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  • 1.
    Andrén, Elinor
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Stockholm University.
    Kunzendorf, Helmar
    Risø National Laboratory.
    Holocene history of the Baltic Sea as a background for assessing records of human impact in the sediments of the Gotland Basin2000Ingår i: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 10, s. 687-702Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment cores from the Gotland Basin were studied for their siliceous microfossil assemblages and organic carbon content to compare recent environmental changes in the Baltic Sea with its natural long-term history. Age models were constructed using Pb-210, Cs-137 and corrected and calibrated C-14 dates. The transgression that marks the onset of the Ancylus Lake stage is recorded in the sediments as a small increase in organic carbon coinciding with a peak in diatom abundance and increased diatom diversity. A minor occurrence of brackish-freshwater diatoms is recorded in the Ancylus Lake c. 9950-9750 cal. yr BP (c. 8900-8800 C-14 yr BP), correlating with the onset of the Initial Litorina Sea in the Bornholm Basin. A high-productivity event is recorded in the end of the Post-Litorina Sea and corresponds to the Mediaeval warm event. An alteration in the diatom assemblage contemporaneous with a decrease in organic carbon, interpreted as representing a deterioration in the climate, correlates with the start of the ‘Little Ice Age’ about 850-700 cal. yr BP. A change dated to ad 1950-1960 is probably an effect of increased nutrient availability in the open Baltic Sea. This effect of eutrophication was probably caused by increased discharge of nutrients deriving from fertilizers, as the responding diatom species partly indicate a cold climate rather than a warm one, as would have been expected if this had been only a response to the warmer climate documented during the last 100 years or so.

  • 2. Andrén, Elinor
    et al.
    Shimmield, Graham
    Brand, Timothy
    Environmental changes of the last three centuries indicated by siliceous microfossil records from the southwestern Baltic Sea1999Ingår i: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 9, s. 25-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Four short sediment cores from the southwestern Baltic Sea were analysed with respect to their content of siliceous microfossils. The aim was to detect and date changes in the composition of the diatom flora and to link these changes to variations in the anthropogenic load of nutrients during the last century. The study shows that the most significant change in the diatom assemblages occurred 130-140 years ago. The change is recorded in the sediments as a shift from periphytic diatom taxa to a predominance of planktonic taxa. This indicates that the photic layer has decreased in depth, probably due to eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, which consequently began to affect the area investigated approximately AD 1850. To support the results of a changing ratio of periphytic to planktonic diatoms, diatom accumulation rates were calculated In general, the diatom accumulation rate data show a decrease in the periphytic accumulation rates and an increase in the planktonic accumulation rates towards the sediment surface. Some indications of a colder climate are recorded in the sediments approximately 230 years ago. These results are in accordance with the record of maximum extent of sea ice in the same area and are suggested to represent a late stage in the ‘Little Ice Age’.

  • 3. Wastegård, Stefan
    et al.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Salinity changes in the central Baltic Sea (NW Europe) over the last 10 000 years: a comment on Emeis, Struk, Blanz, Kohly, Voss2005Ingår i: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 472-474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We question the effort to date the lower part of a core from the Baltic Sea with a combination of tephra layers and stratigraphical markers. No geochemical data is presented for the two tephra layers, believed to be the Saksunarvatn Ash and Vedde Ash. Furthermore, the age used for one of the stratigraphical markers is erroneous. We present two alternative age models, of which the second gives a plausible sediment accumulation rate but excludes the identification of the Vedde Ash.

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