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  • 1.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Stockholm University.
    Puur, A.
    Tallinn University, Estonia .
    Sakkeus, L.
    Tallinn University, Estonia .
    Jobs, careers, and becoming a parent under state socialist and market conditions: Evidence from Estonia 1971-20062014In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 1733-1768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Entering employment and achieving a stable position in the labour market are considered important preconditions for childbearing. Existing studies addressing the relationship between work experience and the timing of parenthood focus exclusively on Western Europe and North America. By adding an Eastern European context before and after societal transformation, this study contributes to a more comprehensive account of the role of work experience in first-birth timing in Europe. Objective: We investigate how work experience and career development are related to the timing of parenthood in two diverse contexts in Estonia, state socialism and the market economy, and how it varies by gender and nativity. Method: The data used come from the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006-2007. We estimate piecewise constant event history models to analyse the transition to first birth. Results: Our results suggest that in the market economy work experience became more important in the decision to enter parenthood. In the market economy the importance of work experience to entering parenthood became more similar for women and men. Non-native-origin men and women's timing of parenthood appears to have become detached from their career developments. The article discusses mechanisms that may underlie the observed patterns. Conclusions: Our study shows how work experience gained importance as a precondition for parenthood in the transition to a market economy. This lends support to the view that the increasing importance of work experience is among plausible drivers of the postponement transition that extended to Eastern Europe in the 1990s. © 2014 Sunnee Billingsley, Allan Puur & Luule Sakkeus.

  • 2.
    Ma, Li
    et al.
    Karlstad University / Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
    Rizzi, Ester
    Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
    Turunen, Jani
    Karlstad University / Stockholm University.
    Childlessness, sex composition of children, and divorce risks in China2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 41, no 26, p. 753-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on children and divorce in China find a negative association between the number of children and divorce and a protective effect of having a son. Nonetheless, we have little knowledge of how these associations have developed over time.

    Objective: This study explored the association of the number and sex composition of children with divorce risks in China over the period 1980–2012.

    Methods: We conducted an event history analysis of longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies.

    Results: Childless couples had an increasingly higher divorce risk than couples with children over our observation period. In the 2000s, the divorce risk of childless couples in both urban and rural areas was approximately five times that of one-child parents. The role of the child’s gender differs for urban and rural one-child parents, with no significant effect on the divorce risk of urban parents and different effects over time for rural parents.

    Conclusions: Our findings show that ending a marriage when having no children has become an increasingly pronounced trend. Furthermore, partially due to the rapid socioeconomic and demographic progress and the rise of girls’ empowerment, the child’s gender has lost importance for the divorce risk of urban parents.

    Contribution: This study enriches our knowledge about the association between children and divorce risks in a rapidly developing society. Indirectly, the study also informs us about the evolution of son preference in China.

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  • 3.
    Turunen, Jani
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Branden, Maria
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lundström, Karin
    Statistics Sweden, Sweden.
    Geographical distance between child and parent after a union dissolution in Sweden, 1974-20112023In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 48, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Divorce is associated with a weakened relationship between the child and the nonresident parent, usually the father. This loss of contact is likely to be even further exacerbated if this parent lives at a substantial distance from the child. OBJECTIVE This paper analyzes how the distance between children and nonresident parents, the year after a parental separation, has changed during a 40-year period in Sweden, and whether this is related to changes in child custody policies. METHODS We use Swedish population register data that includes exact geographical coordinates for children and their nonresident parents in the year after separation. We analyze how average distance and the likelihood of living very close to, or very far from, a nonresident parent has changed over this period, using OLS and logistic regression models. RESULTS Results show a gradual decrease in the distance between children and nonresident parents from the 1970s until the early 1990s, after which the trend stalled at a low level. In 2011, 50% of all children lived within 2 kilometers of their nonresident parent. We find no evidence of direct policy effects, indicated by any sudden changes in distance after the introduction of a new custody policy. High-income parents have changed their post -divorce residential patterns at a faster pace than low-income parents. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate a diffusion process where distances between children and nonresident parents gradually decreased until the 1990s. CONTRIBUTION This paper demonstrates that the change has not been directly influenced by custody law reforms promoting dual parent responsibility.

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