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Conclusion: Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.

  • 32. McKee, M
    et al.
    Balabanova, D
    Akingbade, K
    Pomerleau, J
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Rose, R
    Haerpfer, C
    Access to water in the countries of the former Soviet Union2006In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 120, no 4, 364-372 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During the Soviet period, authorities in the USSR invested heavily in collective farming and modernization of living conditions in rural areas. However, many problems remained, including poor access to many basic amenities such as water. Since then, the situation is likely to have changed; economic decline has coincided with migration and widening social inequalities, potentially increasing disparities within and between countries. Aim: To examine access to water and sanitation and its determinants in urban and rural areas of eight former Soviet countries. Methods: A series of nationally representative surveys in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Ukraine was undertaken in 2001, covering 18,428 individuals (aged 18+ years). Results: The percentage of respondents Living in rural areas varied between 27 and 59% among countries. There are wide urban-rural differences in access to amenities. Even in urban areas, only about 90% of respondents had access to cold running water in their home (60% in Kyrgyzstan). In rural areas, less than one-third had cold running water in their homes (44% in Russia, under 10% in Kyrgyzstan and Moldova). Between one-third and one-half of rural respondents in some countries (such as Belarus, Kazakhstan and Moldova) obtained their water from welts and similar sources. Access to hot running water inside the homes was an exception in rural households, reflecting the tack of modern heating methods in villages. Similarly, indoor access to toilets is common in urban areas but rare in rural areas. Access to all amenities was better in Russia compared with elsewhere in the region. Indoor access to cold water was significantly more common among rural residents Living in apartments, and in settlements served by asphalt roads rather than dirt roads. People with more assets or income and living with other people were significantly more likely to have water on tap. In addition, people who had moved in more recently were more likely to have an indoor water supply. Conclusions: This was the largest single study of its kind undertaken in this region, and demonstrates that a significant number of people living in rural parts of the former Soviet Union do not have indoor access to running water and sanitation. There are significant variations among countries, with the worse situation in central Asia and the Caucasus, and the best situation in Russia. Access to water strongly correlates with socio-economic characteristics. These findings suggest a need for sustained investment in rebuilding basic infrastructure in the region, and monitoring the impact of living conditions on health.

  • 33.
    Murphy, A.
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Roberts, B.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Kenward, M. G.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    De Stavola, B. L.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    McKee, M.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Using multi-level data to estimate the effect of social capital on hazardous alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union2014In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 24, no 4, 572-577 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hazardous alcohol consumption is a leading cause of mortality in the former Soviet Union (fSU), but little is known about the social factors associated with this behaviour. We set out to estimate the association between individual- and community-level social capital and hazardous alcohol consumption in the fSU. Methods: Data were obtained from Health in Times of Transition 2010, a household survey of nine fSU countries (n = 18 000 within 2027 communities). Individual-level indicators of social isolation, civic participation, help in a crisis and interpersonal trust were aggregated to the community level. Adjusting for demographic factors, the association of individual- and community-level indicators with problem drinking (CAGE) and episodic heavy drinking was estimated using a population average model for the analysis of multi-level data. Results: Among men, individual social isolation [odds ratio (OR) = 1.20], community social isolation (OR = 1.18) and community civic participation (OR = 4.08) were associated with increased odds of CAGE. Community civic participation (OR = 2.91) increased the odds of episodic heavy drinking, while community interpersonal trust (OR = 0.89) decreased these odds. Among women, individual social isolation (OR = 1.30) and community civic participation (OR = 2.94) increased odds of CAGE. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence of the role of some elements of social capital in problem drinking in the fSU, and highlight the importance of community effects. The nature of civic organizations in the fSU, and the communities in which civic participation is high, should be further investigated to inform alcohol policy in the region.

