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  • 1. Andreev, Evgeny
    et al.
    Bogoyavlensky, Dmitri
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Comparing Alcohol Mortality in Tsarist and Contemporary Russia: Is the Current Situation Historically Unique?2013In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study compared the level of alcohol mortality in tsarist and contemporary Russia. Methods: Cross-sectional and annual time-series data from 1870 to 1894, 2008 and 2009 on the mortality rate from deaths due to 'drunkenness' were compared for men in the 50 provinces of tsarist 'European Russia': an area that today corresponds with the territory occupied by the Baltic countries, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine and the Russian provinces to the west of the Ural Mountains. Results: In 1870-1894, the male death rate from 'drunkenness' in the Russian provinces (15.9 per 100,000) was much higher than in the non-Russian provinces. However, the rate recorded in Russia in the contemporary period was even higher-23.3. Conclusions: Russia has had high levels of alcohol mortality from at least the late 19th century onwards. While a dangerous drinking pattern and spirits consumption may underpin high alcohol mortality across time, the seemingly much higher levels in the contemporary period seem to be also driven by an unprecedented level of consumption, and also possibly, surrogate alcohol use. This study highlights the urgent need to reduce the level of alcohol consumption among the population in order to reduce high levels of alcohol mortality in contemporary Russia.

  • 2. Murphy, Adrianna
    et al.
    Roberts, Bayard
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    McKee, Martin
    Social Factors Associated with Alcohol Consumption in the Former Soviet Union: A Systematic Review2012In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 711-718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Alcohol consumption is a major cause of premature mortality in countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). Despite the unique social profile of the region, we could find no published systematic review of studies of social factors and alcohol consumption in formerly Soviet countries. We aim to critically review the current evidence for social factors associated with alcohol consumption in the fSU and to identify key gaps in the literature. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Global Health databases for cross-sectional, case-control, longitudinal or qualitative studies of demographic, socio-economic, psycho-social and contextual factors associated with alcohol consumption, in any language, published from 1991 until 16 December 2011. Additional studies were identified from the references of selected papers and expert consultation. Our review followed PRISMA guidelines for the reporting of systematic reviews. Results: Our search strategy resulted in 26 articles for review. Although there is strong evidence in the literature that males and smokers in the fSU are more likely to engage in hazardous alcohol consumption, findings regarding other social factors were mixed and there were almost no data on the association of contextual factors and alcohol consumption in this region. Conclusion: This review highlights the extremely limited amount of evidence for social factors associated with heavy alcohol consumption in the fSU. Given the unique social environment of countries of the fSU, future research should take these factors into account in order to effectively address the high levels of alcohol-related mortality in this region.

  • 3. Roberts, Bayard
    et al.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Murphy, Adrianna
    Kizilova, Kseniya
    Bryden, Anna
    Rotman, David
    Haerpfer, Christian
    McKee, Martin
    Patterns of Public Support for Price Increases on Alcohol in the Former Soviet Union2012In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 473-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To measure levels of public support for price increases on beer and spirits in nine former Soviet Union countries and to examine the characteristics influencing such support. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 with 18,000 respondents aged 18+ in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Results: The lowest level of support for price increases on beer were in Georgia (men 5%, women 9%) and Armenia (men 5%, women 11%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 30%, women 38%), Azerbaijan (men 27%, women 37%) and Russia (men 23%, women 34%). The lowest levels of support for price increases on spirits were Armenia (men 8%, women 14%) and Georgia (men 14%, women 21%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 38%, 47% women) and Moldova (men 36%, women 43%). Characteristics associated with supporting price increases included gender (women), higher education, good economic situation, lower alcohol consumption and greater knowledge of harmful alcohol behaviour. Conclusion: Alcohol price increases are an effective means to reduce hazardous alcohol use. Despite opposition in some groups, there is evidence of public support for alcohol price increases in the study countries.

  • 4.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Razvodovsky, Yury
    Alcohol Poisoning in Belarus: A Comparison of Urban-Rural Trends, 1990-20052009In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 326-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of alcohol poisoning in urban and rural regions of Belarus in the post-Soviet period. Methods: All-age male and female alcohol-poisoning mortality and population data were obtained for the years 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 for urban and rural regions of Belarus. These data were subsequently recalculated into three age categories and directly standardized. Poisson regression models were used to assess relative changes in rural-urban alcohol-poisoning rates across time. Results: Although extremely high in comparative terms in 1990, alcohol-poisoning rates had nevertheless risen considerably amongst men and women in all age groups in both urban and rural regions by 2005. In rural regions, the rise was continuous while amongst the urban population a small reduction was recorded in 2000 after a comparatively larger rise in 1995. By 2005, although alcohol-poisoning rates were significantly higher amongst rural men and women, the levels of acute alcohol mortality were nevertheless extremely high in nearly every age group in both urban and rural locations. Conclusions: It is probable that both the level and pattern of alcohol consumption in conjunction with the increasing use of illegal alcohol underlie the extremely high alcohol-poisoning rates in contemporary Belarus, and the growing rural-urban divergence in alcohol-poisoning mortality observed in recent years. Immediate action is now required to improve the poor social and economic conditions underpinning extreme levels of acute alcohol mortality, as well as to increase the provision of alcohol treatment services, especially in rural areas.

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