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  • 1.
    Andersson, Ingela
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Quarternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Quarternary Geology.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saving the Baltic Sea, the Inland Waters of Its Drainage Basin, or Both? Spatial Perspectives on Reducing P-Loads in Eastern Sweden2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 914-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient loads from inland sources to the Baltic Sea and adjacent inland waters need to be reduced in order to prevent eutrophication and meet requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). We here investigate the spatial implications of using different possible criteria for reducing water-borne phosphorous (P) loads in the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District (NBS-RBD) in Sweden. Results show that most catchments that have a high degree of internal eutrophication do not express high export of P from their outlets. Furthermore, due to lake retention, lake catchments with high P-loads per agricultural area (which is potentially of concern for the WFD) did not considerably contribute to the P-loading of the Baltic Sea. Spatially uniform water quality goals may, therefore, not be effective in NBS-RBD, emphasizing more generally the need for regional adaptation of WFD and BSAP-related goals.

  • 2. Berg, H
    et al.
    Francis, J
    Souter, Petra
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Support to marine research for sustainable management of marine and coastal resources in the Western Indian Ocean2002In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 31, no 7-8, p. 597-601Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Gilek, Michael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Coping with complexity in baltic sea risk governance: Introduction2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 109-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Gunnarsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Björk, Mikael
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Granberg, Maria
    Rosenberg, Rutger
    Effects of eutrophication on contaminant cycling in marine benthic systems2000In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 29, no 4-5, p. 252-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of inputs of organic matter were studied on bioavailability and cycling of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in benthic ecosystems of the Baltic and Kattegat Seas. In laboratory experiments, effects of microalgae additions were studied on the bioaccumulation of HOCs (PCBs and PAHs) by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the brittle star Amphiura filiformis, and the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Contrary to the equilibrium partitioning theory, bioaccumulation was proportional to the concentrations of algae and organic carbon. This was attributed to the high nutritional quality of the algal organic carbon and suggests that feeding rather than equilibrium partitioning governed bioaccumulation in these species. In the field, annual mass fluxes of PCBs in blue mussels and in brittle stars were estimated, as well as contaminant transfer to higher trophic levels. Our results suggest that: I) Eutrophication processes may contribute to increase HOC accumulation in benthic species. ii) Temporal variation in the quantity and quality of organic carbon needs to be considered when assessing contamination of benthic systems. ill) Macrofaunal feeding activities are important for the benthic-pelagic coupling of HOCs. iv) Bioturbation enhances the release of HOCs from sediment to overlying water.

  • 5.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Balfors, Berit
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Quin, Andrew
    Governance of Water Resources in the Phase of Change: A Case Study of the Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Sweden2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 210-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, focusing on the ongoing implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, we analyze some of the opportunities and challenges for a sustainable governance of water resources from an ecosystem management perspective. In the face of uncertainty and change, the ecosystem approach as a holistic and integrated management framework is increasingly recognized. The ongoing implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) could be viewed as a reorganization phase in the process of change in institutional arrangements and ecosystems. In this case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District, Sweden, we focus in particular on data and information management from a multi-level governance perspective from the local stakeholder to the River Basin level. We apply a document analysis, hydrological mapping, and GIS models to analyze some of the institutional framework created for the implementation of the WFD. The study underlines the importance of institutional arrangements that can handle variability of local situations and trade-offs between solutions and priorities on different hierarchical levels.

  • 6.
    Hasler, Berit
    et al.
    Aarhus University.
    Czajkowski, Mikolaj
    University of Warsaw.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    SLU.
    Hansen, Line B
    Danish Economic Councils.
    Konrad, Maria T
    Aarhus University.
    Nielsen, Helle Ö
    Aarhus University.
    Niskanen, Olli
    Natural Resources Institute Finland .
    Nommann, Tea
    Stockholm Environment Institute Tallinn Centre.
    Branth Pedersen, Anders
    Aarhus University.
    Peterson, Kaja
    Stockholm Environment Institute Tallinn Centre.
    Poltimäe, Helen
    Stockholm Environment Institute Tallinn Centre.
    Häggmark Svensson, Tobias
    SLU.
    Zagorska, Katarzyna
    University of Warsaw.
    Farmers’ preferences for nutrient and climate-related agri-environmental schemes: A cross-country comparison2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, no 11, p. 1290-1303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use data from a survey of 2439 farmers in 5 countries around the Baltic Sea (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Poland and Sweden) to investigate their preferences for adopting agricultural practices aimed at reducing nutrient leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. The measures considered are set-aside, catch crops and reduced fertilization. Contracts vary with respect to the area enrolled, contract length, possibility of premature termination, availability of professional advice and compensation. We quantitatively describe farmers’ preferences in terms of their willingness-to-accept compensation for specific attributes of these contracts, if implemented. The results vary substantially between farm types (farmers’ characteristics) and between the 5 countries, and support differentiation of contract obligations and payments to improve the uptake of AgriEnvironmental Schemes. The results can be readily used to improve the design of country-specific nutrient reduction policies, in accordance with the next Common Agricultural Policy.

