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  • 1.
    Lager, Anton
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bremberg, S.
    Vågerö, Denny
    The association of early IQ and education with mortality: 65 year longitudinal study in Malmö, Sweden2009In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 339, p. b5282-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To establish whether differences in early IQ explain why people with longer education live longer, or whether differences in father’s or own educational attainment explain why people with higher early IQ live longer.Design Population based longitudinal study. Mortality risks were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regressions.Setting Malmö, Sweden.Participants 1530 children who took IQ tests at age 10 and were followed up until age 75.Results Own educational attainment was negatively associated with all cause mortality in both sexes, even when early IQ and father’s education were adjusted for (hazard ratio (HR) for each additional year in school 0.91 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.97) for men and HR 0.88 (95 % CI 0.78 to 0.98) for women). Higher early IQ was linked with a reduced mortality risk in men, even when own educational attainment and father’s education were adjusted for (HR for one standard deviation increase in IQ 0.85 (95 % CI 0.75 to 0.96)). In contrast, there was no crude effect of early IQ for women, and women with above average IQ had an increased mortality risk when own educational attainment was adjusted for, but only after the age of 60 (HR 1.60 (95 % CI 1.06 to 2.42)). Adding measures of social career over and above educational attainment to the model (for example, occupational status at age 36 and number of children) only marginally affected the hazard ratio for women with above average IQ (<5%).Conclusions Mortality differences by own educational attainment were not explained by early IQ. Childhood IQ was independently linked, albeit differently, to male adult mortality and to female adult mortality even when father’s education and own educational attainment was adjusted for, thus social background and own social career seem unlikely to be responsible for mortality differences by childhood IQ. The clear difference in the effect of IQ between men and women suggests that the link between IQ and mortality involves the social and physical environment rather than simply being a marker of a healthy body to begin with. Cognitive skills should, therefore, be addressed in our efforts to create childhood environments that promote health.

  • 2.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, Sociology. Södertörn University, Avdelning 3, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Effect on Suicide Rate of Having Reduced Unemployment Is Uncertain1999In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 318, p. -941Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3. Sparén, Pär
    et al.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Shestov, Dmitri B
    Plavinskaja, Svetlana
    Parfenova, Nina
    Hoptiar, Valeri
    Paturot, Dominique
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Long term mortality after severe starvation during the siege of Leningrad: prospective cohort study2004In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 328, no 7430, p. 11-14AArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To determine whether starvation during periods of increased growth after birth have long term health consequences.Design Analysis of cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in a longitudinal follow up after the 1941-4 siege of Leningrad. Mortality measured from 1975 up to the end of 1999.Setting St Petersburg, Russia (formerly Leningrad).Participants 5000 men born 1916-35 who lived in Leningrad, randomly selected to take part in health examinations in 1975-7. Of the 3905 men who participated, a third had experienced the siege.Main outcome measures Relative risk of ischaemic heart disease and mortality from stroke by siege exposure. Odds ratios and means for several cardiovascular risk factors.Results Three to six decades after the siege, in men who experienced the siege around the age of puberty blood pressure was raised (mean difference in systolic 3.3 mm Hg, in diastolic 1.3 mm Hg) as was mortality from ischaemic heart disease (relative risk 1.39, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.79) and stroke (1.67, 1.15 to 2.43), including haemorrhagic stroke (1.71, 0.90 to 3.22). The effect on mortality was partly mediated via blood pressure but not by any other measured biological, behavioural, or social factor.Conclusions Starvation, or accompanying chronic stress, particularly at the onset of or during puberty, may increase vulnerability to later cardiovascular disease.

  • 4. Vågerö, Denny
    Health inequalities in women and men: Studies of specific causes of death should use household criteria2000In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 320, p. 1286-1287Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Commentary: Health inequalities and social dynamics in Europe2005In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 331, no 7510, p. 186-187Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Modin, Bitte
    Prenatal growth, subsequent marital status, and mortality: longitudinal study2002In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 324, p. 398-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Shestov, Dmitri B.
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Sparén, Pär
    Long term mortality after severe starvation during the siege of Leningrad: authors' reply2004In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 328, no 7435, p. 346-347Article in journal (Refereed)
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