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  • 1.
    Edquist, Samuel
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies.
    Holmén, Janne
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Islands of Identity: History-writing and identity formation in five island regions in the Baltic Sea2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gotland, Åland, Saaremaa, Hiiumaa and Bornholm are five island regions in the Baltic Sea which constitute, or have until recently constituted, provinces or counties of their own. Combining perspectives from two disparate academic fields, uses of history and island studies, this book investigates how regional history writing has contributed to the formation of regional identity on these islands since the year 1800. The special geographic situation of the islands-somewhat secluded from the mainland but also connected to important waterways-has provided their inhabitants with shared historical experiences. Due to varying geographic and historical circumstances, the relationship between regional and national identity is however different on each island. While regional history writing has in most cases aimed at integrating the island into the nation state, it has on Åland in the second half of the 20th century been used to portray its inhabitants as a separate nation. Dramatic political upheavals as the World Wars has also caused shifts in how regional history writing has represented the relationship to the mainland nation state, and has sometimes also resulted in altered national loyalties.

  • 2.
    Friberg von Sydow, Rikard
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies.
    Medical Records - The Different Data Carriers Used in Sweden from the End of the 19th Century Until Today and Their Impact on Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability2017In: The Right of Access to Information and the Right to Privacy: A Democratic Balancing Act / [ed] Jonason, Patricia & Rosengren, Anna, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017, p. 41-60Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Friberg von Sydow, Rikard
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies.
    Patientjournalen mellan integritet och datorisering: En undersökning av SOU 1984:732017In: Arkiv, samhälle och forskning, ISSN 0349-0505, no 1, p. 6-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rikard Friberg von Sydow analyserar den offentliga utredning som är förarbetet till Patientjournalslag (1985:562) och hur den hanterar patientintegriteten i en tid av begynnande användning av ADB. Författaren avslutar med reflektioner om hur 30 års utveckling påverkat integritetsfrågan och vilken integritetsproblematik som nu bör få uppmärksamhet.

  • 4.
    Friberg von Sydow, Rikard
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies.
    Preservation and reusability of Instagram content: with examples from the public sector of Sweden2018In: Imatge i Recerca : Jornades Antoni Varés (15es : 2018 : Girona), Girona, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many public sector organizations today use social media to communicate with the citizens. In Sweden, where government information is strictly regulated there have been several discussions regarding these organizations use of social media as the content is considered governmental information. In this paper I will analyze two city archives (Stockholm City Archive and The Regional Archives for Gothenburg and Region Västra Götaland) instructions regarding their use of social media in general and the application Instagram particulary. These instructions will be analyzed through a theoretical framework containing provenance, preservation and reusability. Instagram is particularly interesting because the main communication is done through pictures which can be hard to preserve, hard to record the provenance regarding, but that people often are eager to reuse. In the end two models for a practical preservation of Instagram content will be presented. Two models of preservation that take provenance and reusability in account.

    In Sweden all public organizations such as municipalities and government agencies have to treat their information flow carefully. Every document that is created or received by a public organization is perceived as an official document (“Allmän handling”). Such document must be released to the public on demand if the information in it is not subject to any secrecy regulations. In the legislation the definition of a document is very broad – it could be any type of information that a public organization holds. Automatically generated logfiles, maps, pictures, virtually anything that is perceived as information can be an official document. These types information is also supposed to be preserved in an archive, if there not is a regulation from the National archives or other qualified agency that states otherwise. This makes the discussion regarding preserving social media relevant.

    Instagram provides a possibility to download all posted content from your user account. This has been a feature in the Instagram Application since April 2018. The result is a zip-file with a series of files in JSON-format. These files contains all likes, messages, captions et cetera that has been generated through the account. The zipped content also contains all pictures and videos the account has posted, and all direct messages (pictures or videos) that the account has had sent to it. There are also independent scraping tools that let you download content from accounts that you don’t are the owner off.These types of scraping tools are off less interest in this study, but could be useful for public organizations if they collect content from other users or in cases were a public organization has lost control over an account. There is no research yet that mentions Instagram, but scraping through API, application programming interface, the programming interface that social media suppliers offers for professional users, have been recommended as an archiving tool for Twitter.