  • 34. Murphy, Adrianna
    et al.
    Levchuk, Nataliia
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Roberts, Bayard
    McKee, Martin
    A country divided?: Regional variation in mortality in Ukraine2013In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 58, no 6, 837-844 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We set out to identify the contribution of various causes of death to regional differences in life expectancy in Ukraine. Mortality data by oblast (province) were obtained from the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine. The contribution of various causes of death to differences in life expectancy between East, West and South Ukraine was estimated using decomposition. In 2008, life expectancy for men in South (61.8 years) and East Ukraine (61.2 years) was lower than for men in West Ukraine (64.0 years). A similar pattern was observed among women. This was mostly due to deaths from infectious disease and external causes among young adults, and cardio- and cerebro-vascular deaths among older adults. Deaths from TB among young adults contribute most to differences in life expectancy. Deaths due to infectious disease, especially TB, play an important role in the gap in life expectancy between regions in Ukraine. These deaths are entirely preventable-further research is needed to identify what has 'protected' individuals in Western Ukraine from the burden of deaths experienced by their Southern and Eastern counterparts.

  • 35. Murphy, Adrianna
    et al.
    Roberts, Bayard
    Ploubidis, George B
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    McKee, Martin
    Using multi-level data to estimate the effect of an 'alcogenic' environment on hazardous alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union.2014In: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 27, 205-211 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether alcohol-related community characteristics act collectively to influence individual-level alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union (fSU).

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Using multi-level data from nine countries in the fSU we conducted a factor analysis of seven alcohol-related community characteristics. The association between any latent factors underlying these characteristics and two measures of hazardous alcohol consumption was then analysed using a population average regression modelling approach. Our factor analysis produced one factor with an eigenvalue >1 (EV=1.28), which explained 94% of the variance. This factor was statistically significantly associated with increased odds of CAGE problem drinking (OR=1.40 (1.08-1.82)). The estimated association with EHD was not statistically significant (OR=1.10 (0.85-1.44)).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a high number of beer, wine and spirit advertisements and high alcohol outlet density may work together to create an 'alcogenic' environment that encourages hazardous alcohol consumption in the fSU.

  • 36. Murphy, Adrianna
    et al.
    Roberts, Bayard
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    McKee, Martin
    Social Factors Associated with Alcohol Consumption in the Former Soviet Union: A Systematic Review2012In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 47, no 6, 711-718 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Alcohol consumption is a major cause of premature mortality in countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). Despite the unique social profile of the region, we could find no published systematic review of studies of social factors and alcohol consumption in formerly Soviet countries. We aim to critically review the current evidence for social factors associated with alcohol consumption in the fSU and to identify key gaps in the literature. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Global Health databases for cross-sectional, case-control, longitudinal or qualitative studies of demographic, socio-economic, psycho-social and contextual factors associated with alcohol consumption, in any language, published from 1991 until 16 December 2011. Additional studies were identified from the references of selected papers and expert consultation. Our review followed PRISMA guidelines for the reporting of systematic reviews. Results: Our search strategy resulted in 26 articles for review. Although there is strong evidence in the literature that males and smokers in the fSU are more likely to engage in hazardous alcohol consumption, findings regarding other social factors were mixed and there were almost no data on the association of contextual factors and alcohol consumption in this region. Conclusion: This review highlights the extremely limited amount of evidence for social factors associated with heavy alcohol consumption in the fSU. Given the unique social environment of countries of the fSU, future research should take these factors into account in order to effectively address the high levels of alcohol-related mortality in this region.

  • 37.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Suicide Mortality and Agricultural Rationalization in Post-War Europe2006In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 41, no 6, 429-434 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The relationship between agricultural rationalization and suicide mortality has been little researched. On the basis of the hypothesis that agricultural rationalization leads to more suicide, this study investigated whether a general relationship could be found between structural change in agriculture and suicide mortality in post-war Europe. Method Due to the expected small size of the effect, the data were deliberately collected so as to maximize the variation in the independent variable. Annual national-level data on suicide mortality, the percentage of the work force in agricultural employment, and the unemployment level were collected from those countries and 10-year periods where the structural changes (reductions in employment) in agriculture between 1950 and 1995 had been most and least pronounced. In order to avoid confounders, the annual changes in the variables’ values were correlated with each other, adding a control for the level of unemployment, and allowing for lagged effects. Results The annual changes in the levels of agricultural employment and those of suicide mortality did not covary at all. Controlling for unemployment levels did not change this, nor could any lagged effects be found. Conclusions At the most general level, no causal relation between agricultural rationalization and suicide mortality was detected. This lack of a universal relation does not, however, preclude the possibility of the relationship existing given certain socio-historical circumstances.