  • 7.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Accidental Versus Operational Oil Spills from Shipping in the Baltic Sea: Risk Governance and Management Strategies2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 170-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors’ incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.

  • 8. Johannesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    André, Carl
    The future of Baltic Sea populations: local extinction or evolutionary rescue?2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 179-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental change challenges local and global survival of populations and species. In a species-poor environment like the Baltic Sea this is particularly critical as major ecosystem functions may be upheld by single species. A complex interplay between demographic and genetic characteristics of species and populations determines risks of local extinction, chances of re-establishment of lost populations, and tolerance to environmental changes by evolution of new adaptations. Recent studies show that Baltic populations of dominant marine species are locally adapted, have lost genetic variation and are relatively isolated. In addition, some have evolved unusually high degrees of clonality and others are representatives of endemic (unique) evolutionary lineages. We here suggest that a consequence of local adaptation, isolation and genetic endemism is an increased risk of failure in restoring extinct Baltic populations. Additionally, restricted availability of genetic variation owing to lost variation and isolation may negatively impact the potential for evolutionary rescue following environmental change.

  • 9.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Media and Communication Studies.
    Framing Environmental Risks in the Baltic Sea: A News Media Analysis2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 121-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific complexity and uncertainty is a key challenge for environmental risk governance and to understand how risks are framed and communicated is of utmost importance. The Baltic Sea ecosystem is stressed and exposed to different risks like eutrophication, overfishing, and hazardous chemicals. Based on an analysis of the Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter, this study discusses media representations of these risks. The results show that the reporting on the Baltic Sea has been fairly stable since the beginning of the 1990s. Many articles acknowledge several risks, but eutrophication receives the most attention and is also considered the biggest threat. Authorities, experts, organizations, and politicians are the dominating actors, while citizens and industry representatives are more or less invisible. Eutrophication is not framed in terms of uncertainty concerning the risk and consequences, but rather in terms of main causes.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Mind the gap: Coping with delay in environmental governance2020In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 1067-1075Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Udovyk, Oksana
    Governance of Complex Socio-Environmental Risks: The Case of Hazardous Chemicals in the Baltic Sea2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 144-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex socio-environmental risks challenge society. In response to scientific uncertainty and socio-political controversies, environmental governance, precaution, and the ecosystem approach to management are held forward as complements to governmental risk-based sector-restricted regulation. We analyze this development for hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea. Based on interviews and policy analysis, we study informal governance and, in particular, four central EU and international policies, and investigate how present governance relates to risks and objectives at hand. While showing emergence of broader governance approaches, we conclude that central objectives will not likely be met. Furthermore, we question the quest for broad environmental governance and emphasize the value of command and control regulation, if it implements precaution. These findings contribute to the theorizing on environmental (risk) governance. Finally, we provide some ideas that could help development and implementation of risk policies for hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea as well as other complex risks.

  • 12. Kowalik, Piotr
    et al.
    Laakkonen, Simo
    Legal requirements and wastewater discharges to Polish water bodies, 1945-2003.2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 2-3, p. 220-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The postwar development of water protection legislation and wastewater discharges is poorly known for the Baltic Sea region as a whole. This article presents national efforts to govern wastewater discharges in Poland using legal tools over the twentieth century with an emphasis on the postwar period, 1945-2003. The study also attempts to evaluate how the state authority responded to changing legal demands in terms of urban and industrial wastewater discharges in the postwar period. It outlines the main changes during the socialist regime in Poland and after it regained independence. Also the implications of Poland's integration into the European Union are briefly discussed. Mathematical calculations are used to illustrate some changes in legal requirements over time.

