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  • 1.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Veronese, Nicola
    National Research Council, Padova, Italy / National Institute of Gastroenterology, Bari, Italy.
    Stubbs, Brendon
    South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK / King’s College London, London, UK / Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK.
    Vancampfort, Davy
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, CA, USA.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seul, Korea / Severance Children’s Hospital, Seuo, Korea.
    Jackson, Sarah
    University College London, London, UK.
    Smith, Lee
    Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
    Lara, Elvira
    CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain / Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid, Spain.
    Food Insecurity Is Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in South Africa: Findings from a Nationally Representative Survey.2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 4, article id E749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are no studies on the association between food insecurity and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thus, cross-sectional, community-based data on individuals aged ≥50 years from the World Health Organization's Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in South Africa (2007⁻2008) were analyzed to assess this association. The definition of MCI was based on the National Institute on Ageing-Alzheimer's Association criteria. Past 12-month food insecurity was assessed with two questions on frequency of eating less and hunger due to lack of food. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. The sample consisted of 3,672 individuals aged ≥50 years [mean (SD) age 61.4 (18.3); 56% females]. The prevalence of MCI was 8.5%, while 11.0% and 20.8% experienced moderate and severe food insecurity, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, moderate and severe food insecurity were associated with 2.82 (95%CI = 1.65⁻4.84) and 2.51 (95%CI = 1.63⁻3.87) times higher odds for MCI compared with no food insecurity, respectively. The OR for those aged ≥65 years with severe food insecurity was particularly high (OR = 3.87; 95%CI = 2.20⁻6.81). In conclusion, food insecurity was strongly associated with MCI among South African older adults. Future longitudinal research is required to assess whether addressing food insecurity may reduce risk of MCI and subsequent dementia.

  • 2.
    Oh, Hans
    et al.
    University of Southern California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Lincoln, Karen D
    University of Southern California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Deu , Barcelona , Spain / CIBERSAM , Madrid , Spain.
    Allergies, infections, and psychiatric disorders among Black Americans: findings from the National Survey of American Life2019In: Ethnicity and Health, ISSN 1355-7858, E-ISSN 1465-3419, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: An emerging body of literature shows that allergies and infections are associated with psychiatric disorders, though there is little research to confirm these associations among Black Americans in the United States. Design: We analyzed data from the National Survey of American Life, and used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between past 12-month allergies/infections and past 12-month psychiatric disorders, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco use, lifetime diabetes, and body mass index. Results: We found that allergies/infections were associated with mood, anxiety, and eating disorders, but not alcohol or substance use disorders. We detected effect modification by ethnicity, with stronger odds for mood, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders, with no significant associations for substance use or eating disorders among Caribbean Blacks. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of screening for psychiatric disorders among Black individuals complaining of allergies/infections, and the need to also treat allergies/infections among people with psychiatric disorders.

  • 3.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / 5Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Perceived discrimination and psychological distress in nine countries of the former Soviet Union2019In: International Journal of Social Psychiatry, ISSN 0020-7640, E-ISSN 1741-2854, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 158-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:: Perceived discrimination has been linked to worse mental health. However, little is known about this association in the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU).

    AIM:: To address this deficit, this study examined the link between perceived discrimination and psychological distress in nine fSU countries.

    METHODS:: Data were analyzed from 18,000 adults aged ⩾18 years obtained during the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine in 2010 and 2011. A single-item measure was used to assess discrimination. Psychological distress was measured with a 12-item scale. Logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations.

    RESULTS:: After adjusting for all potential confounders, when using none/little discrimination as the reference category, moderate and strong discrimination were associated with significantly increased odds for psychological distress in the total population and in men and women separately with odds ratios ranging from 1.93 to 2.64. Meta-analysis based on country-wise estimates showed that the level of between-country heterogeneity was negligible.

    CONCLUSION:: Perceived discrimination is associated with psychological distress in countries throughout the fSU. Quantitative and qualitative research is now warranted to determine its specific forms and impact on population health in individual fSU countries.

  • 4.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Zui
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York, USA.
    Jacob, Louis
    University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France / Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Waldman, Kyle
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Perceived discrimination and psychotic experiences in the English general population2019In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 62, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Perceived discrimination has been linked to psychotic experiences (PEs). However, as yet, information is lacking on the relationship between different forms of discrimination and PEs. This study examined this association in the English general population.

    METHODS: Nationally representative, cross-sectional data were analyzed from 7363 adults aged 16 and above that came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Self-reported information was obtained on six forms of discrimination (ethnicity, sex, religious beliefs, age, physical health problems/disability, sexual orientation), while PEs were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations.

    RESULTS: In a fully adjusted logistic regression analysis, any discrimination was significantly associated with PEs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.75-3.48). All individual forms of discrimination were significantly associated with PEs except sexual orientation. Multiple forms of discrimination were associated with higher odds for PEs in a monotonic fashion with those experiencing ≥ 3 forms of discrimination having over 5 times higher odds for any PE. In addition, experiencing any discrimination was associated with significantly increased odds for all individual forms of PE with ORs ranging from 2.16 (95%CI: 1.40-3.35) for strange experience to 3.36 (95%CI: 1.47-7.76) for auditory hallucination.

    CONCLUSION: Different forms of discrimination are associated with PEs in the general population. As discrimination is common at the societal level, this highlights the importance of public policy and evidence-based interventions to reduce discrimination and improve population mental health.

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