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  • 1.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Subclinical psychosis and pain in an English national sample: The role of common mental disorders2016In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 175, no 1-3, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Information on the association between subclinical psychosis and pain is scarce, and the role of common mental disorders (CMDs) in this association is largely unknown. The aim of the current study was to therefore assess this association in the general population using nationally representative data from England. Methods: Data for 7403 adults aged. ≥. 16. years were used from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Five forms of psychotic symptoms were assessed by the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire, while pain was assessed in terms of the level of its interference with work activity in the past four weeks. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to assess anxiety disorders, depressive episode, and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD). Participants with probable or definite psychosis were excluded. The association between psychotic symptoms and pain was assessed by ordinal and binary logistic regression analysis. Results: When adjusted for confounders other than CMDs, psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with pain [e.g., the OR (95%CI) for the severest form of pain (binary outcome) was 1.78 (1.11-2.85)]. However, this association was no longer significant when CMDs were controlled for in most analyses. Anxiety disorders and depressive episode explained 34.8%-47.1% of the association between psychotic symptoms and pain, while this percentage increased to 62.7%-78.0% when the sub-threshold condition of MADD was also taken into account. Conclusions: When coexisting psychotic symptoms and pain are detected, assessing for anxiety and depression (even at sub-threshold levels) may be important for determining treatment options.

  • 2.
    Koyanagi, A.
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / SIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The University of Tokyo, Japan / National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Ogawa-Higashi, Japan.
    Haro, J. M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain / SIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Subclinical psychosis and suicidal behavior in England: Findings from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey2015In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 168, no 1-2, p. 62-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychotic disorders have been associated with suicidality but information on the association between subclinical psychosis and suicidality in the general adult population is scarce. Methods: Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (n = 7403) were analyzed. This was a nationally representative survey of the English adult household population (aged ≥. 16. years). Five types of psychotic symptoms (hypomania, thought control, paranoia, strange experience, auditory hallucination) occurring in the past 12. months were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. Participants with probable or definite psychosis were excluded. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in the past 12. months. Results: The prevalence of at least one psychotic symptom was 5.4%. After adjusting for potential confounders including mental disorders, each individual psychotic symptom was significantly associated with suicidal ideation with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 3.22 to 4.20. With the exception of thought control, all symptoms were also associated with significantly higher odds for suicide attempt (ORs 3.95 to 10.23). Having at least one psychotic symptom was associated with ORs of 3.13 (95%CI 2.09-4.68) and 3.84 (95%CI 1.67-8.83) for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt respectively. In addition, a greater number of psychotic symptoms was associated with higher odds for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Conclusions: Psychotic symptoms, regardless of the type, were independently associated with higher odds for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Assessment and management of suicide risk in individuals with psychotic symptoms may be important for suicide prevention.

  • 3.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, CA, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Stubbs, Brendon
    South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom / King's College London, London, United Kingdom / Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, United Kingdom.
    Veronese, Nicola
    National Research Council, Padova, Italy / E.O. Galliera Hospital, National Relevance and High Specialization Hospital, Genova, Italy.
    Vancampfort, Davy
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    DeVylder, Jordan E.
    Fordham University, NY, USA.
    Sibship size, birth order and psychotic experiences: Evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries2018In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 201, p. 406-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Sibship size and birth order may be contributing factors to the multifactorial etiology of psychosis. Specifically, several studies have shown that sibship size and birth order are associated with schizophrenia. However, there are no studies on their association with psychotic experiences (PE). Methods Cross-sectional, community-based data from 43 low- and middle-income countries which participated in the World Health Survey were analyzed. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify four types of past 12-month PE. The association of sibship size and birth order with PE was assessed with multivariable logistic regression. Results The final sample consisted of 212,920 adults [mean (SD) age 38.1 (16.0) years; 50.7% females]. In the multivariable analysis, compared to individuals with no siblings, the OR increased linearly from 1.26 (95%CI = 1.01–1.56) to 1.72 (95%CI = 1.41–2.09) among those with 1 and ≥ 9 siblings, respectively. Compared to the first-born, middle-born individuals were more likely to have PE when having a very high number of siblings (i.e. ≥9). Conclusions Future studies should examine the environmental and biological factors underlying the association between sibship size/birth order and PE. Specifically, it may be important to examine the unmeasured factors, such as childhood infections and adversities that may be related to both family structure and PE.

  • 4. Osby, U
    et al.
    Correia, N
    Brandt, L
    Ekbom, A
    Sparén, Pär
    Södertörn University.
    Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenia in Stockholm County, Sweden2000In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 45, no 1-2, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of mortality for all patients with a first hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia in Stockholm County, Sweden, during 1973 to 1995 was performed, by linking the in-patient register with the national cause-of-death register. Overall and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated by 5-year age classes and 5-year calendar time periods. The number of excess deaths was calculated by reducing the observed number of deaths by those expected. Our results confirmed a marked increase in mortality in schizophrenia both in males and females. Natural (somatic) causes of death was the main cause of excess deaths, with more than half of the excess deaths in females, and almost half of the excess deaths in males. Suicide was the specific cause of the largest number of excess deaths in males, while in females it was cardiovascular disease. SMRs were increased in both natural and unnatural causes of death, with 2.8 for males and 2.4 for females for all deaths, but were highest in suicide with 15.7 for males and 19.7 for females, and in unspecified violence with 11.7 for males and 9.9 for females. SMRs in suicide were especially high in young patients in the first year after the first diagnosis.

  • 5. Osby, U
    et al.
    Hammar, N
    Brandt, L
    Wicks, S
    Thinsz, Z
    Ekbom, A
    Sparén, Pär
    Södertörn University.
    Time trends in first admissions for schizophrenia and paranoid psychosis in Stockholm County, Sweden2001In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 47, no 2-3, p. 247-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have reported decreasing time trends in first diagnosed schizophrenia patients. The aim of this: study was to analyze time trends for first admissions with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or a diagnosis of either schizophrenia or paranoid psychosis during 1978-1994 in Stockholm County, Sweden, with a population of around 1.8 million. Information about first psychiatric admission with the diagnosis schizophrenia or paranoid psychosis for residents of Stockholm County was obtained from the Swedish population-based psychiatric inpatient register. Age-adjusted average yearly changes in first hospitalization rates were estimated in a Poisson regression model. Time trends in first admission rates were calculated from 1978 to 1994, while admissions during 1971 to 1977 were observed only to eliminate later re-admissions. First admissions for schizophrenia declined by 1.9% annually for females and by 1.3% for males, while first admissions for schizophrenia and paranoid psychosis together were unchanged over the study period for both genders. Our results indicate that the incidence of schizophrenia and paranoid psychosis taken together was essentially the same over the studied time period in Stockholm County, and that the apparent decline in first admission rates for schizophrenia may be an effect of changes in clinical diagnosis over time.

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