  • 13. Laakkonen, Simo
    et al.
    Laurila, Sari
    Changing environments or shifting paradigms?: Strategic decision making toward water protection in Helsinki, 1850-2000.2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 2-3, p. 212-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines the history of strategic decision-making concerning water protection in Helsinki, 1850-2000. We identified five major strategic decisions that occurred during the study period. The results indicate that strategic decision-making evolves in long-term policy cycles that last on average 20-30 years. New policy cycles are caused by paradigm shifts. Paradigms are shared and predominant ways of understanding reality that help when groups must act to solve common and complex environmental problems. However the internal structure and external dynamics of paradigms are contradictory. Although paradigms serve initially as means to redefine problems and find creative solutions, as time goes by each paradigm seems to become also a barrier that restricts the introduction of new ways of thinking and acting. The power of paradigms lies in the fact that they can be defined as scientific but also social, political, or cultural agreements depending on the context.

  • 14. Ndaro, Simon G. M.
    et al.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Ólafsson, Emil
    Small-Scale Variation in Major Meiofaunal Taxa and Sediment Chemistry in Tropical Sediments1995In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 24, no 7/8, p. 470-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in sediment biochemistry and abundance of meiofauna were investigated in three tropical habitats: mangrove forest, intertidal lagoon, and subtidal reef area in eastern Africa. Both the biochemical components of the pore water and the meiofauna varied substantially over small distances in all three habitats. In the mangrove area, the color of the pore water was found to be positively correlated with the major meiofaunal taxa, especially the nematodes. In the coastal lagoon, polychaetes showed negative correlation with particulate organic matter while other groups showed no correlation with any of the chemical components analyzed. In the subtidal reef area no chemical components were found to correlate with the meiofauna. When data from the three habitats are taken together two clear associations emerge. First, grain size shows a highly significant relationship with both total fauna and nematode numbers. Second, there is clear association between the amount of particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen in the pore water.

  • 15.
    Ollikainen, Markku
    et al.
    University of Helsinki.
    Hasler, Berit
    Aarhus University.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    SLU.
    Iho, Antti
    Natural Resources Institute, Finland.
    Andersen, Hans E
    Aarhus University.
    Czajkowski, Mikolaj
    University of Warsaw.
    Peterson, Katja
    Stockholm Environment Institute Tallinn Centre.
    Toward the Baltic Sea Socioeconomic Action Plan2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, no 11, p. 1377-1388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the main weaknesses and key avenues for improvement of nutrient policies in the Baltic Sea region. HELCOM's Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), accepted by the Baltic Sea countries in 2007, was based on an innovative ecological modeling of the Baltic Sea environment and addressed the impact of the combination of riverine loading and transfer of nutrients on the ecological status of the sea and its sub-basins. We argue, however, that the assigned country-specific targets of nutrient loading do not reach the same level of sophistication, because they are not based on careful economic and policy analysis. We show an increasing gap between the state-of-the-art policy alternatives and the existing command-and-control-based approaches to the protection of the Baltic Sea environment and outline the most important steps for a Baltic Sea Socioeconomic Action Plan. It is time to raise the socioeconomic design of nutrient policies to the same level of sophistication as the ecological foundations of the BSAP.

  • 16.
    Ring, Eva
    et al.
    Skogforsk.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Bjarnadóttir, Brynhildur
    University of Akureyri, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Finér, Leena
    Natural Resources Institute Finland-Luke, Joensuu, Finland.
    Lībiete, Zane
    LSFRI Silava, Salaspils, Latvia.
    Lode, Elve
    Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia / Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Stupak, Inge
    University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Sætersdal, Magne
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Mapping policies for surface water protection zones on forest land in the Nordic-Baltic region: Large differences in prescriptiveness and zone width.2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 878-893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest landscape across the Nordic and Baltic regions hosts numerous lakes and watercourses, which must be included in forest management. In this study, national policy designs regarding protection zones for surface waters on forest land were reviewed and compared for the Nordic countries, Estonia and Latvia. The focus was how each country regulates protection zones, whether they are voluntary or mandatory, and the rationale behind adopting a low or high degree of prescriptiveness. Iceland and Denmark had a low degree of policy prescriptiveness, whereas Norway, Estonia and Latvia had a high degree of prescriptiveness. Sweden and Finland relied to a large extent on voluntary commitments. The prescribed zone widths within the region ranged from 1 m to 5 km. The results indicated that land-use distribution, forest ownership structure and historical and political legacies have influenced the varying degrees of prescriptiveness in the region.

