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  • 1.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Littorin, Bengt
    Saetre, Peter
    Spatial patterns of abundance and growth of Mytilus edulis on boulders in the Northern Baltic Sea proper2001In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 452, no 1-3, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small scale spatial patterns of abundance, growth and condition of the mussel Mytilus edulis on sub-littoral boulders (approx. 1-2 m high) were investigated at the island of Asko in the northern Baltic proper. The effect of side (exposed/sheltered with respect to wave action and sunlight) of boulder and position (up/down) on boulder was investigated. A large spatial variability in abundance of M. edulis between boulders and between various sites within boulders were found. The highest numbers of mussels were found on the wave exposed side, near the top of boulders. Shell growth was favoured by a sheltered side and a down position. The body condition (meat weight/shell weight) of mussels was, on the other hand, affected only by position, the condition of mussels being better at the up position. Consequently, there seems to be temporal differences in the condition for growth within a spatial position. The body condition of the mussels was best near the top of boulders in the spring, but long-term shell growth was favoured by a sheltered side and a down position. This may reflect changes in the composition and availability of food during the year with phytoplankton as the major food source during the spring bloom and resuspension of benthic production and detritus as relatively more important during the rest of the year.

  • 2. Härlin, Mikael
    Tree-thinking and nemertean systematics, with a systematization of the Eureptantia1998In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 365, no 1-3, p. 33-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I review how some influential nemertean systematistshave perceived and illustrated phylogenetic trees andargue that the nineteenth century nemerteantaxonomists still influence many contemporarynemertean taxonomists to a high degree. By showing hownineteenth century systematics differs from moremodern views on trees, I hope to convey the advantagesof a cladistic approach to tree-thinking and nemerteansystematics. Furthermore I propose a systematizationof the Eureptantia that illustrates the cladisticapproach to tree-thinking but, more importantly, isalso a better representation of eureptantic phylogenythan previous classifications.

  • 3. Littorin, Bengt
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    A photographic study of the recolonization of cleared patches in a dense population of Mytilus edulis in the northern Baltic proper1999In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 393, p. 211-219Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recolonisation of cleared patches (15 x 15 cm) on a Mytilus edulis-dominated rocky bottom was followed by photography from June 1992 to October 1994. An experiment was also performed to study movement of newly recruited mussels on ropes in cleared areas. Mussels recolonised the rock surfaces by moving in from the perimeter of the clearings. Juvenile recruitment directly to the cleared surfaces was insignificant for the recolonisation process. However, a large number of juvenile mussels was observed in filamentous algae over and around the cleared patches. The speed of recolonisation was 4.5 cm(2) of cleared surface per month. The rate of recolonisation was somewhat higher at 6 m than at 12 m water depth. On ropes, downward movement of newly recruited mussels (from 3 up to 12 months old) was small but significantly larger than upward or horizontal movement. There was a positive correlation between movement of mussels to cleared parts of the ropes and the density of mussels on uncleared rope parts. These findings indicate that the recolonisation of disturbed patches by M. edulis in the northern Baltic proper is a relatively slow process driven primarily by a redistribution of already established mussel individuals.

  • 4. Olsson, Björne
    et al.
    Bradley, Brian P.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University College, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Reimer, Olof
    Shepard, Jenn L.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Physiological and proteomic responses in Mytilus edulis exposed to PCBs and PAHs extracted from Baltic Sea sediments2004In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 514, no 1-3, p. 15-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis. L.) exposed to organic pollutants were measured using several physiological measures and as changes in protein expression. Blue mussels from the Baltic Sea were exposed for 6 days in a flow-through system to two fractions of extracted Baltic sediments (containing primarily PAHs or PCBs) from one industrially impacted site and one off-shore site. Exposure to Aroclor1248 (a commercial PCB mixture) was included as a reference treatment. Physiological response was measured as changes in respiration, excretion, clearance rates and scope for growth. Of the physiological responses, only clearance rate and scope for growth in the Aroclor and impacted site PCB treatments differed significantly (p < 0.05) from control organisms, perhaps due to a large variation among individuals. Seven proteins were observed, presumed to be from stress protein families (hsp60, hsp70 and hsp90) on one-dimensional electrophoresis gels. All protein levels, except three proteins, 62, 73 and 90 kDa, in response to PCB exposure from the industrial site, were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in treated than in control organisms, suggesting the use of stress-inducible proteins as diagnostics in risk assessment. A wider sample of proteins was observed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The presence or absence of protein spots compared to control organisms was used as an indication of stress. Between 23 and 76 proteins or spots were present and 15 to 23 absent compared to controls, and the results supported the physiological and one-dimensional gel results, suggesting that the mussels were indeed suffering from stress. The methods used here represent stress monitoring at two different levels of biological organization; the cellular- and the level of individual organisms. In this experiment the protein response showed less variation among individuals compared to the physiological parameters. The protein response, however, still suffers from the lack of interpretation into commonly used monitoring terms, which emphasizes the need for more knowledge of whether the response is a momentary reflection of exposure or an early warning of higher order effects.

  • 5. Sundberg, Per
    et al.
    Turbeville, J M
    Härlin, Mikael
    There is no support for Jensen's hypothesis of nemerteans as ancestors to the vertebrates1998In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 365, no 1-3, p. 47-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nemerteans (phylum Nemertea) have been viewed by mostzoologists as descended from, or closely related to,the flatworms. This view is based mainly on theirsupposedly acoelomate body. Their ancestry, however,is a point of controversy and there is evidence for acoelomate, protostomous origin. Notwithstanding thesedifferent views, most zoologists consider nemerteansto be phylogenetically distant from the chordates.Four authors (Hubrecht, Macfarlane, Jensen, Willmer),however, have postulated that nemerteans instead areclosely related to the chordates and that they sharea most recent common ancestor with the vertebrates. We argue that this view is based on a flawed view ofhomology and of seeing evolution as a series ofprogressions, which has no support in modernevolutionary thinking. Since there are nomorphological synapomorphies supporting aChordata-Nemertea clade, these authors instead guesswhat characteristics in extant nemerteans gave rise tocharacters observed in recent chordates. For example,they propose that the nemertean proboscis sheath hasevolved into the notochord. This is mere speculation,lacking testable propositions and is hence void ofinformation, and thus becomes futile in our view. However, the idea of a nemertean-vertebrate sisterrelationship as such is a testable hypotheses, and wetest it by applying the parsimony criterion to a setof morphological characters, and a set of molecular(the 18S rRNA gene) characters. Both tests reject thehypothesis.

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