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  • 1. Andersson, P L
    et al.
    Berg, A H
    Bjerselius, Rickard
    Norrgren, L
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Olsson, P E
    Örn, S
    Tysklind, M
    Bioaccumulation of selected PCBs in zebrafish, three-spined stickleback, and Arctic char after three different routes of exposure2001In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 519-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The uptake and elimination of 20 structurally diverse tetra- to heptachlorinated biphenyls were studied in zebrafish (Danio rerio), three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were administered to the fish through food, intraperitoneal injection of peanut oil, or intraperitoneal implantation of silicone capsules. The retention of the PCBs in fish exposed through their diet was related with the substitution patterns of the compounds. Ortho-substituted congeners with no unsubstituted meta-para positions had high biomagnification potential. PCBs with low biomagnification all had adjacent vicinal hydrogens, indicating that congeners with this feature may have been metabolically eliminated. The retention characteristics of the PCBs in the diet-exposed and the injected zebrafish were similar. The pattern of congeners in Arctic char indicates that they have a lower capacity to metabolize PCBs compared to three-spined sticklebacks and zebrafish. The levels in the fish exposed to the PCBs through a silastic implant were negatively correlated with the hydrophobicity of the congeners. Most probably congener-specific release rates of the PCBs from the implants mask their retention characteristics. It is suggested that food, mimicking the natural intake route, should be used in PCB exposure studies to validate extrapolations to natural situations.

  • 2. Saglio, P
    et al.
    Bretaud, S
    Rivot, E
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Chemobehavioral changes induced by short-term exposures to prochloraz, nicosulfuron, and carbofuran in goldfish2003In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 515-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavioral effects of short periods (2, 4, 6, 8 h) of static exposure to prochloraz (imidazole fungicide) and nicosulfuron (sulfonylurea herbicide) were recorded in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Observations were also made in an olfactometer to assess the effects of 8-h exposures to these two pesticides and to carbofuran (carbamate insecticide) on the behavioral responses to the flow of a solution of four L-amino acids (glycine, alanine, valine, taurine), mixed in the same relative proportions as in the urine of conspecifics. Each pesticide was tested at three sublethal concentrations (25, 50, 100 mug/L), and the behaviors recorded were related to swimming pattern, social interactions, and comfort movements. Static exposures to prochloraz affected horizontal displacements, burst swimming, grouping, and buccal movements. Static exposures to nicosulfuron affected burst swimming and grouping. In pesticide-unexposed fish (control), the flow of the amino acid solution induced attraction, decreased sheltering, and increased horizontal displacements, burst swimming, buccal movements, and antagonistic interactions. Compared to the controls, some of the behavioral responses to the solution of amino acids were significantly different after 8 It of subacute exposure to prochloraz and carbofuran. Both pesticides decreased attraction and increased sheltering. In addition, carbofuran decreased buccal movements and antagonistic interactions. Contrastingly, exposure to nicosulfuron showed no significant effect. This study further confirms the great vulnerability of fish behavior and chemocommunication processes to exposure to waterborne pesticides.

  • 3. Saglio, P
    et al.
    Olsén, K Håkan
    Bretaud, S
    Behavioral and olfactory responses to prochloraz, bentazone, and nicosulfuron-contaminated flows in goldfish2001In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 192-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The immediate behavioral responses of goldfish (Carassius auratus) to pesticide-contaminated flows were recorded in a countercurrent olfactometer. In addition, electro-olfactograms were recorded from the epithelial surface of the olfactory rosette as a preliminary check for the. olfactory sensitivity of the fish to the pesticides tested. All tests were run on prochloraz (imidazole fungicide), bentazone (diazine herbicide), and nicosulfuron (sulfonylurea herbicide). Behavioral effects were assessed, at four concentrations (10 mug/L, 100 mug/L, 1 mg/L, 10 mg/L), on endpoints related to swimming pattern (preference-avoidance responses, burst swimming reactions), comfort activities (buccal movements, feeding attempts), and social relations (antagonistic acts, grouping). The behavior of the fish appeared particularly sensitive to prochloraz exposure. As a whole, prochloraz-contaminated flows showed significant effects on the six behaviors studied; bentazone and nicosulfuron affected three and five, respectively. At the lowest concentration, prochloraz also showed more effects than the two other pesticides. Some of the behavioral endpoints. were found particularly sensitive to a given chemical. Pesticide-contaminated flows also induced significant changes in swimming orientation of the fish. Attraction was observed in response to flowing solutions of prochloraz (1 mg/L,10 mg/L), bentazone (10 mug/L, 10 mg/L), and nicosulfuron (I mg/L, 10 mg/L). At a concentration of 1 mg/L, none of the pesticides induced a noticeable depolarization of the olfactory epithelium, suggesting that these chemicals are not detected by the olfactory sense of the fish. These results are discussed in the light of the data concerning effects of pesticides on behavior and chemical communication in fish.

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