  • 38.
    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng
    et al.
    Nagasaki Univiversity,Nagasaki , Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Konishi, Shoko
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan / University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Watanabe, Chiho
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ambient air pollution and suicide in Tokyo, 2001-20112016In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 201, 194-202 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Some evidence suggests an association may exist between the level of air pollution and suicide mortality. However, this relation has been little studied to date. The current study examined the association in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: Suicide mortality data for Tokyo for the 11-year period 2001-2011 were obtained together with data on four air pollutants: fine particulate matter (PM2.5), suspended particulate matter (SPM), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). A time-stratified case-crossover study design was used to examine the daily association between the level of air pollution and suicide mortality. Results: During the study period there were 29,939 suicide deaths. In stratified analyses an interquartile range (IQR) increase in the same-day concentration of NO2 was linked to increased suicide mortality among those aged under 30 (percentage change: 6.73%, 95% Cl: 0.69-13.12%). An IQR increase in PM25 and SO2 was associated with a 10.55% (95% Cl: 2.05-19.75%) and 11.47% (95% Cl: 3.60-19.93%) increase, respectively, in suicide mortality among widowed individuals for mean exposure on the first four days (average lags 0-3). Positive associations were observed for the air pollutants in the summer although associations were reversed in autumn. Limitations: We relied on monitoring data to approximate individual exposure to air pollutants. Conclusions: Higher levels of air pollution are associated with increased suicide mortality in some population subgroups in Tokyo. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking air pollutants and suicide in this setting.

  • 39. Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of Tokyo.
    Alcohol tax, consumption and mortality in tsarist Russia: is a public health perspective applicable?2013In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 23, no 2, 340-344 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The public health perspective on alcohol comprises two main tenets: (i) population drinking impacts on alcohol-related harm and (ii) population drinking is affected by the physical and economic availability of alcohol, where alcohol taxes are the most efficient measure for regulating consumption. This perspective has received considerable empirical support from analyses of contemporary data mainly from Europe and North America. However, as yet, it has been little examined in a historical context. The aims of the present article are to use data from tsarist Russia to explore (i) the relation between changes in the tax on alcohol and per capita alcohol consumption and (ii) the relation between per capita alcohol consumption and alcohol mortality. Methods: The material comprised annual data on alcohol taxes, alcohol consumption and alcohol mortality. The tax and alcohol consumption series spanned the period 1864-1907 and the mortality data covered the period 1870-94. The data were analysed by estimating autoregressive integrated moving average models on differenced data. Results: Changes in alcohol taxes were significantly associated with alcohol consumption in the expected direction. Increases in alcohol consumption, in turn, were significantly related to increases in alcohol mortality. Conclusion: This study provides support for the utility of the public health perspective on alcohol in explaining changes in consumption and alcohol-related harm in a historical context. We discuss our findings from tsarist Russia in the light of experiences from more recent alcohol policy changes in Russia.

  • 40. Razvodovsky, Y
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Suicide in urban and rural regions of Belarus, 1990-20052009In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 123, no 1, 27-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the occurrence of suicide in urban and rural regions of Belarus in the post-Soviet Period. Study design: Unlinked cross-sectional study using data drawn from four time points. Methods: Age- and gender-specific suicide data for urban and rural regions of Belarus were obtained from the Belarus Ministry of Statistics for the years 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005. The data were recalculated into seven age categories and then directly standardized. Poisson regression models were used to assess changes ill urban-rural suicide rate ratios across the four time points. Results: Between 1990 and 2000, the suicide rate rose sharply in Belarus. It started to reduce after 2000, but in 2005 it was still much higher than its initial level. The same was true for urban and rural suicide rates and for male Suicide rates in all regions combined. However, after 1995, there was a divergence between gender-specific rates in urban and rural areas. A small reduction in urban suicide rates for both genders contrasted with a sharp increase in suicide rates among trien and women in rural areas. By 2005, although suicide rates had fallen from their 2000 level for both genders in urban and rural locations, the decrease was much smaller in rural areas. These changes resulted in a deteriorating rural-urban suicide ratio across the period 1990-2005, with suicide rates among nearly every rural male age group remaining extreme after 1995. Although it is probable that a deteriorating social and economic situation has underpinned increasing suicide rates in all regions, there may be factors that are specific to rural locations, such as increasing social isolation and poor provision of medical services, that account for the extreme suicide rates now being recorded there. Conclusion: By 2005, Belarus had one of the highest suicide rates in the world. This now requires urgent intervention by the necessary authorities to ameliorate this situation in urban and, especially, rural locations.

