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  • 1.
    Adamou, Evangelia
    et al.
    Oral Tradition Languages and Civilizations laboratory, French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) & University Paris Sorbonne Nouvelle, France.
    Granqvist, Kimmo
    Department of Finnish, Finno-Ugrian and Scandinavian Studies, Helsingin Yliopisto, Finland.
    Unevenly mixed Romani languages2015In: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 525-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on language mixing in two Romani communities, with a century-long presence in Finland and in Greece respectively. A quantitative analysis of free-speech data shows that verbs from the contact languages, Finnish and Turkish, are systematically inserted into a dominant Romani speech with their respective Finnish and Turkish tense, mood, aspect, and person morphology. The insertion in language A of non-integrated single words from language B is atypical for classic code-switching and borrowing, but is a well-known mechanism in the creation of mixed languages. Unlike mixed languages, however, where no single dominant language can be identified, Romani is the main component in the corpora under study. We suggest that this type of Romani language mixing illustrates an early stage of mixed language formation that did not develop into an independent mixed language, owing to changes in the sociopolitical settings.

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