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  • 1.
    Divakar, Pradeep K.
    et al.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Crespo, Ana
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Wedin, Mats
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist..
    Leavitt, Steven D.
    Field Museum, Chicago, USA..
    Hawksworth, David L.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Myllys, Leena
    Univ Helsinki, Bot Museum, Finnish Museum Nat Hist, Helsinki, Finland..
    McCune, Bruce
    Oregon State Univ, Corvallis, USA..
    Randlane, Tiina
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia..
    Bjerke, Jarle W.
    High North Res Ctr Climate & Environm, Norwegian Inst Nat Res NINA, FRAM, Tromso, Norway..
    Ohmura, Yoshihito
    Natl Museum Nat & Sci, Tsukuba, Japan..
    Schmitt, Imke
    Biodivers & Climate Res Ctr BiK F, Frankfurt, Germany.;Goethe Univ Frankfurt, Dept Biol Sci, Inst Ecol Evolut & Div, D-60438 Frankfurt, Germany..
    Boluda, Carlos G.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Alors, David
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Roca-Valiente, Beatriz
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Del-Prado, Ruth
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Ruibal, Constantino
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Buaruang, Kawinnat
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain.;Ramkhamhang Univ, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Nunez-Zapata, Jano
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Amo de Paz, Guillermo
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Rico, Victor J.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Carmen Molina, M.
    Univ Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain..
    Elix, John A.
    Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, Australia..
    Esslinger, Theodore L.
    N Dakota State Univ, Fargo, USA..
    Tronstad, Inger Kristin K.
    Univ Tromso, Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso Univ Museum, Tromso, Norway..
    Lindgren, Hanna
    Univ Helsinki, Bot Museum, Finnish Museum Nat Hist, Helsinki, Finland..
    Ertz, Damien
    Natl Bot Garden Belgium, Meise, Belgium..
    Gueidan, Cecile
    Nat Hist Museum, London, England..
    Saag, Lauri
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia..
    Mark, Kristiina
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia..
    Singh, Garima
    Biodivers & Climate Res Ctr BiK F, Frankfurt, Germany..
    Dal Grande, Francesco
    Biodivers & Climate Res Ctr BiK F, Frankfurt, Germany..
    Parnmen, Sittiporn
    Field Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 USA.;Minist Publ Hlth, Nonthaburi, Thailand..
    Beck, Andreas
    Botan Staatssammlung, Munich, Germany..
    Benatti, Michel Navarro
    Inst Bot, Nucleo Pesquisa Micol, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Blanchon, Dan
    Unitec Inst Technol, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Candan, Mehmet
    Anadolu Univ, Eskisehir, Turkey..
    Clerc, Philippe
    Conservatoire & Jardin Bot Ville Geneve, Chambesy, Switzerland..
    Goward, Trevor
    Univ British Columbia, UBC Herbarium, Beaty Museum, Vancouver, Canada..
    Grube, Martin
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Graz, Austria..
    Hodkinson, Brendan P.
    Univ Penn, , Philadelphia, USA..
    Hur, Jae-Seoun
    Sunchon Natl Univ, Korean Lichen Res Inst, Sunchon, South Korea..
    Kantvilas, Gintaras
    Tasmanian Herbarium, Hobart, Australia..
    Kirika, Paul M.
    Natl Museums Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Lendemer, James
    New York Bot Garden, Bronx, USA..
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Ines Messuti, Maria
    Univ Comahue, CONICET, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina..
    Miadlikowska, Jolanta
    Duke Univ, Dept Biol, Durham, USA..
    Nelsen, Matthew
    Field Museum, Chicago, USA..
    Ohlson, Jan I.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist..
    Perez-Ortega, Sergio
    CSIC, Museo Nacl Ciencias Nat, Madrid, Spain..
    Saag, Andres
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia..
    Sipman, Harrie J. M.
    Free Univ Berlin, Berlin, Germany..
    Sohrabi, Mohammad
    Iranian Res Org Sci & Technol, Tehran, Iran..
    Thell, Arne
    Lund Univ..
    Thor, Goran
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Truong, Camille
    Conservatoire & Jardin Bot Ville Geneve, CH-1292 Chambesy, Switzerland..
    Yahr, Rebecca
    Royal Bot Gardens, Edinburgh EH3 5LR, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Upreti, Dalip K.
    CSIR, Natl Bot Res Inst, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Cubas, Paloma
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Lumbsch, H. Thorsten
    Field Museum, Chicago, USA..
    Evolution of complex symbiotic relationships in a morphologically derived family of lichen-forming fungi2015In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 208, no 4, p. 1217-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the evolutionary history of the Parmeliaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), one of the largest families of lichen-forming fungi with complex and variable morphologies, also including several lichenicolous fungi. We assembled a six-locus data set including nuclear, mitochondrial and low-copy protein-coding genes from 293 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The lichenicolous lifestyle originated independently three times in lichenized ancestors within Parmeliaceae, and a new generic name is introduced for one of these fungi. In all cases, the independent origins occurred c. 24 million yr ago. Further, we show that the Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene were key periods when diversification of major lineages within Parmeliaceae occurred, with subsequent radiations occurring primarily during the Oligocene and Miocene. Our phylogenetic hypothesis supports the independent origin of lichenicolous fungi associated with climatic shifts at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Moreover, diversification bursts at different times may be crucial factors driving the diversification of Parmeliaceae. Additionally, our study provides novel insight into evolutionary relationships in this large and diverse family of lichen-forming ascomycetes.

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