  • 41.
    Reile, R.
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Re: Letter to the Editor of Public Health in response to ‘Large variation in predictors of mortality by levels of self-rated health: results from an 18-year follow-up study’2017In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 147, 157-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Reile, Rainer
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Large variation in predictors of mortality by levels of self-rated health: Results from an 18-year follow-up study2017In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 145, 59-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To analyze the variation in factors associated with mortality risk at different levels of self-rated health (SRH).

    Study design: Retrospective cohort study.

    Methods: Cox regression analysis was used to examine the association between mortality and demographic, socioeconomic and health-related predictors for respondents with good, average, and poor SRH in a longitudinal data set from Estonia with up to 18 years of follow-up time.

    Results: In respondents with good SRH, male sex, older age, lower income, manual occupation, ever smoking, and heavy alcohol consumption predicted higher mortality. These covariates, together with marital status, illness-related limitations, and underweight predicted mortality in respondents with average SRH. For poor SRH, only being never married and having illness-related limitations predicted mortality risk in addition to older age and male sex.

    Conclusions: The predictors of all-cause mortality are not universal but depend on the level of SRH. The higher mortality of respondents with poor SRH could to a large extent be attributed to health problems, whereas in the case of average or good SRH, factors other than the presence of illness explained outcome mortality.

  • 43. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Gilmore, Anna
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of London & Univesity of Tokyo.
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    Prohoda, Vladimir
    Rotman, David
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    Prevalence and Psychosocial Determinants of Nicotine Dependence in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union2013In: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 15, no 1, 271-276 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Despite the high prevalence of smoking in the former Soviet Union (fSU), particularly among men, there is very little information on nicotine dependence in the region. The study aim was to describe the prevalence of nicotine dependence in 9 countries of the fSU and to examine the psychosocial factors associated with nicotine dependence. Methods: Cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys using multistage random sampling were conducted in 2010 with men and women aged 18 years and over in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. The main outcome of interest was nicotine dependence using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. Multivariate regression analysis was then used to explore the influence of a range of psychosocial factors on higher nicotine dependence. Results: Mean nicotine dependence among men in the region as a whole was 3.96, with high dependence ranging from 17% in Belarus to 40% in Georgia. Among women, mean dependence was 2.96, with a prevalence of high dependence of 11% for the region. Gender (men), younger age of first smoking, lower education level, not being a member of an organization, bad household economic situation, high alcohol dependence, and high psychological distress showed significant associations with higher nicotine dependence. Conclusions: High nicotine dependence among men was recorded in a number of study countries. Findings highlight the need for tobacco programmes to target early age smokers and less educated and poorer groups and suggest common ground for programmes seeking to reduce nicotine dependence, harmful alcohol use, and psychological distress.

  • 44.
    Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Gilmore, Anna
    University of Bath, Bath, UK.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Rotman, David
    Belarussian State University, Minsk, Belarus.
    Prohoda, Vladimir
    Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
    Haerpfer, Christian
    Aberdeen University, Aberdeen, Scotland.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Changes in Smoking Prevalence in 8 Countries of the Former Soviet Union Between 2001 and 20102012In: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 102, no 7, 1320-1328 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. We sought to present new data on smoking prevalence in 8 countries, analyze prevalence changes between 2001 and 2010, and examine trend variance by age, location, education level, and household economic status. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in 2010 in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. We compared smoking prevalence with a related 2001 study for the different countries and population subgroups, and also calculated the adjusted prevalence rate ratios of smoking. Results. All-age 2010 smoking prevalence among men ranged from 39% (Moldova) to 59% (Armenia), and among women from 2% (Armenia) to 16% (Russia). There was a significantly lower smoking prevalence among men in 2010 compared with 2001 in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia, but not for women in any country. For all countries combined, there was a significantly lower smoking prevalence in 2010 than in 2001 for men aged 18 to 39 years and men with a good or average economic situation. Conclusions. Smoking prevalence appears to have stabilized and may be declining in younger groups, but remains extremely high among men, especially those in lower socioeconomic groups. (Am J Public Health. 2012;102:1320-1328. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300547)

