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  • 1.
    Bräutigam, Lars
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Hillmer, Janine M.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Söll, Iris
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Hauptmann, Giselbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Localized Expression of Urocortin Genes in the Developing Zebrafish rain2010In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, ISSN 0021-9967, E-ISSN 1096-9861, Vol. 518, no 15, p. 2978-2995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family consists of four aralogous genes, CRH and urocortins (UCNs) 1, 2, and 3. In a previous tudy, we analyzed CRH in the teleost model organism zebrafish and its ranscript distribution in the embryonic brain. Here, we describe ull-length cDNAs encoding urotensin 1 (UTS1), the teleost UCN1 rtholog, and UCN3 of zebrafish. Major expression sites of uts1 in adult ebrafish are the caudal neurosecretory system and brain. By using T-PCR analysis, we show that uts1 mRNA is also present in ovary, aternally contributed to the embryo, and expressed throughout embryonic evelopment. Expression of ucn3 mRNA was detected in a range of adult issues and during developmental stages from 24 hours post fertilization nward. Analysis of spatial transcript distributions by whole-mount in itu hybridization revealed limited forebrain expression of uts1 and cn3 during early development. Small numbers of uts1-synthesizing eurons were found in subpallium, hypothalamus, and posterior iencephalon, whereas ucn3-positive cells were restricted to elencephalon and retina. The brainstem was the main site of uts1 and cn3 synthesis in the embryonic brain. uts1 Expression was confined to he midbrain tegmentum; distinct hindbrain cell groups, including locus oeruleus and Mauthner neurons; and the spinal cord. ucn3 Expression was ocalized to the optic tectum, serotonergic raphe, and distinct hombomeric cell clusters. The prominent expression of uts1 and ucn3 in rainstem is consistent with proposed roles of CRH-related peptides in tress-induced modulation of locomotor activity through monoaminergic rainstem neuromodulatory systems. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:2978-2995, 2010.

  • 2.
    Chandrasekar, Gayathri
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Lauter, Gilbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Hauptmann, Giselbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Distribution of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the developing zebrafish brain2007In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, ISSN 0021-9967, E-ISSN 1096-9861, Vol. 505, no 4, p. 337-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a central role in the physiological regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal axis mediating endocrine, behavioral, autonomic, and immune responses to stress. Despite the wealth of knowledge about the physiological roles of CRH, the genetic mechanisms by which CRH neurons arise during development are poorly understood. As a first step toward analyzing the molecular and genetic pathways involved in CRH lineage specification, we describe the developmental distribution of CRH neurons in the embryonic zebrafish, a model organism for functional genomics and developmental biology. We searched available zebrafish expressed sequence tag (EST) databases for CRH-like sequences and identified one EST that contained the complete zebrafish CRH open reading frame (ORF). The CRH precursor sequence contained a signal peptide, the CRH peptide, and a cryptic peptide with a conserved sequence motif. RT-PCR analysis showed crh expression in a wide range of adult tissues as well as during embryonic and larval stages. By whole-mount in situ hybridization histochemistry, discrete crh-expressing cell clusters were found in different parts of the embryonic zebrafish brain, including telencephalon, preoptic region, hypothalamus, posterior tuberculum, thalamus, epiphysis, midbrain tegmentum, and rostral hindbrain and in the neural retina. The localization of crh mRNA within the preoptic region is consistent with the central role of CRH in the teleost stress response through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis. The widespread distribution of CRH-synthesizing cells outside the preoptic region suggests additional functions of CRH in the embryonic zebrafish brain.

  • 3. Nässel, Dick R
    et al.
    Mentlein, Rolf
    Bollner, Tomas
    Karlsson, Anne
    Proline-specific dipeptidyl peptidase activity in the cockroach brain and intestine: Partial characterization, distribution, and inactivation of tachykinin-related peptides2000In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, ISSN 0021-9967, E-ISSN 1096-9861, Vol. 418, no 1, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proline-specific dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP TV) is an established enzyme known to degrade neuropeptides and peptide hormones in vertebrate tissues. DPP TV cleaves peptides at the Pro(2) residue. Because several neuropeptides of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae, such as LemTRP-1 (APSGFLGVRamide), are potential substrates for this peptidase, we investigated the occurrence of proline-specific DPP activity in cockroach tissues. Partly purified DPP activity was characterized from the brain and midgut of L. maderae by using Gly-Pro-4-nitroanilide as a substrate. The highest activity was obtained from the membrane fraction of intestine; about 10 times less activity (per milligram protein) was obtained from brain membranes. A smaller amount of soluble DPP activity could also be identified in both tissues. Gel chromatography of the solubilized intestinal DPP activity revealed a molecular mass of about 75 kDa. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 8.5. Diprotin A (Ile-Pro-Ile) was an efficient competitive inhibitor of the cockroach DPP, whereas other known DPP inhibitors were found to be less potent. When incubated with human and cockroach DPP IV, the cleavage products of LemTRP-1 were AP and SGFLGVRamide (des-AP-LemTRP-1) as determined by mass spectrometry of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-purified peptide fragments. The AP fragment was biologically inactive and the des-AP fragment had a drastically reduced myostimulatory activity on the hindgut of L. maderae. The blowfly TRP callitachykinin-I (CavTK-I; APTAFYGVRamide) was cleaved in two steps to des-AP-CavTK-I and desAPTA-CavTK-I, showing that cockroach DPP does not only liberate Xaa-Pro, but also Xaa-Ala dipeptides. The fragment desAPTA-CavTK-I was completely inactive on the cockroach hindgut. To compare, LemTRP-3 and CavTK-II, which lack a Pro(2), were not cleaved by DPP IV. Enzyme histochemistry for DPP IV was performed on cryostat sections of brain and intestine with Gly-Pro-4-methoxy-2-naphthylamide as the substrate and Fast Blue B as the chromogen. Strong histochemical labeling was seen in specific neuropils of the brain such as the calyces of the mushroom bodies, the antennal glomeruli, and the central body. Also, the inner lining of the midgut (the peritrophic membrane) and the malpighian tubules were strongly labeled by reaction product. In both the brain and intestine, the enzyme-histochemical reaction was inhibited by diprotin A.

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