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  • 1. Adamsson, I
    et al.
    Edlund, Charlotta
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Seensalu, R
    Engstrand, L
    The use of AP-PCR and flaA-RFLP typing to investigate treatment failure in Helicobacter pylori infection2000In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 265-267Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Agvald-Öhman, C
    et al.
    Wernerman, J
    Nord, C E
    Edlund, Charlotta
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Anaerobic bacteria commonly colonize the lower airways of intubated ICU patients2003In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 397-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate respiratory tract colonization by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods Bacterial colonization of the stomach and the respiratory tract was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed over time in 41 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients in a Swedish intensive care unit (ICU), with special emphasis on elucidation of the role of anaerobic bacteria in the lower respiratory tract. Samples were taken from the oropharynx, gastric juice, subglottic space and trachea within 24 h (median 14 h) of intubation, and then every third day until day 18 and every fifth day until day 33. Results The patients were often heavily colonized with microorganisms not considered to belong to a healthy normal oropharyngeal and gastric flora on admission to the ICU. A majority harbored enterococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Candida spp. in at least one site on day 1. Anaerobic bacteria, mainly peptostreptococci and Prevotella spp., were isolated from subglottic and/or tracheal secretions in 59% of the patients. Different routes of tracheal colonization for different groups of microorganisms were found. Primary or concomitant colonization of the oropharynx with staphylococci, enterococci, enterobacteria and Candida was often seen, while Pseudomonas spp., other non-fermenting Gram-negative rods and several anaerobic species often primarily colonized the trachea, indicating exogenous or direct gastrointestinal routes of colonization. Conclusions Mechanically ventilated patients were heavily colonized in their lower airways by potential pathogenic microorganisms, including a high load of anaerobic bacteria. Different routes of colonization were shown for different species.

  • 3.
    Edlund, Charlotta
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Nord, C E
    The evaluation and prediction of the ecologic impact of antibiotics in human phase I and II trials2001In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 7, p. 37-41Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Fang, Hong
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Edlund, Charlotta
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Zhang, G.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hedberg, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Detection of imipenem-resistant and metronidazole-resistant Bacteroides fragilis group strains in fecal samples1999In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 753-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the imipenem and metronidazole resistance profiles of Bacteroides fragilis group strains in fecal samples and to detect the resistance genes (ccrA and nim) coding for imipenem and metronidazole resistance in B. fragilis group strains. Methods: In total, 925 fecal samples, 729 from consecutive diarrhea patients and 196 from healthy controls, were collected at Huddinge University Hospital in 1997. A modified disk diffusion method was employed to screen for imipenem-resistant and metronidazole-resistant B. fragilis group strains. In strains considered resistant by the modified disk diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were further determined by the agar dilution method. PCR assays were used to detect the carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo-P-lactamase gene (ccrA) and the 5-nitroimidazole resistance genes (nim) in pure cultures (purePCR), directly from fecal samples through direct broth enrichment (dirPCR) and by immunomagnetic separation (imsPCR). Results: Two imipenem-resistant B. fragilis strains, one of which was simultaneously resistant to metronidazole, and two B. fragilis group strains with MICs near the breakpoint for metronidazole resistance, were isolated from the fecal samples of diarrhea patients. The ccrA gene was identified in all the imipenem-resistant B. fragilis strains by purePCR, dirPCR and imsPCR. The nim genes were also detectable by these PCR assays. Conclusions: The incidences of imipenem-resistant and metronidazole-resistant B. fragilis group strains were low in the investigated diarrhea patients. Simultaneous resistance to imipenem and metronidazole is of great concern in clinical medicine, and the proposed PCR assays may be useful in epidemiologic studies of distribution of resistance genes in the fecal microflora.