    The theoretical foundation of this study is the concept of provenance as it is used within the discipline of Archival Science. The goal is to discuss preservation solutions that will enable us to preserve reusable content with its provenance intact. The reason to search for such solutions is to cater both to contemporary and future users of the preserved content. Provenance, or respect des fonds, is a key concept in archival theory. There are multiple aspects of provenance but one is that what we call an archive is the natural accumulation of an organization. It is not – as in the case with a library – a collection of information, collected by the organization. It is the administrative accumulation of an organization, the mail sent to it and the protocol on which its representatives have written their decisions. To keep the provenance is to let the accumulated administrative material in an order close to its original order. Material from different organizations should not be mixed when they reach an archival institution, they should be kept sorted in relation to their original accumulator. Reusability and preservation are two other criteria that are used beside provenance.

    The two largest cities in Sweden, Stockholm and Gothenburg are the only ones that seem to have any instruction for archiving Instagram content. These instructions, which differs in some ways have been analyzed with the concepts of provenance, reusability and preservation. In relation to this analysis, two different methods for archiving Instagram content has been produced. Planned content management – a method in which reusability and the preservation of easily reusable archives are in focus. Content download – a method in which the preservation of the content is done in way which preserves the social media provenance.

    The study concludes that when we choose a method we must know it’s limitations. We must also know what kind of end result we want. Then we must let these two aspects intermingle when until we find a solution that is both possible for the organization and gives us a preferable end result. In the end, if we strive for provenance we might lose some of the contents reusability. And if we strive for reusability we might lose some of the contents provenance. If we want both the archive will be considerably larger and there will be more work accumulated in the end product.

    Scientific contribution

    The main scientific contribution of this study is the discussion regarding different methods of preservation of Instagram content. A discussion that is possible to apply to other social media application. To this a discussion regarding social media and provenance is added. Both these contributions could be a stepping stone for further discussion regarding how to treat social media from an archival science perspective.

  • 5.
    Friberg von Sydow, Rikard
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies.
    The Digital Leap and the Quest for Autonomy: Inspecting the International Council on Archives Code of Ethics in a twenty year retrospect2017In: Information and knowledge for Competitiveness: Proceeding of DLIS 2017 International Conference : Hosted by the Department of Library and Information Studies (DLIS) : 15th-17th March 2017 : At the University of Botswana, Gaborone / [ed] Nathan Mnjama & Priti Jain, Gaborone: University of Botswana , 2017, p. 169-183Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Council on Archives Code of Ethics was presented in 1996. A great deal has happened in the world and in the discipline of Archival Science since. This article examines and analyses the Code of Ethics with the help of Codes of ethics from other disciplines, the debate surrounding profession ethics and the changes in the world of archives. Three areas are found where improvement in the Code would be preferable. The archivist should be trying to gain a higher autonomy in relation to other professions like economist and lawyers. Inspired by how autonomy is formulated in the pharmacists Code of Ethics. Education should be put in focus when today, at least in the western world, most people that work as archivists generally have a relatively high education. Also, the statements in the Code regarding confidentiality might have to be revisited and discussed again, because of the great changes in the possibility to spread and communicate information after the great increase in digitalization since 1996. Today, the internet as an extra layer of information makes it possible to search and connect personal information with information in archives. We also have the possibility to spread information very fast using smart phones etcetera. This has to be regarded as a change in the possibility to remain confidential.     

  • 6.
    Jansson, Thomas
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies.
    Kommunalt dataskydd: En fallstudie av Botkyrka kommuns implementering av EU:s Dataskyddsförordning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to examine how the swedish municipality of Botkyrka hasendeavoured to meet the legal obligations prescribed by the General Data ProtectionRegulation (GDPR) and what impact this legislation is expected to have on the informationmanagement-structures currently in use within the municipality itself. Research has beenperformed through a case study consisting of semi-structured interviews. The study showsthat several important measures has been taken in order to meet the demands set by theregulation, but that the absence of a conclusive swedish legislation on the matter is keepingthe municipality from knowing what exactly is expected of them.