  • 17.
    Rodin, Johnny
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Fertility Intentions and Risk Management: Exploring the Fertility Decline in Eastern Europe During Transition2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 221-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1985 and 1995, fertility in Eastern Europe declined from 2.2 children per woman to merely 1.5 on region-average. Previous research has emphasized mainly the economic turmoil during transition or the influx of new ideas regarding fertility and family relations. This article suggests that applying a risk management perspective on fertility patterns may put additional light on the reasons behind the fertility decline in post-communist Europe. The complexity of modern social systems has made people increasingly dependent on the state for risk evaluation and risk management. The article formulates the hypothesis that transition itself disrupted the mental models that helped people to navigate among the risks associated to having and raising children. Left to their own devices, women in Eastern Europe became more inclined to postpone childbirth or discard this option altogether.

  • 18. Räsänen, Tuomas
    et al.
    Laakkonen, Simo
    Cold War and the environment: the role of Finland in international environmental politics in the Baltic Sea region.2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 2-3, p. 229-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area signed in 1974 in Helsinki is probably the most important environmental agreement consummated in the Baltic Sea region. This article is the first study that explores the history of this agreement, also known as the Helsinki Convention, by using primary archival sources. The principal sources are the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. We examine the role of Finland in the process that led to the signing of the Helsinki Convention from the perspective of international politics. The study focuses primarily on Finnish, Swedish, and Soviet state-level parties from the end of the 1960s to 1974. We show that Cold War politics affected in several ways negotiations and contents of the Helsinki Convention. We also argue that the Soviet Union used the emerging international environmental issues as a new tool of power politics.

  • 19. Strömquist, L
    et al.
    Yanda, P
    Msemwa, P
    Lindberg, Clas
    Simonsson-Forsberg, L
    Utilizing landscape information to analyze and predict environmental change: The extended baseline perspective - Two Tanzanian examples1999In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 436-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates the need for a revival and renewal of landscape analysis in order to identify, evaluate and predict environmental change in environmental impact assessment (EIA) and development perspectives. An initial focus on the landscape, rather than on individual systems or processes, makes it possible to widen the scope of study, to assess change in different temporal and spatial perspectives and thereafter to converge on key issues of relevance for specific areas or development projects. This approach can be seen as a process rather than a method, which calls for intradisciplinary competence in data collection and evaluation as well as an interdisciplinary assessment capability. A combination of such scientific competence, local knowledge, and experiences of the local environment is used to widen the assessment perspectives and the prediction competence. The approach is illustrated by its application in two Tanzanian studies. The Southern Highland study emerged from two feasibility environmental impact assessments (EIAs) of proposed hydropower projects whilst the Babati study was initiated as a result of previous sectorial research on land management, which had to be analyzed in broader perspectives. In both cases, a need to define environmental baselines to assess land use and project related environmental change had been defined by different donor agencies. One conclusion from our study is, however, that there is no such thing as an environmental baseline, rather a baseline that has to be extended in different temporal and spatial perspectives to fully understand and predict environmental and related social change. This study can therefore be seen as a contribution to a new understanding of environmental change that is required for strategic environmental impact assessments and long-term natural resource-use planning.

  • 20.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå universitet.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Fries, Clas
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet.
    In the eye of the stakeholder: the challenges of governing social forest values2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 87-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines which kinds of social benefits derived from forests are emphasised by Swedish stakeholders and what governance modes and management tools they accept. Our study shows that there exists a great variety among stakeholders’ perceptions of forests’ social values, where tourism and recreation is the most common reference. There are also differences in preferred governance modes and management where biomass and bioenergy sectors advocate business as usual (i.e. framework regulations and voluntarism) and other stakeholders demand rigid tools (i.e. coercion and targeting) and improved landscape planning. This divide will have implications for future policy orientations and require deliberative policy processes and improved dialogue among stakeholders and authorities. We suggest that there is a potential for these improvements, since actors from almost all stakeholder groups support local influence on governance and management, acknowledged and maintained either by the authorities, i.e. targeting, or by the stakeholders themselves, i.e. voluntarism.

  • 21.
    Wulff, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University.
    Andersen, Hans Estrup
    Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte
    Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Czajkowski, Mikolaj
    Universty of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders
    Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Hasler, Berit
    Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Hong, Bongghi
    Cornell University, l, Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Jansons, Viesturs
    Latvia University of Agriculture, Jelgava, Latvia.
    Morth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Smart, James C. R.
    Griffith University, South Brisbane, Australia.
    Smedberg, Erik
    Stockholm University.
    Stalnacke, Per
    Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research (Bioforsk), Ås, Norway.
    Swaney, Dennis P.
    Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Thodsen, Hans
    Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Was, Adam
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Zylicz, Tomasz
    University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Reduction of Baltic Sea Nutrient Inputs and Allocation of Abatement Costs Within the Baltic Sea Catchment2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 11-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion a,not sign.

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