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  • 1. Burström, Bo
    et al.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för medier, konst och filosofi.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Smedman, Lars
    Equitable child health interventions: the impact of improved water and sanitation on inequalities in child mortality in Stockholm, 1878 to 1925.2005Ingår i: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 95, nr 2, s. 208-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many of the 10 million childhood deaths each year are caused by diseases of poverty--diarrhea and pneumonia, for example, which were previously major causes of childhood death in many European countries. Specific analyses of the historical decline of child mortality may shed light on the potential equity impact of interventions to reduce child mortality. In our study of the impact of improved water and sanitation in Stockholm from 1878 to 1925, we examined the decline in overall and diarrhea mortality among children, both in general and by socioeconomic group. We report a decline in overall mortality and of diarrhea mortality and a leveling out of socioeconomic differences in child mortality due to diarrheal diseases, but not of overall mortality. The contribution of general and targeted policies is discussed.

  • 2. Kunst, Anton E
    et al.
    Groenhof, Feikje
    Andersen, Otto
    Borgan, Jens-Kristian
    Costa, Giuseppe
    Desplanques, Guy
    Filakti, Haroulla
    Giraldes, Maria do R
    Faggiano, Fabrizio
    Harding, Seeromanie
    Junker, Christoph
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Minder, Christoph
    Nolan, Brian
    Pagnanelli, Floriano
    Regidor, Enrique
    Vågerö, Denny
    Valkonen, Tapani
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Occupational class and ischemic heart disease mortality in the United States and 11 European countries.1999Ingår i: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 89, s. 47-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Twelve countries were compared with respect to occupational class differences in ischemic heart disease mortality in order to identify factors that are associated with smaller or larger mortality differences. METHODS: Data on mortality by occupational class among men aged 30 to 64 years were obtained from national longitudinal or cross-sectional studies for the 1980s. A common occupational class scheme was applied to most countries. Potential effects of the main data problems were evaluated quantitatively. RESULTS: A north-south contrast existed within Europe. In England and Wales, Ireland, and Nordic countries, manual classes had higher mortality rates than nonmanual classes. In France, Switzerland, and Mediterranean countries, manual classes had mortality rates as low as, or lower than, those among nonmanual classes. Compared with Northern Europe, mortality differences in the United States were smaller (among men aged 30-44 years) or about as large (among men aged 45-64 years). CONCLUSIONS: The results underline the highly variable nature of socioeconomic inequalities in ischemic heart disease mortality. These inequalities appear to be highly sensitive to social gradients in behavioral risk factors. These risk factor gradients are determined by cultural as well as socioeconomic developments.

  • 3. Mackenbach, Johan P.
    et al.
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Groenhof, Feikje
    Borgan, Jens-Kristian
    Costa, Giuseppe
    Faggiano, Fabrizio
    Jozan, Peter
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning 4, Sociologi.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Rychtarikova, Jitka
    Valkonen, Tapani
    Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality among women and among men: an international study1999Ingår i: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 89, nr 12, s. 1800-1806Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Gilmore, Anna
    University of Bath, Bath, UK.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Rotman, David
    Belarussian State University, Minsk, Belarus.
    Prohoda, Vladimir
    Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
    Haerpfer, Christian
    Aberdeen University, Aberdeen, Scotland.
    McKee, Martin
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Changes in Smoking Prevalence in 8 Countries of the Former Soviet Union Between 2001 and 20102012Ingår i: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 102, nr 7, s. 1320-1328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. We sought to present new data on smoking prevalence in 8 countries, analyze prevalence changes between 2001 and 2010, and examine trend variance by age, location, education level, and household economic status. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in 2010 in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. We compared smoking prevalence with a related 2001 study for the different countries and population subgroups, and also calculated the adjusted prevalence rate ratios of smoking. Results. All-age 2010 smoking prevalence among men ranged from 39% (Moldova) to 59% (Armenia), and among women from 2% (Armenia) to 16% (Russia). There was a significantly lower smoking prevalence among men in 2010 compared with 2001 in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia, but not for women in any country. For all countries combined, there was a significantly lower smoking prevalence in 2010 than in 2001 for men aged 18 to 39 years and men with a good or average economic situation. Conclusions. Smoking prevalence appears to have stabilized and may be declining in younger groups, but remains extremely high among men, especially those in lower socioeconomic groups. (Am J Public Health. 2012;102:1320-1328. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300547)

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