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  • 1.
    Footman, Katharine
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK / University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    East-Ukrainian Foundation for Social Research, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
    Rotman, David
    Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus .
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
    Smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking in nine countries of the former soviet union2013In: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 1628-1633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Smoking rates and corresponding levels of premature mortality from smoking-related diseases in the former Soviet Union (fSU) are among the highest in the world. To reduce this health burden, greater focus on smoking cessation is needed, but little is currently known about rates and characteristics of cessation in the fSU. Methods: Nationally representative household survey data from a cross-sectional study of 18,000 respondents in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine were analyzed to describe patterns of desire and action taken to stop smoking, quit ratios (former ever-smokers as a percent of ever-smokers, without a specified recall period), and help used to stop smoking. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze characteristics associated with smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking. Results: Quit ratios varied from 10.5% in Azerbaijan to 37.6% in Belarus. About 67.2% of respondents expressed a desire to quit, and 64.9% had taken action and tried to stop. The use of help to quit was extremely low (12.6%). Characteristics associated with cessation included being female, over 60, with higher education, poorer health, lower alcohol dependency, higher knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Characteristics associated with desire to stop smoking among current smokers included younger age, poorer health, greater knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Conclusions: Quit ratios are low in the fSU but there is widespread desire to stop smoking. Stronger tobacco control and cessation support are urgently required to reduce smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality.

  • 2.
    Kulik, MC
    et al.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Menvielle, G
    Epidemiology of Occupational and Social Determinants of Health, Villejuif, France / University of Versailles Saint Quentin, Versailles, France.
    Eikemo, TA
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, M
    University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Jasilionis, D
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    Kulhánová, I
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, P
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Östergren, O
    CHESS, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Mackenbach, JP
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Educational inequalities in three smoking-related causes of death in 18 European populations2014In: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 507-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Smoking is an important determinant of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in many countries. As the smoking epidemic progresses, updates on the development of mortality inequalities attributable to smoking are needed. We provide estimates of relative and absolute educational inequalities in mortality from lung cancer, aerodigestive cancers, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/asthma in Europe and assess the contribution of these smoking-related diseases to inequalities in all-cause mortality.

    Methods: We use data from 18 European populations covering the time period 1998–2007. We present age-adjusted mortality rates, relative indices of inequality, and slope indices of inequality. We also calculate the contribution of inequalities in smoking-related mortality to inequalities in overall mortality.

    Results: Among men, relative inequalities in mortality from the 3 smoking-related causes of death combined are largest in the Czech Republic and Hungary and smallest in Spain, Sweden, and Denmark. Among women, these inequalities are largest in Scotland and Norway and smallest in Italy and Spain. They are often larger among men and tend to be larger for COPD/asthma than for lung and aerodigestive cancers. Relative inequalities in mortality from these conditions are often larger in younger age groups, particularly among women, suggesting a possible further widening of inequalities in mortality in the coming decades. The combined contribution of these diseases to inequality in all-cause mortality varies between 13% and 32% among men and between −5% and 30% among women.

    Conclusion: Our results underline the continuing need for tobacco control policies, which take into account socioeconomic position.              

  • 3.
    Reitan, Therese
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Callinan, Sarah
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Changes in smoking rates among pregnant women and the general female population in Australia, Finland, Norway and Sweden2017In: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 282-289Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Gilmore, Anna
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). University of London & Univesity of Tokyo.
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    Prohoda, Vladimir
    Rotman, David
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    Prevalence and Psychosocial Determinants of Nicotine Dependence in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union2013In: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 271-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Despite the high prevalence of smoking in the former Soviet Union (fSU), particularly among men, there is very little information on nicotine dependence in the region. The study aim was to describe the prevalence of nicotine dependence in 9 countries of the fSU and to examine the psychosocial factors associated with nicotine dependence. Methods: Cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys using multistage random sampling were conducted in 2010 with men and women aged 18 years and over in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. The main outcome of interest was nicotine dependence using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. Multivariate regression analysis was then used to explore the influence of a range of psychosocial factors on higher nicotine dependence. Results: Mean nicotine dependence among men in the region as a whole was 3.96, with high dependence ranging from 17% in Belarus to 40% in Georgia. Among women, mean dependence was 2.96, with a prevalence of high dependence of 11% for the region. Gender (men), younger age of first smoking, lower education level, not being a member of an organization, bad household economic situation, high alcohol dependence, and high psychological distress showed significant associations with higher nicotine dependence. Conclusions: High nicotine dependence among men was recorded in a number of study countries. Findings highlight the need for tobacco programmes to target early age smokers and less educated and poorer groups and suggest common ground for programmes seeking to reduce nicotine dependence, harmful alcohol use, and psychological distress.

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