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  • 1. Smolarz, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Renault, Tristan
    Wolowicz, Maciej
    Ultrastructural study of neoplastic cells in Macoma balthica (Bivalvia) from the Gulf of Gdansk (Poland)2006In: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, ISSN 0022-2011, E-ISSN 1096-0805, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 79-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Baltic clam Macoma balthica from the Gulf of Gdansk, neoplasia is considered as a serious epizootic linked to bad environmental conditions and high levels of pollutants. Previous research was focused on the diagnosis, prevalence, seasonality and histopathological characteristic of the cancer. This study is focused on electron microscopy analyses describing cell ultrastructure abnormalities related to neoplasia. Examinations using the electron microscopy highlighted changes confined to anatomic ultrastructures, shapes and functions of neoplastic cells. The lobulated appearance of the nucleus, changes in cellular matrix and the occurrence of large granular cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, atypical Golgi structures and deterioration of rough endoplasmic reticulum manifested the disease. The presence of atypical mitochondria, free ribosomes and hypertrophic nuclei suggests the adaptation of neoplastic cells to increased mitotic activity, while the observed modification of cellular membranes may reflect functional changes connected to increased pinocytotic activity or intercellular transport. The cancer cells were found to appear in two types, abnormal round-shaped cells and spindle-shaped cells, both with increased frequencies of cell division. Round-shaped cells typical for disseminated neoplasia were observed in all affected bivalves, in a few cases co-occurring with abnormal spherical cells. Spindle-shaped cells containing some intracytoplasmic filaments, and with a tendency of the nuclei to be orientated as in a palisade were interpreted as myofibroblasts-like cells and were observed in five out of eleven clams diagnosed as neoplastic. This finding represents the first demonstration of phenotypic differences in the cell types co-occurring in animals diagnosed as neoplastic and by that suggests coexistence of two types of bivalve cancer, disseminated neoplasia and probable fibrosarcoma.

  • 2. Smolarz, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Wolowicz, Maciej
    Stachnik, Magdalena
    First record of the occurrence of ”Gill disease” in Mytilus edulis trossulus from the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland2006In: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, ISSN 0022-2011, E-ISSN 1096-0805, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 207-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are presenting the first report of the occurrence of “gill disease” in Mytilus edulis trossulus from the southern Baltic Sea, Gulf of Gdańsk (Poland). The disease preliminary diagnosis was based on the presence of white and yellow “spots” causing deep indentations in the gills with degeneration, destruction and necrosis of gill filaments. Average prevalence of gill erosion in the blue mussels population was 15.8%. According to other authors, gill erosion may affect over 80% of the bivalve population resulting in mortality rates of up to 40%. The origin of the gill erosion remains unknown, but viruses are most likely involved in the etiology of these pathological conditions. The disease as such may indicate a decrease in the immunological resistance of organisms to infections and inflammations directly or indirectly caused by harmful factors in the ambient environment. Furthermore, the occurrence of numerous pathologies in bivalves is a particular problem in the Gulf of Gdańsk being a low biodiversity ecosystem. Pathologies reduce bilvalves’ reproduction ability, worsen their physiological condition and increase their mortality rate. Those factors may also pose a significant ecological danger and lead to negative alterations of the ecosystem.

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