  • 7.
    Schad Elgstrand, Oscar
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies.
    ”Utan sitta på en skarp stengata, här med alla ting, som man skall uppbära dagligen”: En studie om Riksarkivets kansliskrivares levnadsstandard under 1610-1620-tal utifrån Pierre Bourdieus samhällsteori.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis in Archival Science is to examine what standard of living the civil servants who worked for the Swedish National Archives had in the 1610- and 1620s. The examination is based on Pierre Bourdieus theory of society. The theory views society as a field with distinct social rooms and in each room the agents act to create one’s own capital. Every agent aims to create economical, material, social and cultural capital. Previous research within the field has primarly been about the Swedish state and the secretariat’s progress but the examined agents have been examined to a lesser extent. During the examined period the state chancellor Axel Oxenstierna was a key figure and patron in the Swedish state’s progress and employment of civil servants. The examined agents were born commons thus the oppurtunities were limited and they reached the civil servant employment through the patron-client relationship. Thus the examination aimed to answer two questions, what standard of living the civil servants had and if they were a part of the patron-client relationship. The methodology employed is qualitative. A literature review has been undertaken and qualitative hermeneutics method has been used to examine the texts about the civil servants standard of living.

    The examination’s first part is a historical background which has showed that the Swedish state and secreterait had an unstable progess during the 1600th-century. When Gustavus Adoplhus became king in 1611 and Axel Oxenstierna state chancellor in 1612 the prerequisites for a stable state and secretariat were founded. As the state became stable the centralization to Stockholm began as well. It is in this historical context the examined civil servants are examined, as the first urban civil servants centralized to Stockholm. As the source material was surveyed typical problems with material preserved about commoners of this time were found. Only one civil servant had enough source material to give enough scientific credibility. His name was Andreas Olai Gerslinus and was employed in the secretariat in 1614 and the Swedish National Archives 1618. The examination has showed that he throughout the whole examined period had a high social and cultural capital. He had relationships with both scholars and men of high nobility. His role as a civil servant of the Swedish National Archives gave him a natural high cultural capital due to the information he possessed. His economical and material capital was low in the 1610s but during the same time he had enough capital to buy two homesteads. The low capital was the results of war and the debt for Älvsborg. During the 1620s his economical capital became reliable and he moved to Åbo in 1623 to pursue a more reputable employment until his death in 1628. This was also common for the civil servants to constantly change social room to be able to build more capital. The second question regarding the patron-client relationship has shown that Andreas Olai Gerslinus was a client for the patron Axel Oxenstierna. The last part of the essay is a concluding discussion about the results gathered during the examination.

  • 8.
    Svärd, Proscovia
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies. University of South Africa.
    Access to government information: a global phenomenon but what are the challenges?2018In: ESARBICA Journal, ISSN 2220-6442, Vol. 37, p. 158-177Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Svärd, Proscovia
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies. University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.
    E-government development and challenges of freeing public sector information2017In: The Governance of Local Communities: Global Perspectives and Challenges / [ed] Thomas F. Reilly, Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2017, p. 145-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates the challenges faced by two Swedish municipalities in freeing government information as required by both the European and the Swedish Public Sector Information (PSI) directives. Sweden enacted its PSI directive in July 2010, based on the 2003 European PSI directive, which all member states were required to implement. Municipalities are directed to proactively publish data for public consumption. Swedish municipalities are engaged in e-Government development, which has also led to an increase of the information they are required to manage effectively. In Sweden, PSI is an integral part of the e-Government policy. Sweden is working to regain its leading position in the World, as far as e-Government development is concerned. Sweden’s e-Government mantra is “to make it as simple as possible, for as many as possible.” e-Government development is meant to transform government institutions by making them simple, open, accessible, effective, and secure. The Swedish third generation e-Government focuses on demand-driven development of electronic services, third-party collaboration in service development, that is, the citizens, increased re-use of public sector information, and responsibility for adding value to information and services. The implementation of the PSI directive is slow because municipalities have different budgetary capacities. Large municipalities, with sufficient budgets, are implementing the directive and have started releasing for public consumption while small ones continue to issue single documents on websites. Uneven e-Government development influences the release of PSI. Small municipalities lack human, technical, and financial resources available to large ones.