  • 45. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Balabanova, Dina
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    The persistence of irregular treatment of hypertension in the former Soviet Union2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 11, 1079-1082 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Hypertension is one of the leading causes of avoidable mortality in the former Soviet Union (fSU). In previous work, the authors described patterns of irregular hypertension treatment in eight countries of the fSU in 2001. This paper presents new data on changes in the use of hypertension treatment in the same countries. Methods Using household survey data from 18 420 (2001) and 17 914 (2010) respondents from Armenia, Azerbaijan (2010 only), Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine, the authors describe changes in rates of irregular treatment use (less than daily) between 2001 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression was also used to analyse the characteristics associated with irregular treatment. Results Irregular treatment was extremely high at 74% in 2001 and only fell to 68% in 2010 (all countries combined). Irregular treatment remained particularly high in 2010 in Armenia (79%), Kazakhstan (73%) and Moldova (73%). Recurring characteristics associated with irregular treatment included gender (men), younger age, higher fitness levels, and consuming alcohol and tobacco. Conclusions Irregular hypertension treatment continues to be a major problem in the countries of the fSU and requires an urgent response.

  • 46. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Balabanova, Dina
    McKee, Martin
    Irregular treatment of hypertension in the former Soviet Union2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 6, 482-488 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The USSR failed to establish a modern pharmaceutical industry and lacked the capacity for reliable distribution of drugs. Patients were required to pay for outpatient drugs and the successor states have inherited this legacy, so that those requiring long-term treatment face considerable barriers in receiving it. It was hypothesised that citizens of former Soviet republics requiring treatment for hypertension may not be receiving regular treatment. Aims To describe the regularity of treatment among those diagnosed with hypertension and prescribed treatment in eight countries of the former Soviet Union, and explore which factors are associated with not taking medication regularly. Methods Using data from over 18 000 respondents from eight former Soviet countries, individuals who had been told that they had hypertension by a health professional and prescribed treatment were identified. By means of multivariate logistic analysis the characteristics of those taking treatment daily and less than daily were compared. Results Only 26% of those prescribed treatment took it daily. The probability of doing so varied among countries and was highest in Russia, Belarus and Georgia, and lowest in Armenia ( although Georgia's apparent advantage may reflect low rates of diagnosis). Women, older people, those living in urban areas, and nonsmokers and non-drinkers were more likely to take treatment daily. Conclusions A high proportion of those who have been identified by health professionals as requiring hypertension treatment are not taking it daily. These findings suggest that irregular hypertension treatment is a major problem in this region and will require an urgent response.

  • 47. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Gasparishvili, Alexander
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    Changes in household access to water in countries of the former Soviet Union2012In: Journal of Public Health, ISSN 2198-1833, E-ISSN 1613-2238, Vol. 34, no 3, 352-359 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Evidence from the Early 2000s quantified limited coverage of household water supplies in countries of the former Soviet Union. The study objectives were to measure changes in access to piped household water in seven of these countries between 2001 and 2010 and examine how these varied by household economic status. Methods Cross-sectional household sample surveys were conducted in 2010 in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Data on household piped water were compared with a related 2001 study and descriptive, regression and relative risk analyses applied. Results Increases in access to piped water in the home between 2001 and 2010 were recorded in urban and rural areas of all countries, except Kazakhstan. Access remains lower in rural areas. The relative risk of urban households not having piped water in 2010 compared with 2001 diminished by one-third for households with a bad/very bad economic situation [rate ratio (RR): 0.66] and by half for wealthier households (RR: 0.48). In rural areas, the declines were 15% for households with a bad/very bad economic situation (RR: 0.85) and 30% for wealthier households (RR: 0.69). Conclusions Despite encouraging increases in access to piped water, there remain significant gaps for rural and poorer households.