  • 5.
    Lund, Bodil
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Univesity Hospital, Huddinge.
    Billström, H
    Karolinska Univesity Hospital, Huddinge.
    Edlund, Charlotta
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Univesity Hospital, Huddinge.
    Increased conjugation frequencies in clinical Enterococcus faecium strains harbouring the enterococcal surface protein gene esp2006In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 588-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compared the in-vitro ability of Enterococcus faecium isolates of different origin to acquire vanA by conjugation in relation to the occurrence of the esp gene. In total, 29 clinical isolates (15/29 esp+), 30 normal intestinal microflora isolates (2/30 esp+) and one probiotic strain (esp-) were studied with a filter-mating assay. Conjugation events were confirmed by PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Among the infection-derived isolates, the esp+ isolates had higher conjugation frequencies compared with esp- isolates (p < 0.001), with a median value of 6.4 x 10(-6) transconjugants/donor. The probiotic strain was shown to acquire vanA vancomycin resistance in in-vitro filter mating experiments.

  • 6.
    Lund, Bodil
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Edlund, Charlotta
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Rynnel-Dagoo, B
    Lundgren, Y
    Sterner, J
    Nord, C E
    Ecological effects on the oro- and nasopharyngeal microflora in children after treatment of acute otitis media with cefuroxime axetil or amoxycillin-clavulanate as suspensions2001In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 230-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To evaluate if the extent of normal microflora disturbances differed between treatment with amoxycillin-clavulanate administered in an active form and cefuroxime axetil administered as an inactive prodrug. Methods Twenty-eight children, 0.5-5 years old, diagnosed with acute otitis media (AOM), were treated with either amoxycillin-clavulanate (13.3 mg/kg 3 times daily) or cefuroxime axetil (15 mg/kg twice daily) for 7 days. Saliva samples and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected before, directly after and 2 weeks after treatment. The saliva samples were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed and the nasopharyngeal swabs were qualitatively analyzed. All isolated strains were tested for beta -lactamase production. Results Both treatment regimens gave rise to similar alterations of the normal oropharyngeal microflora. In both groups, the amount of Streptococcus salivarius was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The most common causative pathogens of acute otitis were S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. On the day of enrollment, approximately half of the patients, in both groups, were infected with more than one pathogen. The rate of infection or colonization with more than one potential pathogen was low on day 7 but recurred 2 weeks after treatment to similar levels as on day 0. The total number of patients with reinfection, recolonization or recurrence of pathogens on day 21 was 11/12 in the amoxycillin-clavulanate group and 4/7 in the cefuroxime axetil group. The most common <beta>-lactamase producer was M. catarrhalis. Conclusion The local high concentration of antibiotics in the oropharynx immediately after intake of antibiotic suspensions seem to have little or no impact on the extent of disturbance of the microflora in this region. Children of this age group seem prone to either reinfection, recolonization or persistence of pathogens within 2 weeks after treatment. Furthermore, co-infection with more than one pathogen seems common in children with AOM and infection with beta -lactamase producing microorganisms occurs frequently.

  • 7. Oh, H
    et al.
    Edlund, Charlotta
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Mechanism of quinolone resistance in anaerobic bacteria2003In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 512-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recently developed quinolones have excellent activity against a broad range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and are thus potential drugs for the treatment of serious anaerobic and mixed infections. Resistance to quinolones is increasing worldwide, but is still relatively infrequent among anaerobes. Two main mechanisms, alteration of target enzymes (gyrase and topoisomerase IV) caused by chromosomal mutations in encoding genes, or reduced intracellular accumulation due to increased efflux of the drug, are associated with quinolone resistance. These mechanisms have also been found in anaerobic species. High-level resistance to the newer broad-spectrum quinolones often requires stepwise mutations in target genes. The increasing emergence of resistance among anaerobes may be a consequence of previous widespread use of quinolones, which may have enriched first-step mutants in the intestinal tract. Quinolone resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group strains is strongly correlated with amino acid substitutions at positions 82 and 86 in GyrA (equivalent to positions 83 and 87 of Escherichia coli ). Several studies have indicated that B. fragilis group strains possess efflux pump systems that actively expel quinolones, leading to resistance. DNA gyrase seems also to be the primary target for quinolones in Clostridium difficile , since amino acid substitutions in GyrA and GyrB have been detected in resistant strains. To what extent other mechanisms, such as mutational events in other target genes or alterations in outer-membrane proteins, contribute to resistance among anaerobes needs to be further investigated.

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