  • 10.
    Svärd, Proscovia
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies. University of South Africa.
    Enterprise content management, records management and information culture amidst E-government development2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book identifies key factors necessary for a well-functioning information infrastructure and explores how information culture impacts the management of public information, stressing the need for a proactive and holistic information management approach amidst e-Government development. In an effort to deal with an organization's scattered information resources, Enterprise Content Management, Records Management and Information Culture Amidst E-Government Development investigates the key differences between Enterprise Content Management (ECM) and Records Management (RM), the impact of e-Government development on information management and the role of information in enhancing accountability and transparency of government institutions. The book hence identifies factors that contribute to a well-functioning information infrastructure and further explores how information culture impacts the management of public information. It highlights the Records Continuum Model (RCM) thinking as a more progressive way of managing digital information in an era of pluralization of government information. It also emphasizes the need for information/records management skills amidst e-Government development. Ideas about records, information, and content management have fundamentally changed and developed because of increasing digitalization. Though not fully harmonized, these new ideas commonly stress and underpin the need for a proactive and holistic information management approach. The proactive approach entails planning for the management of the entire information continuum before the information is created. For private enterprises and government institutions endeavoring to meet new information demands from customers, citizens and the society at large, such an approach is a prerequisite for accomplishing their missions. It could be argued that information is and has always been essential to all human activities and we are witnessing a transformation of the information landscape. 

  • 11.
    Svärd, Proscovia
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies. University of South Africa.
    Freedom of information laws and information access: The case of Sierra Leone2017In: Information Development, ISSN 0266-6669, E-ISSN 1741-6469, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 190-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sierra Leone was engulfed in a destructive civil war between 1991 and 2002. The civil war was partly caused by the non-accountability of the government, endemic corruption, misrule and the mismanagement of the country’s resources. Efforts have been made by the country, with the help of the international community, to embrace a democratic dispensation. To demonstrate its commitment to the democratization agenda, Sierra Leone passed the Right to Access Information (RAI) Act in 2013. The Act guarantees access to government information and also imposes a penalty on failure to make information available. However, Sierra Leone’s state institutions are still weak due to mismanagement and lack of transparency and accountability. Freedom of expression and access to information are cornerstones of modern democracies. Public information/records are a means of power that governments and other political institutions use to exercise control over citizens, but are also a means of citizens’ empowerment. Through access to government information/records, media can play their watchdog role and people can assess the performance of governments and hold them accountable. The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the fact that it is not enough to enact freedom of information laws (FOIs) if there is no political will to make government information accessible, an information management infrastructure to facilitate the creation, capture, management, dissemination, preservation and re-use of government information and investments in civil education to promote an information culture that appreciates information as a resource that underpins accountability and transparency.

  • 12.
    Svärd, Proscovia
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies.
    Hindrances to access and re-use of open government data: the case of Sweden2017In: Information and knowledge for Competitiveness: Proceeding of DLIS 2017 International Conference : Hosted by the Department of Library and Information Studies (DLIS) : 15th-17th March 2017 : At the University of Botswana, Gabarone / [ed] Nathan Mnjama & Priti Jain, Gaborone: University of Botswana , 2017, p. 1-17Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Svärd, Proscovia
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies. University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Public Information Directive (PSI) implementation in two Swedish municipalities2018In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 2-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper examines the implementation of the Public Sector Information (PSI) directive in two Swedish municipalities amidst a changing information management landscape impacted by e-government development. Government information is currently looked upon as a “gold mine” and “raw material” to be explored by interested parties. The PSI directive grants European citizens a right to access government information flows (PSI) in order to develop new electronic services. The Swedish government implemented its PSI directive in July 2010. Swedish municipalities have to embrace the directive and make the PSI available to the general public. The literature review highlighted a number of critical issues that should be addressed if PSI initiatives are to succeed. This study revealed that the two municipalities had different resource capacities, and the levels of e-government development varied. This meant that the implementation of the PSI directive also varied. The bigger municipality with a bigger budget had implemented the PSI directive and was publishing data sets on its website, while the smaller municipality with a smaller budget only published a few documents. This paper, therefore, argues that the municipalities should have the same capacity if the PSI is to be a democratic endeavor to serve all citizens. Good quality PSI will also require the municipalities to embrace a records and information continua thinking, which highlights the necessity to proactively and holistically manage the information for pluralization in different contexts.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper builds on interviews that were conducted with four municipal officers. The number of respondents is quite small because the focus was specifically on people who were responsible for the implementation of the PSI directive in the municipalities. The respondents were identified through their fellow colleagues and they also recommended each other. Pickard refers to this kind of approach as a snow-bowling approach. Through interviews and observation, one participant advises on issues that need further inquiry and, hence, directs the researcher to another person who might offer more answers. A general interview guide approach was used to solicit answers to issues such as the implementation of the PSI directive, guidelines for PSI publication, if terms such as big data and open data were being used in the municipalities, if the municipalities had an information governance plan and how it was understood, if the information systems were well aligned to meet with the requirements of the PSI directive, how e-government development affected information management and information security and if the municipalities had information security guidelines.