  • 48. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of London & Univesity of Tokyo.
    Gilmore, Anna B.
    Danishevski, Kirill
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    Bryden, Anna
    Rotman, David
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    Knowledge of the health impacts of smoking and public attitudes towards tobacco control in the former Soviet Union2013In: Tobacco Control, ISSN 0964-4563, E-ISSN 1468-3318, Vol. 22, no 6, e12- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To describe levels of knowledge on the harmful effects of tobacco and public support for tobacco control measures in nine countries of the former Soviet Union and to examine the characteristics associated with this knowledge and support.

    Methods Standardised, cross-sectional nationally representative surveys conducted in 2010/2011 with 18?000 men and women aged 18years and older in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Respondents were asked a range of questions on their knowledge of the health effects of tobacco and their support for a variety of tobacco control measures. Descriptive analysis was conducted on levels of knowledge and support, along with multivariate logistic regression analysis of characteristics associated with overall knowledge and support scores.

    Results Large gaps exist in public understanding of the negative health effects of tobacco use, particularly in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Moldova. There are also extremely high levels of misunderstanding about the potential effects of light' cigarettes. However, there is popular support for tobacco control measures. Over three quarters of the respondents felt that their governments could be more effective in pursuing tobacco control. Higher levels of education, social capital (membership of an organisation) and being a former or never-smoker were associated with higher knowledge on the health effects of tobacco and/or being more supportive of tobacco control measures.

    Conclusions Increasing public awareness of tobacco's health effects is essential for informed decision-making by individuals and for further increasing public support for tobacco control measures.

  • 49. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Murphy, Adrianna
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    Bryden, Anna
    Rotman, David
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    Patterns of Public Support for Price Increases on Alcohol in the Former Soviet Union2012In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 47, no 4, 473-478 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To measure levels of public support for price increases on beer and spirits in nine former Soviet Union countries and to examine the characteristics influencing such support. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 with 18,000 respondents aged 18+ in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Results: The lowest level of support for price increases on beer were in Georgia (men 5%, women 9%) and Armenia (men 5%, women 11%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 30%, women 38%), Azerbaijan (men 27%, women 37%) and Russia (men 23%, women 34%). The lowest levels of support for price increases on spirits were Armenia (men 8%, women 14%) and Georgia (men 14%, women 21%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 38%, 47% women) and Moldova (men 36%, women 43%). Characteristics associated with supporting price increases included gender (women), higher education, good economic situation, lower alcohol consumption and greater knowledge of harmful alcohol behaviour. Conclusion: Alcohol price increases are an effective means to reduce hazardous alcohol use. Despite opposition in some groups, there is evidence of public support for alcohol price increases in the study countries.

  • 50. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Petticrew, Mark
    McKee, Martin
    The influence of concern about crime on levels of psychological distress in the former Soviet Union2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 5, 433-439 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Previous studies suggest that the fear of crime is associated with worse mental health, with social capital potentially having a mediating influence. However, no studies could be identified on this issue in countries of the former Soviet Union, despite them experiencing increasing rates of crime and profound social change. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between concern about crime and levels of psychological distress in eight countries of the former Soviet Union. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in eight former Soviet countries using a standardised questionnaire containing items on psychological distress and concern about five criminal activities. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between concern about criminal activities and psychological distress. Separate regression models were run to explore the influence of social capital on this relationship. Results The first model (excluding social capital) produced significant positive coefficients of association for all five types of criminal activity with psychological distress, with a range from 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.54) for suffering abuse because of nationality to 0.56 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.70) for being sexually molested. The second model (including social capital) also showed significant associations for all five criminal activities, but coefficients were slightly smaller. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence of a relationship between fear of crime and psychological distress in the study countries, with possibly a small mediating influence of social capital. Further studies are required to explore the relationship between fear of crime, social capital and mental health in the region.

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