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  • 1. Koupil, Ilona
    et al.
    Shestov, Dmitri B.
    Sparén, Pär
    Plavinskaja, Svetlana
    Parfenova, Nina
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Blood pressure, hypertension and mortality from circulatory disease in men and women who survived the siege of Leningrad2007Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 223-234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of Leningrad suffered from severe starvation, cold and psychological stress during the siege in 1941–1944. We investigated long-term effects of the siege on cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in surviving men and women. 3905 men born 1916–1935 and 1729 women born 1910–1940, resident in St Petersburg (formerly Leningrad) between 1975 and 1982, of whom a third experienced the siege as children, adolescents or young adults,were examined for cardiovascular risk factors in 1975–1977 and 1980–1982 respectively and followed till end 2005. Effects of siege exposure on bloodpressure, lipids, body size, and mortality were studied in multivariate analysis stratified by gender and period of birth, adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol and social characteristics. Women who were 6–8 years old and men who were 9–15 years-old at the peak of starvation had higher systolic blood pressure compared to unexposed subjects born during the same period of birth (fully adjusted difference 8.8, 95% CI:0.1–17.5 mm Hg in women and 2.9, 95% CI: 0.7–5.0 mm Hg in men). Mean height of women who were exposed to siege as children appeared to be greater than that of unexposed women. Higher mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease was noted in men exposed at age 6–8 and 9–15, respectively. The experience of severe stress and starvation in childhood and puberty may have long-term effects on systolic blood pressure and circulatory disease in surviving men and women with potential gender differences in the effect of siege experienced at pre-pubertal age.

  • 2. Kulik, MC
    et al.
    Hoffmann, R
    Judge, K
    Looman, C
    Menvielle, G
    Kulhánová, I
    Toch, M
    Östergren, O
    Martikainen, P
    Borrell, C
    Rodríguez-Sanz, M
    Bopp, M
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn.
    Jasilionis, D
    Eikemo, TA
    Mackenbach, JP
    Smoking and the potential for reduction of inequalities in mortality in Europe2013Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 28, s. 959-971Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Mackenbach, J. P.
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Rubio Valverde, J.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, M.
    University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brønnum-Hansen, H.
    Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Costa, G.
    University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Deboosere, P.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kalediene, R.
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Kovács, K.
    Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, P.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Menvielle, G.
    Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
    Rodriguez-Sanz, M.
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
    Nusselder, W. J.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Progress against inequalities in mortality: register-based study of 15 European countries between 1990 and 20152019Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality are a challenge for public health around the world, but appear to be resistant to policy-making. We aimed to identify European countries which have been more successful than others in narrowing inequalities in mortality, and the factors associated with narrowing inequalities. We collected and harmonised mortality data by educational level in 15 European countries over the last 25 years, and quantified changes in inequalities in mortality using a range of measures capturing different perspectives on inequality (e.g., ‘relative’ and ‘absolute’ inequalities, inequalities in ‘attainment’ and ‘shortfall’). We determined which causes of death contributed to narrowing of inequalities, and conducted country- and period-fixed effects analyses to assess which country-level factors were associated with narrowing of inequalities in mortality. Mortality among the low educated has declined rapidly in all European countries, and a narrowing of absolute, but not relative inequalities was seen in many countries. Best performers were Austria, Italy (Turin) and Switzerland among men, and Spain (Barcelona), England and Wales, and Austria among women. Ischemic heart disease, smoking-related causes (men) and amenable causes often contributed to narrowing inequalities. Trends in income inequality, level of democracy and smoking were associated with widening inequalities, but rising health care expenditure was associated with narrowing inequalities. Trends in inequalities in mortality have not been as unfavourable as often claimed. Our results suggest that health care expansion has counteracted the inequalities widening effect of other influences. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 4.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Bopp, Matthias
    Strand, Bjorn Heine
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Lundberg, Olle
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Artnik, Barbara
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Rychtarikova, Jitka
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality: a population-based comparative study of 12 European countries2012Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 27, nr 11, s. 877-884Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has suggested that violent mortality may be socially patterned and a potentially important source of health inequalities within and between countries. Against this background the current study assessed socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality across Europe. To do this, longitudinal and cross-sectional data were obtained from mortality registers and population censuses in 12 European countries. Educational level was used to indicate socioeconomic position. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for post, upper and lower secondary or less educational groups. The magnitude of inequalities was assessed using the relative and slope index of inequality. The analysis focused on the 35-64 age group. Educational inequalities in homicide mortality were present in all countries. Absolute inequalities in homicide mortality were larger in the eastern part of Europe and in Finland, consistent with their higher overall homicide rates. They contributed 2.5 % at most (in Estonia) to the inequalities in total mortality. Relative inequalities were high in the northern and eastern part of Europe, but were low in Belgium, Switzerland and Slovenia. Patterns were less consistent among women. Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide are thus a universal phenomenon in Europe. Wide-ranging social and inter-sectoral health policies are now needed to address the risk of violent victimization that target both potential offenders and victims.

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