    Findings: The Swedish government requires its administrations to engage in e-government development. This development has led to increased amounts of information that the municipalities have to effectively manage and make available to the general public. However, the municipalities operate under different conditions. Municipalities that are financially stronger are better placed to invest in measures that will lead to better quality PSI. All municipalities are, however, expected to implement the PSI directive. The two municipalities that were the subjects of this study had different information management environments and the capacity to invest in information management systems that would facilitate the management of their information resources. The budgetary constraints faced by smaller municipalities might impact the implementation of the PSI directive and, hence, hinder the publication of the PSI. e-Government is meant to be an inclusive project, and the PSI is meant for all citizens with innovative ideas. There is a risk that citizens who belong to poorer municipalities might not be equally privileged compared to those living in resourceful municipalities. This poses a democratic challenge that should concern all people interested in an open and inclusive society.

    Originality/value: Little research has so far been published on the implementation process of the PSI directive. The discourses that have started to emerge discuss the challenges of open data without paying much attention to the creation, capture and the management aspects of the PSI. The originality of this paper, therefore, lies in the application of the records and information continua thinking, which highlights dimensions that enhance information management and the democratic challenges that will be caused by the data divide, as municipalities have different capabilities when it comes to the publication of the PSI.

  • 14.
    Svärd, Proscovia
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Archive Studies. University of South Africa, South Africa.
    The woes of Swedish private archival institutions2017In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 275-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the long-term preservation challenges that the Swedish private archives are faced with. In as much as they offer a complement to the public archives and hence offer a nuanced national narrative, they lack both financial and human resources to effectively deal with the digital information management environment. Design/methodology/approach: Participatory Action Research (PAR) was used to identify the challenges of long-term preservation together with the six private archives institutions that were involved in the collaboration. The collaboration was financially facilitated by the Södertörn University. PAR is defined as a systematic investigation, with the collaboration of those affected by the issue being studied, for the purposes of education and taking action or effecting social change. What is distinctive of PAR is the active involvement of people whose lives are affected by the phenomenon under study. Findings: The private archival institutions face long-term preservation challenges such as lack of a digital repository that would facilitate the capture, organization and management of digital records that are of different formats and in a dispersed environment. There are no stringent legal requirements to facilitate the creation and management of the records in a standardized way and the institutions fear that imposing such requirements might deter their clients from depositing archival materials with them. The institutions will also need to espouse the business-oriented archival descriptions where private organizations are concerned to identify relevant archival materials and to promote participatory archival descriptions that would allow the creators to tag their records with metadata. Digital information requires a proactive approach, that is, planning for the long-term preservation of the information before it is created. Private archives need to invest in education packages that will facilitate their clientele’s understanding of the challenges of digital long-term preservation. Research limitations/implications: The findings cannot be generalized to all private archival institutions, as it was only six institutions that participated, but the issues discussed are relevant to most archival institutions. Practical implications: A lot of research has been carried out in the area of long-term preservation, but researchers have not paid enough attention to the woes of the private archives. To sustain a nuanced national narrative, the private archives need all the support to be able to live up to their mission of preserving archives of the private sector that are not captured by the public archival institutions. This is important in a pluralistic society such as Sweden. Highlighting the challenges might enable the institutions to work towards finding common challenges. Social implications: The private archives are part of Sweden’s national heritage. Their preservation matters to the society as a whole and to enhancing the voices of the underrepresented. Originality/value: The literature review revealed that not much research has paid attention to the challenges being faced by the private archives. This paper, therefore, contributes to this knowledge gap. 

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